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A:HUMAN NECESSITIES
 A61: MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
  A61B: DIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
   A61B1/00: Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes ; Illuminating arrangements therefor
   A61B1/002: having rod-lens arrangements
   A61B1/005: Flexible endoscopes
   A61B1/005B: . . with controlled bending of insertion part [M1110
   A61B1/005B4: . . . Constructional details of control elements, e.g. handles
   A61B1/005B4B: . . . . using distributed actuators, e.g. artificial muscles
   A61B1/005B6: . . . Constructional details of insertion parts, e.g. vertebral elements
   A61B1/005B6B: . . . . the insertion parts being asymmetric, e.g. for unilateral bending mechanisms
   A61B1/005B8: . . . [N: Constructional details of force transmission elements, e.g. control wires]
   A61B1/005D: . . using shape-memory elements
   A61B1/008: . . Articulations
   A61B1/00B: with light conducting means, e.g. fibre optics (A61B1/07 takes precedence; light guides per se G02B6/00)[C1104]
   A61B1/00C: Operational features of endoscopes
   A61B1/00C1: . . characterised by electronic signal processing
   A61B1/00C1B: . . . of control signals
   A61B1/00C1D: . . . of image signals (G06T takes precedence)
   A61B1/00C2: . . characterised by data transmission
   A61B1/00C2B: . . . using optical means
   A61B1/00C2D: . . . using wireless means
   A61B1/00C2E: . . . using electrical cables
   A61B1/00C4: . . provided with data storages
   A61B1/00C4B: . . . removable
   A61B1/00C5: . . characterised by power management
   A61B1/00C5B: . . . characterised by power supply
   A61B1/00C5B2: . . . . externally powered, e.g. wireless
   A61B1/00C5B6: . . . . internally powered
   A61B1/00C5B6B: . . . . . rechargeable
   A61B1/00C5D: . . . Means for power saving, e.g. sleeping mode
   A61B1/00C6: . . provided with data input arrangements for the user
   A61B1/00C6B: . . . for user message recording
   A61B1/00C7: . . provided with signal output arrangements
   A61B1/00C7B: . . . Display arrangement
   A61B1/00C7B2: . . . . Constructional features of the display
   A61B1/00C7B4: . . . . for multiple images
   A61B1/00C7B8: . . . . positioned at proximal end of the endoscope body
   A61B1/00C7D: . . . for alerting the user
   A61B1/00C8: . . provided with means for testing or calibration
   A61B1/00C9: . . provided with identification means for the endoscope
   A61B1/00C95: . . provided with means for preventing overuse
   A61B1/00D: comprising a channel for guiding instruments (control of instruments A61B1/018)[C9807]
   A61B1/00E: Constructional details of the endoscope body
   A61B1/00E2: . . Proximal part of endoscope body, e.g. handles A61B1/005B4 takes precedence
   A61B1/00E2B: . . . Valve switch arrangements
   A61B1/00E4: . . Insertion part of the endoscope body A61B1/005B6 takes precedence
   A61B1/00E4B: . . . with externally grooved shaft
   A61B1/00E4D: . . . with externally roughened shaft
   A61B1/00E4F: . . . with stiffening means
   A61B1/00E4H: . . . characterised by distal tip features
   A61B1/00E4H1: . . . . Balloons
   A61B1/00E4H2: . . . . Baskets
   A61B1/00E4H3: . . . . Tools A61B17/00E takes precedence
   A61B1/00E4H4: . . . . Hoods
   A61B1/00E4H5: . . . . Nozzles
   A61B1/00E4H6: . . . . Suction openings
   A61B1/00E4H7: . . . . Optical elements
   A61B1/00E4H8: . . . . Deflecting means for inserted tools
   A61B1/00E4H9: . . . . the distal tip features being detachable
   A61B1/00E5: . . designed for single use
   A61B1/00E6: . . characterised by modular construction
   A61B1/00E7: . . characterised by self-sufficient functionality for stand-alone use
   A61B1/00E8: . . Manufacturing of endoscope parts
   A61B1/00F: Connection or coupling means [M1110]
   A61B1/00F2: . . Electrical cables for connection to external units
   A61B1/00F4: . . Optical cables, e.g. for connection to an external light source
   A61B1/00F6: . . Tubes or pipes, e.g. for fluid supply to the endoscope
   A61B1/00F8: . . Connectors, fasteners and adapters, e.g. on the endoscope handle
   A61B1/00F8B: . . . electrical, e.g. electrical plug-and-socket connection
   A61B1/00F8D: . . . optical, e.g. for light supply cables
   A61B1/00F8F: . . . mechanical, e.g. for tubes or pipes
   A61B1/00H: Accessories for endoscopes
   A61B1/00H2: . . Drive units, e.g. for endoscopic tools
   A61B1/00H4: . . Oversleeves A61B1/00J takes precedence
   A61B1/00H6: . . End pieces, e.g. caps, seals, forceps plugs
   A61B1/00H8: . . Fastening elements for attaching accessories to the outside of an endoscope shaft, e.g. clips, clamps or bands
   A61B1/00J: with means for preventing contamination, e.g. by using a sanitary sheath [M1110]
   A61B1/00J4: . . Hygienic packaging
   A61B1/00N: for percutaneous insertion into the body[C9507]
   A61B1/00P: Holding or positioning arrangements
   A61B1/00P1: . . using articulated arms
   A61B1/00P2: . . using everted tubes
   A61B1/00P3: . . using guide tubes [M1110]
   A61B1/00P4: . . using self propulsion
   A61B1/00P5: . . using magnetic field
   A61B1/00P6: . . using motor drive units
   A61B1/00P7: . .  using internally mounted position sensors[N1107]
   A61B1/00P8: . .  using position tracking markers[N1107]
   A61B1/00R: with stereoscopic vision[N9507]
   A61B1/00S: Optical arrangements A61B1/002, A61B1/06 take precedence
   A61B1/00S2: . . with light-conductive means, e.g. fibre optics A61B1/07 takes precedence
   A61B1/00S2B: . . . Details of optical fibre bundles, e.g. shape or fibre distribution
   A61B1/00S2D: . . . Details of single optical fibres, e.g. material or cladding
   A61B1/00S3: . . with means for scanning
   A61B1/00S4: . . characterised by the viewing angles
   A61B1/00S4B: . . . for 90 degrees side-viewing
   A61B1/00S4D: . . . for off-axis viewing
   A61B1/00S4F: . . . for multiple fixed viewing angles A61B1/00S7 takes precedence
   A61B1/00S4H: . . . for variable viewing angles
   A61B1/00S5: . . with imaging filters
   A61B1/00S6: . . with focusing or zooming features
   A61B1/00S6B: . . . characterised by variable lenses
   A61B1/00S7: . . adapted for stereoscopic vision
   A61B1/00S8: . . with eyepieces
   A61B1/00S8B: . . . characterised by multiple eyepieces
   A61B1/00T: with focusing features[N9507]
   A61B1/01: . . Guiding arrangements therefore
   A61B1/012: characterised by internal passages or accessories therefor
   A61B1/012E: . . Endoscope within endoscope
   A61B1/015: . . Control of fluid supply or evacuation
   A61B1/018: . . for receiving instruments
   A61B1/24B: . . with illuminating arrangements
   A61B1/31B: . . with illuminating arrangements[N9711]
   A61B1/32B: . . with illuminating arrangements
   A61B1/04: combined with photographic or television appliances camera adapters G03B17/48
   A61B1/045: . . Control therefor
   A61B1/04B: . . using light conducting means, e.g. fibre optics (light guides per se G02B6/00)
   A61B1/04C: . . Capsule endoscopes for imaging [M1110]
   A61B1/04D: . . characterised by a proximal camera, e.g. a CCD camera
   A61B1/04D4: . . . with illuminating arrangements providing two or more colours, e.g. by filtering
   A61B1/04F: . . for fluorescence imaging
   A61B1/05: . . characterised by the image sensor, e.g. camera, being in the distal end portion
   A61B1/055: . . having rod-lens arrangements
   A61B1/005B2: . . . with illuminating arrangements[N9711]
   A61B1/005B2B: . . . . combined with imaging means, e.g. video camera[N9902]
   A61B1/05C: . . . Details of CCD assembly
   A61B1/05D: . . . being detachable
   A61B1/06: with illuminating arrangements [M1110]
   A61B1/06B: . . for annular illumination
   A61B1/06D: . . for radial illumination
   A61B1/06F: . . for off-axis illumination
   A61B1/06H: . . for monochromatic illumination
   A61B1/06J: . . providing two or more wavelengths
   A61B1/06M: . . with illumination filters
   A61B1/06P: . . with wavelength conversion
   A61B1/06R: . . Endoscope light sources
   A61B1/06R2: . . . at proximal end of an endoscope
   A61B1/06R4: . . . at distal tip of an endoscope
   A61B1/06R6: . . . using light emitting diodes (LED)
   A61B1/06R8: . . . head mounted
   A61B1/07: . . using light-conductive means, e.g. optical fibres
   A61B1/12: with cooling or rinsing arrangements
   A61B1/12B: . . provided with means for inflating cavities, e.g. bladder (balloon-type catheters A61M25/10)
   A61B1/12D: . . provided with means for cleaning post-use [M1201]
   A61B1/12D1: . . . using cleaning tools, e.g. brushes [M1201]
   A61B1/12D2: . . . using washing machines
   A61B1/12D4: . . . using fluid circuits
   A61B1/12E: . . provided with means for cleaning in-use
   A61B1/12F: . . with means for preventing fogging A61B1/253 takes precedence
   A61B1/12G: . . provided with means for regulating temperature
   A61B1/227: for ears, i.e. otoscopes
   A61B1/227B: . . with controlled air pressure
   A61B1/233: for the nose, i.e. nasoscopes, e.g. testing of patency of Eustachian tubes
   A61B1/24: for the mouth, i.e. stomatoscopes, e.g. with tongue depressors ; Instruments for opening or keeping open the mouth
   A61B1/247: . . with means for viewing areas outside the direct line of sight, e.g. dentists` mirrors
   A61B1/247B: . . . with illuminating arrangements[N9711]
   A61B1/253: . . . with means for preventing fogging
   A61B1/267: for the respiratory tract, e.g. laryngoscopes, bronchoscopes
   A61B1/267A: . . for monitoring movements of vocal chords
   A61B1/267B: . . with illuminating arrangements
   A61B1/267B2: . . . for monitoring movements of vocal chords (detection of movements A61B5/11)
   A61B1/267D: . . Bronchoscopes
   A61B1/267D2: . . . with illuminating arrangements
   A61B1/273: for the upper alimentary canal, e.g. oesophagoscopes, gastroscopes
   A61B1/273B: . . Oesophagoscopes
   A61B1/273B2: . . . with illuminating arrangements
   A61B1/273D: . . Gastroscopes
   A61B1/273D2: . . . with illuminating arrangements
   A61B1/303: for the vagina, i.e. vaginoscopes
   A61B1/303B: . . with illuminating arrangements[N9711]
   A61B1/307: for the urinary organs, e.g. urethroscopes, cystoscopes
   A61B1/307B: . . with illuminating arrangements[N9711]
   A61B1/31: for the rectum, e.g. proctoscopes, sigmoidoscopes, colonoscopes
   A61B1/313: for introducing through surgical openings, e.g. laparoscopes
   A61B1/313B: . . for laparoscopy
   A61B1/313D: . . for examination of the epidural or the spinal space
   A61B1/313F: . . for examination of the interior of blood vessels
   A61B1/317: . . for bones or joints, e.g. osteoscopes, arthroscopes
   A61B1/32: Devices for opening or enlarging the visual field, e.g. of a tube of the body
   A61B3/00: Apparatus for testing the eyes; Instruments for examining the eyes
   A61B3/00B: provided with illuminating means A61B3/117 takes precedence; goniolenses used for laser treatment A61F9/009; illuminating means for optical instruments G02B27/00
   A61B3/00C: Operational features thereof
   A61B3/00C1: . . characterised by electronic signal processing, e.g. eye models
   A61B3/00C6: . . characterised by user input arrangements
   A61B3/00C7: . . characterised by display arrangements
   A61B3/00C7B: . . . Constructional features of the display
   A61B3/00C7D: . . . for multiple images
   A61B3/00C9: . . with identification means for the apparatus
   A61B3/00D: provided with adjusting devices, e.g. operated by control lever manipulators B25J
   A61B3/00F: provided with means for patient positioning
   A61B3/00H: Fixation targets for viewing direction
   A61B3/02: Subjective types, i.e. testing apparatus requiring the active assistance of the patient
   A61B3/024: . . for determining the visual field, e.g. perimeter types
   A61B3/028: . . for testing visual acuity; for determination of refraction, e.g. phoropters
   A61B3/028B: . . . Phoropters
   A61B3/02B: . . for testing contrast sensitivity
   A61B3/032: . . . Devices for presenting test symbols or characters, e.g. test chart projectors
   A61B3/032B: . . . . provided with red and green targets
   A61B3/036: . . . for testing astigmatism
   A61B3/04: . . . Trial frames; Sets of lenses for use therewith
   A61B3/06: . . for testing light sensitivity, e.g. adaptation; for testing colour vision
   A61B3/06B: . . . for testing light sensitivity, i.e. adaptation
   A61B3/06D: . . . for testing colour vision
   A61B3/08: . . for testing binocular or stereoscopic vision. e.g. strabismus
   A61B3/08B: . . . for testing strabismus
   A61B3/09: . . for testing accommodation
   A61B3/10: Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients` perceptions or reactions
   A61B3/103: . . for determining refraction, e.g. refractometers, skiascopes
   A61B3/103B: . . . for measuring astigmatism testing astigmatism A61B3/036
   A61B3/107: . . for determining the shape or measuring the curvature of the cornea
   A61B3/10B: . . for measuring distances inside the eye, e.g. thickness of the cornea A61B3/11 takes precedence
   A61B3/10D: . . for examining the tear film
   A61B3/10F: . . for wavefront analysis
   A61B3/10H: . . for optical coherence tomography (OCT)
   A61B3/10J: . . for confocal scanning
   A61B3/11: . . for measuring interpupillary distance or diameter of pupils
   A61B3/113: . . for determining or recording eye movement
   A61B3/117: . . for examining the anterior chamber or the anterior chamber angle, e.g. gonioscopes
   A61B3/117B: . . . for examining the eye lens
   A61B3/117B5: . . . . for determining lens opacity, e.g. cataract
   A61B3/11B: . . . for measuring interpupillary distance
   A61B3/11D: . . . for measuring diameter of pupils
   A61B3/12: . . for looking at the eye fundus, e.g. ophthalmoscopes
   A61B3/125: . . . with contact lenses
   A61B3/12D: . . . Multiple lens hand-held instruments
   A61B3/12F: . . . for diagnostics of the iris
   A61B3/12H: . . . using coherent radiation
   A61B3/12H2: . . . . for measuring blood flow, e.g. at the retina
   A61B3/12J: . . . specially adapted for observation of ocular blood flow, e.g. by fluorescein angiography
   A61B3/13: . . Ophthalmic microscopes
   A61B3/135: . . . Slit-lamp microscopes
   A61B3/13B: . . . in binocular arrangement
   A61B3/14: . . Arrangements specially adapted for eye photography (apparatus or arrangements for taking photographs per se G03B)
   A61B3/14B: . . . by video means
   A61B3/15: . . . with means for aligning, spacing or blocking spurious reflection; with means for relaxing
   A61B3/15B: . . . . for aligning
   A61B3/15D: . . . . for spacing
   A61B3/15F: . . . . for blocking
   A61B3/15F5: . . . . . of corneal reflection
   A61B3/16: . . for measuring intraocular pressure, e.g. tonometers
   A61B3/16B: . . . Non-contacting tonometers
   A61B3/18: Arrangement of plural eye-testing or -examining apparatus
   A61B3/18B: . . characterised by modular construction
   A61B5/00: Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes ; Identification of persons measuring or recording in general subclasses of G01; medical informatics G06F19/00M
   A61B5/00B: Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network ]
   A61B5/00B10: . . for foetal or obstetric data[N9507]
   A61B5/00B2: . . for ECG or EEG signals
   A61B5/00B3: . . characterised by the type of physiological signal transmitted
   A61B5/00B3B: . . . ECG or EEG signals
   A61B5/00B3D: . . . Temperature signals
   A61B5/00B3F: . . . Foetal or obstetric data
   A61B5/00B3H: . . . Medical image data A61B1/00C2, A61B6/56, A61B8/56 take precedence
   A61B5/00B4: . . for temperature signals
   A61B5/00B5: . . characterised by features of the telemetry system
   A61B5/00B5B: . . . transmitting optical signals transmission by light H04B10/00
   A61B5/00B5D: . . . Monitoring the patient using a local or closed circuit, e.g. in a room or building A61B5/00B5B takes precedence
   A61B5/00B5F: . . . Monitoring a patient using a global network, e.g. telephone networks, internet
   A61B5/00B5H: . . . for multiple sensor units attached to the patient, e.g. using a body or personal area network
   A61B5/00B6: . . by optical signals (transmission by light H04B10/00)
   A61B5/00B7: . . characterised by the transmission medium
   A61B5/00B7B: . . . Body tissue as transmission medium, i.e. transmission systems where the medium is the human body
   A61B5/00B8: . . Implanted circuitry[C9410]
   A61B5/00B9: . . Implanted circuitry
   A61B5/00D: Features or image-related aspects of imaging apparatus classified in A61B5/00, e.g. for MRI, optical tomography or impedance tomography apparatus; arrangements of imaging apparatus in a room (image data processing or generation G06T)
   A61B5/00D2: . . [N: adapted for acquistion of images from more than one imaging mode, e.g. combining MRI and optical tomography]
   A61B5/00D4: . . [N: Performing a preliminary scan, e.g. a prescan for identifying a region of interest]
   A61B5/00D6: . . [N: adapted for image acquisition of a particular organ or body part (A61B5/00P12 takes precedence; arrangements for optical scanning A61B5/00P1)]
   A61B5/00D6B: . . . for the brain
   A61B5/00D6D: . . . for the heart
   A61B5/00D8: . . [N: Arrangements of imaging apparatus in a room, e.g. room provided with shielding or for improved access to apparatus]
   A61B5/00E: Measuring sweat production, tear production, internal secretion, e.g. bile flow (devices for taking sweat samples A61B10/00L6)
   A61B5/00H: Diagnostic temperature sensing, e.g. for malignant tissue (A61B5/00B4 takes precedence; radiation pyrometry G01J5/00)
   A61B5/00H2: . . by temperature mapping of body parts
   A61B5/00J: Bio-feedback (A61B5/0482 takes precedence)
   A61B5/00L: Measuring or inducing nystagmus
   A61B5/00M: Detecting, measuring or recording by applying mechanical forces or stimuli A61B5/021, A61B5/48X and A61B9/00 take precedence
   A61B5/00M2: . . by applying vibrations
   A61B5/00M4: . . by applying pressure, e.g. compression, indentation, palpation, grasping, gauging
   A61B5/00M6: . . by applying suction
   A61B5/00M8: . . by applying motion other than vibrations, e.g. rolling, rubbing, applying a torque, tribometry
   A61B5/00N: Measuring partial pressure of gases in vivo (for inspired or expired gases A61B5/083; investigating or analysing biological material in vitro G01N33/48)
   A61B5/00N2: . . by polarographic means
   A61B5/00N2B: . . . introduced into the body, e.g. by catheter
   A61B5/00N2D: . . . by transcutaneous method
   A61B5/00N2F: . . . adapted to foetal tissue
   A61B5/00N4: . . by optical means
   A61B5/00N4B: . . . introduced into the body, e.g. by catheter
   A61B5/00N4F: . . . adapted to foetal tissue
   A61B5/00N4H: . . . Specially adapted to extracorporeal circuits[N9607][C9705]
   A61B5/00N4J: . . . Details of sensors[N9607][C9705]
   A61B5/00N4L: . . . of cerebral tissue[N9607]
   A61B5/00N4N: . . . of eye fundus[N9607]
   A61B5/00N4P: . . . by fluorescence (A61B5/00N4N takes precedence)[N9607]
   A61B5/00N6: . . Heated applicators
   A61B5/00N8: . . Calibrating or testing in vivo probes
   A61B5/00P: using light, e.g. diagnosis by transillumination, diascopy, fluorescence A61B5/00T, A61B5/1455, A61B5/024D and A61B5/026B take precedence
   A61B5/00P1: . . Arrangements for scanning
   A61B5/00P12: . . adapted for particular medical purposes
   A61B5/00P12B: . . . for introduction into the body, e.g. by catheters A61B5/1459 takes precedence
   A61B5/00P12B2: . . . . using infra-red radiation
   A61B5/00P12D: . . . for oral or dental tissue
   A61B5/00P12F: . . . for mammography
   A61B5/00P1A: . . . Body surface scanning
   A61B5/00P1C: . . . Optical coherence imaging
   A61B5/00P1E: . . . Confocal scanning
   A61B5/00P2: . . for mammography (X-ray mammography A61B6/00D3, ultrasonic mammography A61B8/08F)
   A61B5/00P4: . . introduced into the body, e.g. by catheters (A61B5/00R takes precedence)[C9607]
   A61B5/00P4B: . . . using infra-red radiation
   A61B5/00P5: . . by measuring fluorescence emission
   A61B5/00P6: . . by tomography, i.e. reconstruction of 3D images from 2D projections A61B5/00P1C takes precedence
   A61B5/00P7: . . by spectroscopy, i.e. measuring spectra, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, infrared absorption spectroscopy A61B5/00P5 takes precedence
   A61B5/00P8: . . adapted to oral or dental tissue[N9902]
   A61B5/00P9: . . Devices for viewing the surface of the body, e.g. camera, magnifying lens
   A61B5/00P9B: . . . [N: using mirrors, i.e. for self-examination]
   A61B5/00R: Measuring glucose content, e.g. of blood (artificial pancreas A61F2/02; in vitro G01N33/48)
   A61B5/00R2: . . by using enzyme electrodes, e.g. with immobilised oxidase (enzyme electrodes per se C12M1/40)
   A61B5/00R4: . . by optical means
   A61B5/00R4B: . . . using polarisation[N0002]
   A61B5/00T: Detecting, measuring or recording by applying one single type of energy and measuring its conversion into another type of energy
   A61B5/00T3: . . by applying light and detecting acoustic waves, i.e. photoacoustic measurements
   A61B5/00T5: . . by applying acoustic waves and detecting light , i.e. acoustooptic measurements
   A61B5/01: Measuring temperature of body parts; Diagnostic temperature sensing, e.g. for malignant or inflammed tissue
   A61B5/01B: . . [By temperature mapping of body parts]
   A61B5/02: Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure
   A61B5/0205: . . Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions, e.g. heart and respiratory condition
   A61B5/0205B: . . . Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular condition and temperature
   A61B5/021: . . Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels
   A61B5/0215: . . . by means inserted into the body
   A61B5/0215B: . . . . specially adapted for venous pressure
   A61B5/0215D: . . . . by optical transmission
   A61B5/0215F: . . . . Calibration means
   A61B5/0215H: . . . . provided with two or more sensor elements
   A61B5/021B: . . . from analysis of pulse wave characteristics
   A61B5/021B2: . . . . of pulse wave amplitude A61B5/022C takes precedence
   A61B5/021B4: . . . . of pulse wave propagation time
   A61B5/021D: . . . by using induced vibration of the blood vessel
   A61B5/021F: . . . Details of apparatus construction, e.g. pump units or housings therefor, cuff pressurising systems, arrangements of fluid conduits or circuits ]
   A61B5/022: . . . by applying pressure to close blood vessels, e.g. against the skin; Ophthalmodynamometers
   A61B5/0225: . . . . the pressure being controlled by electric signals, e.g. derived from Korotkoff sounds
   A61B5/0225B: . . . . . the pressure being controlled by plethysmographic signals, e.g. derived from optical sensors
   A61B5/022A: . . . . using the Korotkoff method
   A61B5/022B: . . . . Ophthalmodynamometers
   A61B5/022C: . . . . using the oscillometric method
   A61B5/022D: . . . . Occluders specially adapted therefor tourniquets A61B17/132
   A61B5/022D2: . . . . . of small dimensions, e.g. adapted to fingers
   A61B5/023: . . . . the pressure transducers comprising a liquid column
   A61B5/0235: . . . . Valves specially adapted therefor
   A61B5/024: . . Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate
   A61B5/0245: . . . by using sensing means generating electric signals, i.e. ECG signals
   A61B5/0245B: . . . . provided with high/low alarm devices
   A61B5/024A: . . . Determining heart rate variability
   A61B5/024B: . . . of foetuses
   A61B5/024D: . . . using photoplethysmograph signals, e.g. generated by infra-red radiation A61B5/1455N2 takes precedence [M1112]
   A61B5/024D2: . . . . within occluders
   A61B5/024D4: . . . . Details of sensor
   A61B5/024D4B: . . . . . for infra-red radiation
   A61B5/024F: . . . with portable devices, e.g. worn by the patient
   A61B5/024H: . . . Details of sensor A61B5/024D4 takes precedence
   A61B5/025: . . . . within occluders, e.g. responsive to Korotkoff sounds
   A61B5/0255: . . . Recording instruments specially adapted therefor
   A61B5/026: . . Measuring blood flow A61B3/12H2, A61B3/12J take precedence
   A61B5/0265: . . . using electromagnetic means, e.g. electromagnetic flowmeter
   A61B5/026B: . . . using optical means, e.g. infra-red light
   A61B5/026D: . . . using NMR
   A61B5/027: . . . . using catheters
   A61B5/0275: . . . using tracers, e.g. dye dilution
   A61B5/0275B: . . . . Radioactive tracers
   A61B5/028: . . . . by thermo-dilution
   A61B5/0285: . . . Measuring or recording phase velocity of blood waves
   A61B5/029: . . . Measuring or recording blood output from the heart, e.g. minute volume A61B8/06B takes precedence
   A61B5/0295: . . . using plethysmography, i.e. measuring the variations in the volume of a body part as modified by the circulation of blood therethrough, e.g. impedance plethysmography
   A61B5/02D: . . Evaluating blood vessel condition, e.g. elasticity, compliance
   A61B5/02D2: . . . [N: Determining aneurysm]
   A61B5/02D4: . . . Determining capillary fragility
   A61B5/02F: . . Determining haemodynamic parameters not otherwise provided for, e.g. cardiac contractility or left ventricular ejection fraction
   A61B5/02F2: . . . [N: Determining blood viscosity]
   A61B5/02H: . . Determining blood loss or bleeding, e.g. during a surgical procedure
   A61B5/03: Detecting, measuring or recording fluid pressure within the body other than blood pressure, e.g. cerebral pressure; Measuring pressure in body tissues or organs A61B5/20D3 takes precedence
   A61B5/03B: . . Intracranial pressure
   A61B5/03D: . . Spinal fluid pressure
   A61B5/03F: . . Uterine pressure
   A61B5/03F2: . . . Intra-uterine probes therefor
   A61B5/03H: . . by means introduced into body tracts A61B5/03D and A61B5/03F2 take precedence
   A61B5/03H2: . . . Measuring oesophageal pressure
   A61B5/03H4: . . . Measuring urethral or sphincter pressure, e.g. for assessing bladder function
   A61B5/03H6: . . . Measuring oral pressure
   A61B5/04: Detecting, measuring or recording bioelectric signals of the body of parts thereof [M1112]
   A61B5/0402: . . Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG
   A61B5/0402B: . . . ECG simulator circuits
   A61B5/0402D: . . . Physical templates or devices for measuring ECG waveforms, e.g. an electrocardiograph ruler or caliper A61B5/0452B takes precedence
   A61B5/0402F: . . . Preparing electrode site, e.g. by abrasion
   A61B5/0402H: . . . Means for providing electrolyte, e.g. syringes
   A61B5/0402K: . . . Generation of artificial ECG signals based on measured signals, e.g. to compensate for missing leads
   A61B5/0404: . . . Hand-held devices
   A61B5/0408: . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor
   A61B5/0408B: . . . . attached by means of suction
   A61B5/0408D: . . . . Multiple electrode holders A61B5/0428F, A61B5/042D take precedence
   A61B5/0408F: . . . . using conductive adhesive means
   A61B5/0416: . . . . connected by means of snap fasteners
   A61B5/042: . . . . for introducing into the body
   A61B5/0424: . . . . Protection against electrode failure
   A61B5/0428: . . . Input circuits specially adapted therefor
   A61B5/0428B: . . . . using insulating or floating elements, e.g. transformers, opto-couplers transformers for specific applications H01F38/00; amplifiers H03F; optocouplers H04B10/80
   A61B5/0428D: . . . . Capacitive or ionised electrodes, e.g. MOSFET
   A61B5/0428F: . . . . Patient cord assembly, e.g. cable harness
   A61B5/0428H: . . . . Switching circuits
   A61B5/042B: . . . . . Endotracheal, oesophageal or gastric probes
   A61B5/042D: . . . . . Multiple electrode holders
   A61B5/0432: . . . Recording apparatus specially adapted therefor
   A61B5/0432B: . . . . using integrated circuit memory devices
   A61B5/0436: . . . . Magnetic recording apparatus
   A61B5/0436B: . . . . . Playback at speeds other than the recording speed
   A61B5/044: . . . Displays specially adapted therefor arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms, e.g. cathode-ray oscilloscopes, G01R13/00
   A61B5/0444: . . . Foetal cardiography
   A61B5/0448: . . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor, e.g. scalp electrodes
   A61B5/0448B: . . . . . attached by means of suction
   A61B5/0452: . . . Detecting specific parameters of the electrocardiograph cycle
   A61B5/0452B: . . . . by template matching
   A61B5/0456: . . . . Detecting R peaks, e.g. for synchronising diagnostic apparatus [N:
   A61B5/046: . . . . Detecting fibrillation
   A61B5/0464: . . . . Detecting tachycardy or brachycardy
   A61B5/0468: . . . . Detecting abnormal ECG interval, e.g. extrasystoles, ectopic heartbeats
   A61B5/0472: . . . . Detecting abnormal QRS complex, e.g. widening
   A61B5/0476: . . Electroencephalography devices for psychotechnics A61B5/16
   A61B5/0478: . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor
   A61B5/048: . . . Detecting the frequency distribution of signals analysing frequency spectra in general G01R23/00
   A61B5/0482: . . . using biofeedback biofeedback per se A61B5/48S
   A61B5/0484: . . . using evoked response
   A61B5/0484B: . . . . visually
   A61B5/0484D: . . . . acoustically or auditory
   A61B5/0484F: . . . . olfactory or gustatory
   A61B5/0488: . . Electromyography
   A61B5/0488B: . . . of genito-urinary organs
   A61B5/0488D: . . . Detecting gastro-intestinal contractions
   A61B5/0488F: . . . specially adapted for electroglottography or electropalatography
   A61B5/0488H: . . . Control of prosthetics
   A61B5/0492: . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor, e.g. needle electrodes
   A61B5/0496: . . Electro-oculography, e.g. detecting nystagmus measuring or inducing nystagmus A61B5/48U
   A61B5/04B: . . adapted to neuroelectric signals, e.g. nerve impulses
   A61B5/04D: . . Measuring direct current (D.C.) or slowly varying biopotentials
   A61B5/04J: . . Input circuits for EEG-, or EMG-signals
   A61B5/04M: . . Detecting magnetic fields produced by bio-electric currents measuring magnetic variables in general G01R33/00
   A61B5/04M2: . . . specially adapted for magnetocardiographic signals
   A61B5/04M4: . . . specially adapted for magneto-encephalographic signals
   A61B5/04M4B: . . . . using evoked response
   A61B5/04N: . . Vector-cardiography
   A61B5/04R: . . Analysis of electro-cardiograms, electro-encephalograms, electro-myograms
   A61B5/04R2: . . . by measuring frequency distribution using a set of filters arrangements for analysing frequency spectra in general G01R23/00
   A61B5/04R2B: . . . . provided with alarm devices
   A61B5/04R4: . . . by using digital filtering
   A61B5/04R4B: . . . . provided with alarm devices
   A61B5/05: Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves
   A61B5/053: . . Measuring electrical impedance or conductance of a portion of the body [M1112]
   A61B5/053B: . . . Measuring skin impedance
   A61B5/053B2: . . . . specially adapted for acupuncture
   A61B5/053B4: . . . . Measuring galvanic skin response, e.g. by lie detector
   A61B5/053D: . . . Testing vitality of teeth
   A61B5/053F: . . . impedance plethysmography
   A61B5/053H: . . . Impedance imaging, e.g. by tomography
   A61B5/053J: . . . Measuring body composition by impedance, e.g. tissue hydration or fat content
   A61B5/053N: . . . invasively, e.g. using a catheter
   A61B5/055: . . involving electronic or nuclear magnetic resonance, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging
   A61B5/055B: . . . Means for positioning of patients for radiation diagnosis or therapy A61B6/04
   A61B5/05M: . . using microwaves or terahertz waves
   A61B5/05P: . . Magnetic particle imaging
   A61B5/05T: . . Magnetic induction tomography
   A61B5/06: Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies ; determining position of probes within or on the body of the patient
   A61B5/06C: . . Determining position of a probe within the body employing means separate from the probe, e.g. sensing internal probe position employing impedance electrodes on the surface of the body A61B1/00P7 takes precedence
   A61B5/06C1: . . . using magnetic field
   A61B5/06C2: . . . using impedance measurements
   A61B5/06C3: . . . using markers A61B5/06C1 takes precedence
   A61B5/06E: . . Determining position of the probe employing exclusively positioning means located on or in the probe e.g. using position sensors arranged on the probe
   A61B5/06E1: . . . Superposing sensor position on an image of the patient, e.g. obtained by ultrasound or x-ray imaging
   A61B5/06E2: . . . using accelerometers or gyroscopes
   A61B5/06E3: . . . using impedance sensors
   A61B5/07: Endoradiosondes
   A61B5/07B: . . Intestinal transmitters
   A61B5/07D: . . [N: Permanent implantations
   A61B5/08: Detecting, measuring or recording devices for evaluating the respiratory organs
   A61B5/083: . . Measuring rate of metabolism by using breath test, e.g. measuring rate of oxygen consumption
   A61B5/083B: . . . Measuring rate of oxygen consumption
   A61B5/083D: . . . Measuring rate of C02 production
   A61B5/085: . . Measuring impedance of respiratory organs or lung elasticity
   A61B5/087: . . Measuring breath flow
   A61B5/087B: . . . Peak expiratory flowmeters
   A61B5/087D: . . . using optical means
   A61B5/087F: . . . using means carried by the fluid stream, e.g. free floating balls
   A61B5/087H: . . . using means deflected by the fluid stream, e.g. flaps
   A61B5/087J: . . . using temperature sensing means
   A61B5/08B: . . Recording apparatus specially adapted therefor
   A61B5/08F: . . by whole-body plethysmography measuring blood flow using plethysmography A61B5/0295; impedance plethysmography A61B5/053; measuring volume of the body or parts thereof A61B5/107C
   A61B5/08J: . . by impedance pneumography
   A61B5/08N: . . Measurement of pulmonary parameters by tracers, e.g. radioactive tracers
   A61B5/08R: . . Measuring devices for examining respiratory frequency measuring frequency of electric signals G01R23/00
   A61B5/08S: . . Evaluation by breath analysis, e.g. determination of the chemical composition of exhaled breath A61B5/083, A61B5/091 take precedence
   A61B5/08T: . . Detecting or evaluating cough events
   A61B5/08U: . . Detecting or evaluating apnoea events A61B5/48C8 takes precedence
   A61B5/09: . . . using an element rotated by the flow toys actuated by air current A63H33/40
   A61B5/091: . . Measuring volume of inspired or expired gases, e.g. to determine lung capacity
   A61B5/093: . . . the gases being exhaled into, or inhaled from, an expansible chamber, e.g. bellows or expansible bag
   A61B5/093B: . . . . Recording apparatus specially adapted therefor
   A61B5/095: . . . . within a rigid container, e.g. the boundary being formed by a liquid surface
   A61B5/097: . . Devices for facilitating collection of breath or for directing breath into or through measuring devices
   A61B5/103: Detecting, measuring or recording devices for testing the shape, pattern, colour, size or movement of the body or parts thereof, for diagnostic purposes
   A61B5/103A: . . Determining colour for diagnostic purposes measuring colour in general G01J3/46
   A61B5/103A2: . . . by means of colour cards
   A61B5/103B: . . Goniometers[N9607]
   A61B5/103F: . . Measuring volume of limbs, e.g. by plethysmography
   A61B5/103F2: . . . Phallography
   A61B5/103N: . . Testing properties of the skin (A61B5/00H2 takes precedence)[C0002]
   A61B5/103N10: . . . for assessing sensitivity, e.g. by evaluation of pain threshold
   A61B5/103N10B: . . . . by thermal stimulation
   A61B5/103N2: . . . by electric methods (A61B5/08B takes precedence)
   A61B5/103N4: . . . by optical methods (investigating materials by optical means G01N21/00)
   A61B5/103N6: . . . by mechanical methods (investigating materials by mechanical methods G01N19/00)
   A61B5/103N8: . . . Determining capillary fragility, e.g. by applying suction to the skin
   A61B5/103P: . . Measuring load distribution, e.g. podologic studies
   A61B5/103P2: . . . Measuring plantar pressure during gait
   A61B5/103R: . . of bone material
   A61B5/107: . . Measuring physical dimensions, e.g. size of the entire body or parts thereof
   A61B5/107A: . . . measuring angles, e.g. using goniometers A61B5/11T takes precedence
   A61B5/107B: . . . measuring distances on the body, e.g. measuring length, height or thickness A61B5/107J takes precedence
   A61B5/107C: . . . Measuring volume, e.g. of limbs
   A61B5/107D: . . . Foot measuring devices
   A61B5/107F: . . . Skin gauging
   A61B5/107H: . . . for measuring dimensions by non-invasive methods, e.g. for determining thickness of tissue layer A61B8/08J takes precedence
   A61B5/107J: . . . for measuring dimensions inside body cavities, e.g. using catheters A61B3/10B takes precedence
   A61B5/107J4: . . . . of genito-urinary organs, e.g. for assessing dilatation of cervix uteri
   A61B5/107L: . . . Measuring of profiles
   A61B5/107L2: . . . . by moulding
   A61B5/107N: . . . Measuring hair[N0002]
   A61B5/107P: . . . [N: using optical or photographic means]
   A61B5/11: . . Measuring movement of the entire body or parts thereof, e.g. head or hand tremor, mobility of a limb A61B5/103P2 takes precedence; motion detection to correct for motion artifacts in physiological signals A61B5/72B2B
   A61B5/113: . . . occurring during breathing
   A61B5/113B: . . . . by monitoring thoracic expansion
   A61B5/117: Identification of persons, e.g. finger-printing, foot-printing, impression techniques
   A61B5/117B: . . Finger-printing
   A61B5/117D: . . Foot-printing
   A61B5/117F: . . Recognition of faces
   A61B5/117H: . . Recognition by dental data
   A61B5/11B: . . . Detecting tremor
   A61B5/11D: . . . Ballistocardiography
   A61B5/11F: . . . Detecting eye twinkling
   A61B5/11H: . . . induced by stimuli or drugs; A61B5/11D takes precedence; investigating medicinal preparations G01N33/15
   A61B5/11H2: . . . . of laboratory animals, e.g. activity
   A61B5/11H4: . . . . to assess neuromuscular blockade, e.g. to estimate depth of anaesthesia
   A61B5/11J: . . . Measuring contraction of parts of the body, e.g. organ, muscle A61B5/22 takes precedence; apparatus for measuring work or force in general G01L
   A61B5/11J2: . . . . of excised organs, e.g. muscle preparations
   A61B5/11J4: . . . . of wounds, e.g. at the operation site
   A61B5/11L: . . . Detecting tooth mobility
   A61B5/11M: . . . Global tracking of patients, e.g. by using GPS
   A61B5/11N: . . . Local tracking of patients, e.g. in a hospital or private home
   A61B5/11N2: . . . . Tracking parts of the body
   A61B5/11N4: . . . . Monitoring leaving of a patient support, e.g. a bed or a wheelchair
   A61B5/11P: . . . Determining posture transitions
   A61B5/11P2: . . . . Fall detection
   A61B5/11Q: . . . Determining activity level
   A61B5/11R: . . . Gait analysis
   A61B5/11S: . . . Determining geometric values, e.g. centre of rotation or angular range of movement
   A61B5/11S2: . . . . of movement trajectories
   A61B5/11T: . . . Discriminating type of movement, e.g. walking or running A61B5/11P, A61B5/11R take precedence
   A61B5/11T2: . . . .  Determining movement trajectories[N1109]
   A61B5/11U: . . . Determining motor skills
   A61B5/11U2: . . . . Grasping motions of hands
   A61B5/11W: . . . using a particular sensing technique
   A61B5/11W2: . . . . using markers
   A61B5/11W4: . . . . using image analysis A61B5/11W2 takes precedence
   A61B5/12: Audiometering Evaluation or the auditory system, not limited to hearing capacity A61B5/0484D, A61B5/40B8 take precedence
   A61B5/12B: . . with electric or electronic apparatus
   A61B5/12D: . . evaluating hearing capacity
   A61B5/12D2: . . . subjective methods
   A61B5/12D4: . . . objective methods
   A61B5/12D4B: . . . . measuring compliance or mechanical impedance of the tympanic membrane
   A61B5/12F: . . evaluating tinnitus
   A61B5/14: IPC6 Devices for taking samples of blood ; Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration within the blood, pH-value of blood
   A61B5/145: Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue
   A61B5/1455: . . using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters
   A61B5/1455N: . . . for measuring blood gases
   A61B5/1455N10: . . . . specially adapted to extracorporeal circuits
   A61B5/1455N2: . . . . Details of sensors specially adapted therefor
   A61B5/1455N4: . . . . specially adapted for cerebral tissue
   A61B5/1455N6: . . . . specially adapted for the eye fundus
   A61B5/1455N8: . . . . by fluorescence A61B5/1455N6 takes precedence
   A61B5/1455P: . . . by polarisation
   A61B5/1459: . . . invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter A61B5/1464 takes precedence
   A61B5/145B: . . invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter or needle or using implanted sensors A61B5/1459, A61B5/1464, A61B5/1473, A61B5/1482, A61B5/1486B take precedence
   A61B5/145D: . . specially adapted for measuring characteristics of body fluids other than blood devices for taking samples of body liquids A61B10/00L
   A61B5/145D2: . . . for interstitial fluid
   A61B5/145D2B: . . . . [N: using means for aiding extraction of interstitial fluid, e.g. microneedles or suction]
   A61B5/145D4: . . . for sweat
   A61B5/145D4B: . . . . [N: using means for promoting sweat production, e.g. heating the skin (measuring sweat secretion A61B5/42M2)]
   A61B5/145F: . . [N: using microdialysis]
   A61B5/145F2: . . . [N: invasively]
   A61B5/145G: . . for measuring glucose, e.g. by tissue impedance measurement
   A61B5/145G4: . . . invasive, e.g.by catheter, implanted
   A61B5/145H: . . for measuring haematocrit
   A61B5/145J: . . for measuring pH
   A61B5/145N: . . for measuring blood gases A61B5/1455N takes precedence
   A61B5/145P: . . for measuring analytes not otherwise provided for, e.g. ions, cytochromes
   A61B5/1464: . . . specially adapted for foetal tissue
   A61B5/1468: . . using chemical or electrochemical methods, e.g. by polarographic means A61B5/1486 takes precedence
   A61B5/1473: . . . invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter A61B5/1482 takes precedence
   A61B5/1473B: . . . . comprising an immobilised reagent
   A61B5/1477: . . . non-invasive
   A61B5/1482: . . . specially adapted for foetal tissue
   A61B5/1486: . . using enzyme electrodes, e.g. with immobilised oxidase
   A61B5/1486B: . . . invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter or needle or using implanted sensors [M1112]
   A61B5/1491: . . Heated applicators
   A61B5/1495: . . Calibrating or testing of in-vivo probes
   A61B5/14B: . . Devices for taking blood samples devices for taking samples of other body liquids A61B10/00L
   A61B5/14B10: . . . provided with locking means details of syringes A61M5/315
   A61B5/14B12: . . . using pre-evacuated means
   A61B5/14B12B: . . . . Safety means, e.g. for locking cannula Removing or disposing of used needles or syringes A61M5/32C
   A61B5/14B2: . . . by percutaneous method, e.g. by lancet
   A61B5/14B4: . . . by syringes containing more than one piston medical syringes in general A61M5/178
   A61B5/14B6: . . . provided with indicating means, e.g. for vein entry
   A61B5/14B8: . . . Multiple blood sampling, e.g. at periodic or pre-established intervals
   A61B5/14D: . . Devices for determining blood loss
   A61B5/14F: . . Measuring blood viscosity[N0002]
   A61B5/15: Devices for taking samples of blood
   A61B5/151: . . Devices specially adapted for taking samples of capillary blood, e.g. by lancets , needles or blades
   A61B5/151A: . . . [N: Details]
   A61B5/151A2: . . . . [N: Piercing procedure]
   A61B5/151A2B: . . . . . [N: Purely manual piercing, i.e. the user pierces the skin without the assistance of any driving means or driving devices]
   A61B5/151A2D: . . . . . [N: Piercing being assisted by a triggering mechanism]
   A61B5/151A2D2: . . . . . . [N: Fully automatically triggered, i.e. the triggering does not require a deliberate action by the user, e.g. by contact with the patient's skin]
   A61B5/151A2D4: . . . . . . [N: Semi-automatically triggered, e.g. at the end of the cocking procedure, for instance by biasing the main drive spring or when reaching sufficient contact pressure, the piercing device is automatically triggered without any deliberate action by the user]
   A61B5/151A2D6: . . . . . . [N: Manually triggered, i.e. the triggering requires a deliberate action by the user such as pressing a drive button]
   A61B5/151A4: . . . . [N: Driving means for propelling the piercing element to pierce the skin, e.g. comprising mechanisms based on shape memory alloys, magnetism, solenoids, piezoelectric effect, biased elements, resilient elements, vacuum or compressed fluids]
   A61B5/151A4B: . . . . . [N: comprising biased elements, resilient elements or a spring e.g. a helical spring, leaf spring, or elastic strap]
   A61B5/151A4D: . . . . . [N: comprising shape memory alloys]
   A61B5/151A4F: . . . . . [N: comprising piezos]
   A61B5/151A4H: . . . . . [N: comprising magnets or solenoids]
   A61B5/151A4J: . . . . . [N: comprising a vacuum or compressed fluids]
   A61B5/151A6: . . . . [N: Means for controlling the lancing movement, e.g. 2D- or 3D-shaped elements, tooth-shaped elements or sliding guides]
   A61B5/151A6B: . . . . . [N: comprising 2D- or 3D-shaped elements, e.g. cams, curved guide rails or threads (comprising tooth-shaped elements A61B5/151A6F)]
   A61B5/151A6D: . . . . . [N: comprising linear sliding guides (comprising tooth-shaped elements A61B5/151A6F)]
   A61B5/151A6F: . . . . . [N: comprising tooth-shaped elements, e.g. toothed wheel or rack and pinion]
   A61B5/151B: . . . Bladeless capillary blood sampling devices, i.e. devices for perforating the skin in order to obtain a blood sample but not using a blade, needle, canula, or lancet, e.g. by laser perforation, suction or pressurized fluids
   A61B5/151B2: . . . . [N: by use of radiation e.g. laser]
   A61B5/151B2B: . . . . . [N: provided with means to ensure the protection of the user e.g. to avoid laser light entering the eyes of a user]
   A61B5/151B4: . . . . [N: by use of gaseous agents, e.g. using suction aspiration or pressurized gas]
   A61B5/151D: . . . Devices intended for single use, i.e. disposable
   A61B5/151D2: . . . . [N: comprising driving means, e.g. a spring, for retracting the piercing unit into the housing]
   A61B5/151M: . . . Devices loaded with multiple lancets simultaneously, e.g. for serial firing without reloading, for example by use of stocking means. multiple simultaneous cutting or piercing A61B5/1561
   A61B5/151M2: . . . . [N: Constructional features of stocking means e.g. strip, roll, disc, cartridge, belt or tube
   A61B5/151M2B: . . . . . [N: Arrangement of piercing elements relative to each other
   A61B5/151M2B2: . . . . . . [N: Each piercing element being stocked in a separate isolated compartment
   A61B5/151M2B4: . . . . . . [N: Multiple piercing elements stocked in a single compartment
   A61B5/151M2B6: . . . . . . [N: Piercing elements which are specially shaped or are provided with fittings or attachments to facilitate nesting, stacking or joining together end-to-end or side-by-side]
   A61B5/151M2D: . . . . . [N: Geometry of stocking means or arrangement of piercing elements therein]
   A61B5/151M2D2: . . . . . . [N: Piercing elements stocked in or on a disc]
   A61B5/151M2D2B: . . . . . . . [N: Characterized by propelling the piercing element in a radial direction relative to the disc]
   A61B5/151M2D2D: . . . . . . . [N: Characterized by propelling the piercing element in an axial direction relative to the disc]
   A61B5/151M2D4: . . . . . . [N: Piercing elements stocked in or on a strip]
   A61B5/151M2D4B: . . . . . . . [N: Characterized by a folded strip]
   A61B5/151M2D4D: . . . . . . . [N: Characterized by a rolled strip]
   A61B5/151M2D4F: . . . . . . . [N: Characterized by propelling the piercing element perpendicular to the direction of movement of the strip]
   A61B5/151M2D4H: . . . . . . . [N: Characterized by propelling the piercing element parallel to the direction of movement of the strip]
   A61B5/151M2D6: . . . . . . [N: Piercing elements stocked in the form of a stack or pile]
   A61B5/151M2F: . . . . . [N: Stocking means comprising cap, cover, sheath or protection for aseptic stocking]
   A61B5/151M2H: . . . . . [N: Stocking means comprising separate compartments or units for new and for used piercing elements (separate compartments for used piercing elements in piercing devices A61B5/151M8)]
   A61B5/151M4: . . . . [N: Security or safety mechanism to be deactivated for forwarding next piercing element]
   A61B5/151M6: . . . . [N: Means for keeping track or checking of the total number of piercing elements already used or the number of piercing elements still remaining in the stocking e.g. by check window, counter, display]
   A61B5/151M8: . . . . [N: Piercing device comprising a separate compartment or unit for used piercing elements (separate compartments for used piercing elements in stocking means A61B5/151M2H)]
   A61B5/151S: . . . Devices loaded with a single lancet, i.e. a single lancet with or without a casing is loaded into a reusable drive device and then discarded after use; drive devices reloadable for multiple use
   A61B5/151S2: . . . . [N: Constructional features of reusable driving devices]
   A61B5/151S2B: . . . . . [N: comprising driving means, e.g. a spring, for propelling the piercing unit]
   A61B5/151S2D: . . . . . [N: comprising driving means, e.g. a spring, for retracting the lancet unit into the driving device housing]
   A61B5/151S2D2: . . . . . . [N: fully automatically retracted, i.e. the retraction does not require a deliberate action by the user, e.g. by terminating the contact with the patient's skin]
   A61B5/151S2D4: . . . . . . [N: semi-automatically retracted, i.e. in which the retraction of the piercing unit requires a deliberate action by the user such as manual release of spring-biased retraction means]
   A61B5/151S2D6: . . . . . . [N: purely manually retracted]
   A61B5/153: . . Devices specially adapted for taking samples of venous or arterial blood e.g. with syringes
   A61B5/153B: . . . [N: comprising means for indicating vein entry]
   A61B5/154: . . Devices using pre-evacuated means
   A61B5/154B: . . . [N: comprising means for indicating vein entry]
   A61B5/155: . . Devices specially adapted for continuous or multiple sampling e.g. at predetermined intervals devices loaded with multiple lancets simultaneously A61B5/151M
   A61B5/157: . . Devices characterised by integrated means for measuring characteristics of blood
   A61B5/15B: . . [N: Details]
   A61B5/15B10: . . . [N: Collection vessels for collecting blood samples from the skin surface, e.g. test tubes, cuvettes (test tubes in general B01L3/14, sampling from within body cavities A61B5/15B2, A61B5/15B2G)]
   A61B5/15B12: . . . [N: Caps, stoppers or lids for sealing or closing a blood collection vessel or container e.g. a test-tube or syringe barrel (caps for bottles or containers in general B65D41/00)]
   A61B5/15B14: . . . [N: Strips for collecting blood, e.g. absorbent (optical reagent test strips G01N21/86B; chemical reagent test strips G01N33/487E, G01N33/52)]
   A61B5/15B16: . . . [N: Blood collection bags, e.g. connected to the patient by a catheter comprising means for removing a small sample of collected blood from the bag (collection bags as such A61J1/00T, A61M1/00E2B)]
   A61B5/15B18: . . . [N: Details of piercing elements or protective means for preventing accidental injuries by such piercing elements (double-ended hollow needles A61B5/15B18B8, A61B5/15B18B2; single-ended hollow needles A61B5/15B18B10, A61B5/15B18B2)]
   A61B5/15B18B: . . . . [N: Design of piercing elements]
   A61B5/15B18B10: . . . . . [N: Single-ended needles (hollow piercing element tip design A61B5/15B18B2B, needle sets for catheters A61M25/06, needles for bringing media into the body A61M5/32)]
   A61B5/15B18B10B: . . . . . . [N: Details of construction of shaft]
   A61B5/15B18B10D: . . . . . . [N: Details of construction of hub i.e. element used to attach the single-ended needle to a piercing device or sampling device]
   A61B5/15B18B12: . . . . . [N: Curved or bent needles]
   A61B5/15B18B2: . . . . . [N: Hollow piercing elements, e.g. canulas, needles, for piercing the skin]
   A61B5/15B18B2B: . . . . . . [N: Specific tip design e.g. for improved penetration characteristics]
   A61B5/15B18B2D: . . . . . . [N: Specific design of proximal end]
   A61B5/15B18B4: . . . . . [N: Pointed piercing elements, e.g. needles, lancets for piercing the skin (blade-like piercing elements A61B5/15B18B6)]
   A61B5/15B18B4B: . . . . . . [N: comprising means for capillary action]
   A61B5/15B18B4D: . . . . . . [N: Specific tip design e.g. for improved penetration characteristics]
   A61B5/15B18B4F: . . . . . . [N: Specific design of proximal end]
   A61B5/15B18B6: . . . . . [N: Blade-like piercing elements, e.g. blades, cutters, knives, for cutting the skin]
   A61B5/15B18B6B: . . . . . . [N: comprising means for capillary action]
   A61B5/15B18B6D: . . . . . . [N: Specific blade design e.g. for improved cutting and penetration characteristics]
   A61B5/15B18B6F: . . . . . . [N: Specific design of proximal end]
   A61B5/15B18B8: . . . . . [N: Double-ended needles e.g. used with pre-evacuated sampling tubes (hollow piercing element tip design A61B5/15B18B2B; needle sets for catheters A61M25/06; needles for bringing media into the body A61M5/32)]
   A61B5/15B18B8B: . . . . . . [N: Details of construction of proximal end]
   A61B5/15B18B8D: . . . . . . [N: Details of construction of shaft]
   A61B5/15B18B8F: . . . . . . [N: Details of construction of hub i.e. element used to attach the double-ended needle to a piercing device or sampling device]
   A61B5/15B18D: . . . . [N: Design of protective means for piercing elements for preventing accidental needle sticks e.g. shields, caps, protectors, axially extensible sleeves, pivotable protective sleeves]
   A61B5/15B18D10: . . . . . [N: Pivotable protective sleeves i.e. sleeves connected to, or integrated in, the piercing or driving device, and which are pivoted for covering or uncovering the piercing element]
   A61B5/15B18D10B: . . . . . . [N: comprising means to impede repositioning of protection sleeve from covering to uncovering position]
   A61B5/15B18D10B2: . . . . . . . [N: fully automatically triggered, i.e. the triggering of the pivotable protective sleeve does not require a deliberate action by the user such as terminating the contact with the patient's skin]
   A61B5/15B18D10B4: . . . . . . . [N: semi-automatically triggered, i.e. in which the triggering of the pivotable protective sleeve requires a deliberate action by the user such as manual release of spring-biased extension means]
   A61B5/15B18D12: . . . . . [N: Procedure for removing protection means at the time of piercing]
   A61B5/15B18D12B: . . . . . . [N: fully automatically removed, i.e. the removing does not require any action by the user]
   A61B5/15B18D12D: . . . . . . [N: semi-automatically removed, i.e. before puncturing the protection is removed by a mechanism initiated by a deliberate action by the user, such as pressing a button]
   A61B5/15B18D12F: . . . . . . [N: manually removed]
   A61B5/15B18D12H: . . . . . . [N: removal procedure linked to further actions, e.g. cocking of the piercing device, which indicate that the piercing device is used or tempered]
   A61B5/15B18D2: . . . . . [N: Breakable protectors, e.g. caps, shields or sleeves, i.e. protectors separated destructively e.g. by breaking a connecting area]
   A61B5/15B18D2B: . . . . . . [N: Protectors removed by rotational movement e.g. torsion or screwing]
   A61B5/15B18D2D: . . . . . . [N: Protectors removed by bending]
   A61B5/15B18D2F: . . . . . . [N: Protectors removed by pulling or pushing]
   A61B5/15B18D4: . . . . . [N: Pierceable protectors, e.g. shields, caps, sleeves or films, e.g. for hygienic purposes]
   A61B5/15B18D6: . . . . . [N: Joining techniques used for protective means]
   A61B5/15B18D6B: . . . . . . [N: by friction fit]
   A61B5/15B18D6D: . . . . . . [N: by snap-lock (i.e. based on axial displacement)]
   A61B5/15B18D6F: . . . . . . [N: by rotation, e.g. bayonet or screw]
   A61B5/15B18D6H: . . . . . . [N: by material engagement e.g. welding, bonding]
   A61B5/15B18D6J: . . . . . . [N: Integrally moulded protectors, e.g. protectors simultaneously moulded together with a further component, e.g. a hub, of the piercing element]
   A61B5/15B18D6L: . . . . . . [N: by using additional parts e.g. clamping rings or collets]
   A61B5/15B18D8: . . . . . [N: Protective sleeves which are axially extensible, e.g. sleeves connected to, or integrated in, the piercing or driving device; pivotable protective sleeves]
   A61B5/15B18D8B: . . . . . . [N: comprising means to impede repositioning of protection sleeve from covering to uncovering position]
   A61B5/15B18D8B2: . . . . . . . [N: fully automatically triggered, i.e. the triggering of the protective sleeve does not require a deliberate action by the user such as terminating the contact with the patient's skin]
   A61B5/15B18D8B4: . . . . . . . [N: semi-automatically triggered, i.e. in which the triggering of the protective sleeve requires a deliberate action by the user e.g. manual release of spring-biased extension means]
   A61B5/15B2: . . . [N: Source of blood]
   A61B5/15B20: . . . [N: Needle holders, for instance for holding the needle by the hub, used for example with double-ended needle and pre-evacuated tube,]
   A61B5/15B22: . . . [N: Needle sets comprising wings, e.g. butterfly type, for ease of handling]
   A61B5/15B24: . . . [N: Having means for aiding positioning of the piercing device at a location where the body is to be pierced (means for aiding positioning of devices for bringing media into the body A61M5/42D, locating blood vessels A61B5/48Y2)]
   A61B5/15B26: . . . [N: Blood sample preparation for further analysis, e.g. by separating blood components or by mixing]
   A61B5/15B28: . . . [N: with identification means (identification means for surgical instruments A61B19/00A)]
   A61B5/15B28B: . . . . [N: characterized by physical shape]
   A61B5/15B28D: . . . . [N: having complementary physical shapes for indexing or registration purposes]
   A61B5/15B28F: . . . . [N: Optical identification systems e.g. bar codes, colour codes]
   A61B5/15B28H: . . . . [N: Electrical or magnetic identification means]
   A61B5/15B2B: . . . . [N: for capillary blood or interstitial fluid]
   A61B5/15B2D: . . . . [N: for venous or arterial blood]
   A61B5/15B2E: . . . . [N: for blood from umbilical cord]
   A61B5/15B2G: . . . . [N: for blood from vagina, placenta, colon or mouth]
   A61B5/15B30: . . . [N: Means for facilitating use e.g. by people with impaired vision; means for indicating when used correctly or incorrectly; means for alarming]
   A61B5/15B30B: . . . . [N: by audible feedback]
   A61B5/15B30D: . . . . [N: by tactile feedback e.g. vibration]
   A61B5/15B30F: . . . . [N: by visual feedback]
   A61B5/15B30H: . . . . [N: by topography of the surface e.g. Braille, embossed printing]
   A61B5/15B32: . . . [N: Aesthetic features, e.g. distraction means to prevent fears of child patients]
   A61B5/15B34: . . . [N: Communication to or from blood sampling device (transmitting measured data A61B5/00B)]
   A61B5/15B34B: . . . . [N: long distance, e.g. between patient's home and doctor's office]
   A61B5/15B34D: . . . . [N: intermediate range, e.g. within room or building]
   A61B5/15B34F: . . . . [N: short range, e.g. between console and disposable (using implanted devices A61B5/15B34H)]
   A61B5/15B34H: . . . . [N: with implanted devices]
   A61B5/15B36: . . . [N: Preventing re-use]
   A61B5/15B36B: . . . . [N: by indicating if used, tampered with, unsterile or defective]
   A61B5/15B36D: . . . . [N: by disrupting a seal e.g. puncturing a piston seal]
   A61B5/15B36F: . . . . [N: by disconnecting components e.g. breaking or rupturing of connected parts e.g. piston and rod]
   A61B5/15B36H: . . . . [N: by blocking components e.g. piston, driving device or fluid passageway]
   A61B5/15B36J: . . . . [N: by means for destroying components or parts e.g. by cutting or piercing]
   A61B5/15B36J2: . . . . . [N: by including soluble parts]
   A61B5/15B36J4: . . . . . [N: by blunting or disabling needle]
   A61B5/15B38: . . . [N: Means for varying, regulating, indicating or limiting the speed or time of blood collection]
   A61B5/15B4: . . . [N: for enhanced collection of blood or interstitial fluid at the sample site, e.g. by applying compression, heat, vibration, ultrasound, suction or vacuum to tissue; for reduction of pain or discomfort; Skin piercing elements, e.g. blades, needles, lancets or canulas, with adjustable piercing speed]
   A61B5/15B40: . . . [N: Means for the detection of operative contact with patient e.g. by temperature sensitive sensor]
   A61B5/15B42: . . . [N: Means for the detection of the presence or absence of a module, a component or an abnormal condition; detection of leaks]
   A61B5/15B4B: . . . . [N: Means for enhancing collection]
   A61B5/15B4B10: . . . . . [N: by negative pressure, other than vacuum extraction into a syringe by pulling on the piston rod or into pre-evacuated tubes]
   A61B5/15B4B2: . . . . . [N: by tissue compression, e.g. with specially designed surface of device contacting the skin area to be pierced]
   A61B5/15B4B4: . . . . . [N: by heating]
   A61B5/15B4B6: . . . . . [N: by vibration, e.g. ultrasound]
   A61B5/15B4B8: . . . . . [N: by electricity]
   A61B5/15B4D: . . . . [N: Means for reducing pain or discomfort applied before puncturing; desensitising the skin at the location where body is to be pierced]
   A61B5/15B4D10: . . . . . [N: by negative pressure, e.g. suction, vacuum]
   A61B5/15B4D12: . . . . . [N: by an adequate mechanical impact on the puncturing location]
   A61B5/15B4D14: . . . . . [N: by accessories for bringing the piercing element into the body, e.g. through rotation of the piercing element]
   A61B5/15B4D2: . . . . . [N: by tissue compression, e.g. with specially designed surface of device contacting the skin area to be pierced]
   A61B5/15B4D4: . . . . . [N: by heating]
   A61B5/15B4D6: . . . . . [N: by cooling]
   A61B5/15B4D8: . . . . . [N: by vibration (enhancing collection by vibration A61B5/15B6)]
   A61B5/15B4F: . . . . [N: Adjustable piercing speed of skin piercing element e.g. blade, needle, lancet or canula, for example with varying spring force or pneumatic drive]
   A61B5/15B6: . . . [N: Adjustment of penetration depth]
   A61B5/15B6B: . . . . [N: Depth adjustment mechanism using end caps mounted at the distal end of the sampling device, i.e. the end-caps are adjustably positioned relative to the piercing device housing for example by rotating or screwing]
   A61B5/15B6D: . . . . [N: Depth adjustment mechanism using movable stops located inside the piercing device housing and limiting the travel of the drive mechanism (mechanisms using distal end caps A61B5/15B6B, mechanisms at the piercing element carrier proximal end A61B5/15B6F)]
   A61B5/15B6F: . . . . [N: Depth adjustment mechanism at the proximal end of the carrier of the piercing element]
   A61B5/15B8: . . . [N: Construction or design features not otherwise provided for; manufacturing or production; packages; sterilisation of piercing element, piercing device or sampling device]
   A61B5/15B8B: . . . . [N: Venting means]
   A61B5/15B8D: . . . . [N: Valves]
   A61B5/15B8F: . . . . [N: Pumps for assisting the blood sampling]
   A61B5/15B8H: . . . . [N: Pistons, i.e. cylindrical bodies that sit inside the syringe barrel, typically with an air tight seal, and slide in the barrel to create a vacuum or to expel blood]
   A61B5/15B8J: . . . . [N: Rods for actuating or driving the piston i.e. the cylindrical body that sits inside the syringe barrel, typically with an air tight seal, and slides in the barrel to create a vacuum or to expel blood]
   A61B5/15B8L: . . . . [N: Collection chamber divided into at least two compartments, e.g. for division of samples (injection syringes having more than one chamber A61M5/19; syringes for injection of two or more media A61M5/24M, A61M5/28M; sample preparation for further analysis A61B5/15B26]
   A61B5/15B8N: . . . . [N: Improved gripping, e.g. with high friction pattern or projections on the housing surface or an ergonometric shape]
   A61B5/15B8P: . . . . [N: Modular design or construction, i.e. subunits are assembled separately before being joined together or the device comprises interchangeable or detachable modules]
   A61B5/15B8R: . . . . [N: Manufacture or production processes or steps for blood sampling devices]
   A61B5/15B8R2: . . . . . [N: for piercing elements e.g. blade, lancet, canula, needle]
   A61B5/15B8R4: . . . . . [N: for driving devices i.e. means for driving the piercing element]
   A61B5/15B8R6: . . . . . [N: for piercing devices i.e. devices ready to be used for lancing or piercing (for piercing elements A61B5/15B8R2, for driving devices A61B5/15B8R4)]
   A61B5/15B8T: . . . . [N: Packages specially adapted for piercing devices or blood sampling devices (kits for diabetes A61M5/00P2; packaging in general B65D)]
   A61B5/15B8V: . . . . [N: Sterilisation of piercing elements, piercing devices or sampling devices (piercing element stocking means, e.g. cartridges, A61B5/151M2F)]
   A61B5/15B8V2: . . . . . [N: by heating]
   A61B5/15B8V4: . . . . . [N: by aseptic fluid]
   A61B5/15B8V6: . . . . . [N: by radiation]
   A61B5/15D: . . [N: Low-profile devices which resemble patches or plasters, e.g. also allowing collection of blood samples for testing]
   A61B5/15F: . . [N: Arrays of piercing elements for simultaneous piercing]
   A61B5/15F2: . . . [N: Micro-needles or micro-blades]
   A61B5/15H: . . [N: Blood sampling from a fluid line external to a patient, such as a catheter line, combined with an infusion line; blood sampling from indwelling needle sets, e.g. sealable ports, luer couplings, valves (tubing connectors and couplings A61M39)]
   A61B5/15L: . .  Devices for determining blood loss[N1004]
   A61B5/15V: . .  Measuring blood viscosity (investigating flow properties of materials, e.g. viscosity G01N11/00)[N1004]
   A61B5/16: Devices for psychotechnics ; Testing reaction times; [Devices for evaluating the psychological state]
   A61B5/16B: . . Flicker fusion testing eye testing A61B3/00
   A61B5/16D: . . Testing reaction times reaction-time training with a substantial physical effort A63B69/00N2; reaction-time games A63F9/00R
   A61B5/16F: . . Lie detection
   A61B5/16H: . . Evaluating the state of mind, e.g. depression, anxiety
   A61B5/16J: . . Personality evaluation
   A61B5/16L: . . Evaluating attention deficit, hyperactivity
   A61B5/18: . . for vehicle drivers or machine operators
   A61B5/20: for measuring urological functions restricted to the evaluation of the urinary system ]
   A61B5/20B: . . Assessing renal or kidney functions
   A61B5/20D: . . Assessing bladder functions, e.g. incontinence assessment
   A61B5/20D2: . . . Determining bladder volume
   A61B5/20D3: . . . Determining bladder or urethral pressure
   A61B5/20D4: . . .  Incontinence assessments (A61B5/03H4, A61B5/22D4 takes precedence)[N1110]
   A61B5/20F: . . Sensing devices adapted to collect urine
   A61B5/20F2: . . . adapted to determine urine quantity, e.g. flow, volume
   A61B5/22: Ergometry; Measuring muscular strength or the force of a muscular blow
   A61B5/22B: . . Ergometry, e.g. by using bicycle type apparatus
   A61B5/22B2: . . . combined with detection or measurement of physiological parameters, e.g. heart rate
   A61B5/22D: . . Measuring muscular strength
   A61B5/22D2: . . . of the fingers, e.g. by monitoring hand-grip force
   A61B5/22D4: . . . of constricting muscles, i.e. sphincters
   A61B5/22D6: . . . of masticatory organs, e.g. detecting dental force measuring instruments for dentigraphy A61C19/04
   A61B5/40: Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the nervous system A61B5/48C, A61B5/48D, A61B5/48E take precedence
   A61B5/40B: . . for evaluating the sensory system A61B5/12, A61B5/40E take precedence
   A61B5/40B2: . . . Evaluating olfaction, i.e. sense of smell
   A61B5/40B4: . . . Evaluating sense of taste
   A61B5/40B6: . . .  Evaluating touch sensation (A61B5/48D, A61B5/48E take precedence)[N1110]
   A61B5/40B8: . . . Evaluating sense of balance
   A61B5/40D: . . for evaluating the peripheral nervous systems (A61B5/04B takes precedence
   A61B5/40D2: . . .  Evaluating the somatic nervous system[N1110]
   A61B5/40D4: . . . Evaluating the autonomic nervous system
   A61B5/40D6: . . . Evaluating nerves condition
   A61B5/40D6B: . . . . afferent nerves, i.e. nerves that relay impulses to the central nervous system
   A61B5/40D6D: . . . . efferent nerves, i.e. nerves that relay impulses from the central nervous system
   A61B5/40E: . . for evaluating the central nervous system A61B5/48C, A61B5/48D take precedence
   A61B5/40E2: . . . Evaluating the brain A61B5/03B, A61B5/0476, A51B5/1455N4 take precedence
   A61B5/40E4: . . . Evaluating the spinal cord A61B5/48Y6 takes precedence
   A61B5/40F: . . Diagnosing or monitoring particular conditions of the nervous system A61B5/48D, A61B5/48E take precedence
   A61B5/40F2: . . . Diagnosing or monitoring movement diseases, e.g. Parkinson, Huntington or Tourette
   A61B5/40F4: . . . Diagnosing of monitoring cognitive diseases, e.g. Alzheimer, prion diseases or dementia
   A61B5/40F6: . . . Diagnosing or monitoring seizure diseases, e.g. epilepsy
   A61B5/41: Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the immune or lymphatic systems
   A61B5/41B: . . Detecting or monitoring allergy or intolerance reactions to an allergenic agent or substance
   A61B5/41D: . . Detecting or monitoring sepsis
   A61B5/41F: . . Monitoring transplanted tissue or organ, e.g. for possible rejection reactions after a transplant
   A61B5/41J: . . Evaluating particular organs or parts of the immune or lymphatic systems
   A61B5/41J2: . . . the glands, e.g. tonsils, adenoids or thymus
   A61B5/41J4: . . . the spleen
   A61B5/41J6: . . . the bone marrow
   A61B5/41J8: . . . lymph vessels, ducts or nodes
   A61B5/42: Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the gastrointestinal, the endocrine or the exocrine systems A61B1/00, A61B5/48R, A61B5/48T, A61B5/48V, A61B5/48W take precedence
   A61B5/42B: . . Evaluating swallowing
   A61B5/42C: . . Diagnosing or evaluating reflux
   A61B5/42D: . . Diagnosing or evaluating gastrointestinal ulcers
   A61B5/42F: . .  Diagnosing or evaluating reflux[N1110]
   A61B5/42H: . .  Evaluating the liver[N1110]
   A61B5/42J: . .  Evaluating the pancreas[N1110]
   A61B5/42K: . . Evaluating particular parts, e.g. particular organs
   A61B5/42K10: . . . pancreas
   A61B5/42K12: . . . Intestines, colon or appendix
   A61B5/42K2: . . . endocrine glands, i.e. thyroid, adrenals, hypothalamic, pituitary
   A61B5/42K4: . . . oesophagus
   A61B5/42K6: . . . stomach
   A61B5/42K8: . . . liver
   A61B5/42M: . . Evaluating exocrine secretion production A61B3/10D takes precedence
   A61B5/42M10: . . . gastrointestinal secretions, e.g. bile production
   A61B5/42M12: . . . mammary secretions
   A61B5/42M14: . . . vaginal secretions
   A61B5/42M2: . . . sweat secretion
   A61B5/42M6: . . . sebum secretion
   A61B5/42M8: . . . saliva secretion
   A61B5/43: Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the reproductive systems [M1202]
   A61B5/43F: . . for evaluating the female reproductive systems, e.g. gynaecological evaluations
   A61B5/43F2: . . . Breast evaluation or disorder diagnosis A61B5/00P12F takes precedence
   A61B5/43F3: . . . Evaluation of the lower reproductive system A61B5/43F6 takes precedence
   A61B5/43F3B: . . . . of the uterine cavities, e.g. uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries
   A61B5/43F3D: . . . . of the cervix A61B5/43F6A takes precedence
   A61B5/43F3F: . . . . of the vagina
   A61B5/43F4: . . .  Pregnancy monitoring, e.g. foetal monitoring or foetal uterine environment monitoring (A61B5/03F, A61B5/0444, A61B5/1464, A61B5/1482 take precedence )[N1110]
   A61B5/43F4B: . . . .  Pre-eclampsia detection[N1110]
   A61B5/43F6: . . . Pregnancy and labour monitoring, e.g. for labour onset detection
   A61B5/43F6A: . . . . Assessing cervix alteration or dilation
   A61B5/43F6B: . . . .  Labour onset detection, e.g. detecting onset of preterm labour[N1110]
   A61B5/43F6C: . . . . Assessing uterine contractions A61B5/03F takes precedence
   A61B5/43F6D: . . . .  Monitoring during labour, e.g. labour staging, monitoring foetal distress, monitoring uterine activity during labour[N1110]
   A61B5/43F6E: . . . . Assessing foetal parameters
   A61B5/43F7: . . .  Evaluation of post-labour complications[N1110]
   A61B5/43F8: . . . Sexual arousal evaluation
   A61B5/43M: . . for evaluating the male reproductive system
   A61B5/43M2: . . . Prostate evaluation or disorder diagnosis
   A61B5/43M3: . . . Testicles, seminal vesicles or sperm ducts evaluation
   A61B5/43M4: . . . Sexual arousal or erectile dysfunction evaluation, e.g. tumescence evaluation
   A61B5/44: Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the integumentary system, e.g. skin, hair or nails A61B5/117 takes precedence
   A61B5/44A: . .  using colour cards, e.g. for colour classification of skin, hair or nails[N1110]
   A61B5/44B: . . Skin evaluation, e.g. for skin disorder diagnosis
   A61B5/44B10: . . . specially adapted for aiding the prevention of ulcer or pressure sore development, i.e. before the ulcer or sore has developed
   A61B5/44B2: . . . Evaluating skin mechanical properties, e.g. elasticity, hardness, texture, wrinkle assessment
   A61B5/44B3: . . . Evaluating skin constituents, e.g. elastin, melanin, water
   A61B5/44B4: . . . Evaluating skin marks, e.g. mole, nevi, tumour, scar
   A61B5/44B6: . . . Evaluating skin irritation or skin trauma, e.g. rash, eczema, wound, bed sore [M1202]
   A61B5/44B8: . . . Scalp evaluation or scalp disorder diagnosis, e.g. dandruff
   A61B5/44D: . . Hair evaluation, e.g. for hair disorder diagnosis
   A61B5/44F: . . Nail evaluation, e.g. for nail disorder diagnosis
   A61B5/45: For evaluating or diagnosing the musculoskeletal system or teeth A61B5/103P, A61B5/107D, A61B7/00H take precedence
   A61B5/45B: . . Bones A61B5/45R2B takes precedence
   A61B5/45B2: . . .  Teeth (A61B5/00P8, A61B5/11L take precedence)[N1109]
   A61B5/45B4: . . . Bone density determination
   A61B5/45D: . . Cartilage
   A61B5/45F: . . Muscles A61B5/0488, A61B5/22D take precedence
   A61B5/45H: . . Tendons
   A61B5/45K: . . Joints A61B5/45M, A61B5/45R take precedence
   A61B5/45M: . . Ligaments
   A61B5/45R: . . Evaluating a particular part of the muscoloskeletal system or a particular medical condition
   A61B5/45R10: . . . Evaluating the shoulder
   A61B5/45R12: . . . Evaluating the elbow
   A61B5/45R14: . . . Evaluating the knee
   A61B5/45R16: . . . Evaluating the wrist
   A61B5/45R18: . . . Evaluating the ankle
   A61B5/45R2: . . . Evaluating the mouth, e.g. the jaw
   A61B5/45R2B: . . . . Evaluating teeth
   A61B5/45R2D: . . . . Evaluating soft tissue within the mouth, e.g. gums or tongue
   A61B5/45R2F: . . . . Evaluating bruxism
   A61B5/45R4: . . . Evaluating static posture, e.g. undesirable back curvature A61B5/11P takes precedence
   A61B5/45R6: . . . Evaluating the spine A61B5/45R4 takes precedence
   A61B5/45R8: . . . Evaluating the hip
   A61B5/48: Other medical applications
   A61B5/48B: . . Speech analysis specially adapted for diagnostic purposes
   A61B5/48C: . . Sleep evaluation A61B5/48D takes precedence; devices for inducing sleep A61M21/02
   A61B5/48C2: . . . Sleep detection, i.e. determining whether a subject is asleep or not
   A61B5/48C4: . . . Detecting sleep stages or cycles
   A61B5/48C6: . . . Sleep quality
   A61B5/48C8: . . . Sleep apnoea
   A61B5/48D: . . Determining level or depth of anaesthesia A61B5/11H4 takes precedence
   A61B5/48E: . . Touch or pain perception evaluation A61B5/48D takes precedence
   A61B5/48E2: . . . assessing touch sensitivity, e.g. for evaluation of pain threshold
   A61B5/48E2T: . . . . by thermal stimulation
   A61B5/48G: . .  Evaluating static posture, e.g. undesirable back curvature (A61B5/11P takes precedence)[N1109]
   A61B5/48H: . . Assessment of subject’s compliance to treatment [M1203]
   A61B5/48J: . . Diagnosis combined with treatment in closed-loop systems or methods
   A61B5/48J2: . . . combined with drug delivery
   A61B5/48K: . . Monitoring progression or stage of a disease
   A61B5/48L: . . Toxicology, e.g. by detection of alcohol, drug or toxic products A61B5/48M takes precedence
   A61B5/48M: . . Monitoring or testing the effects of treatment, e.g. of medication
   A61B5/48P: . . Prosthesis assessment or monitoring A61B5/0488H takes precedence
   A61B5/48Q: . . Diagnosis based on concepts of traditional oriental medicine
   A61B5/48R: . . Indicating the phase of biorhythm clocks or watches with indicators for biological cycles G04B19/26B
   A61B5/48S: . . Bio-feedback A61B5/0482 takes precedence
   A61B5/48T: . .  Measuring sweat production, tear production, internal secretion, e.g. bile flow (devices for taking sweat samples A61B10/00L6)[N1109]
   A61B5/48U: . . Measuring or inducing nystagmus
   A61B5/48V: . . Evaluating metabolism A61B5/083 takes precedence
   A61B5/48W: . . Determining body composition
   A61B5/48W2: . . . Body fat
   A61B5/48W4: . . . Hydration status, fluid retention of the body
   A61B5/48W4B: . . . . Evaluating oedema
   A61B5/48W6: . . . Determining interstitial fluid distribution or content within body tissue measuring analytes in interstitial fluid in-vivo A61B5/145D2
   A61B5/48X: . . inducing physiological or psychological stress, e.g. applications for stress testing
   A61B5/48Y: . . Locating particular structures in or on the body
   A61B5/48Y2: . . . Blood vessels
   A61B5/48Y4: . . . Nerves
   A61B5/48Y6: . . . Epidural space
   A61B5/68: Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient
   A61B5/68B: . . specially adapted to be attached to or worn on the body surface
   A61B5/68B1: . . . Sensor mounted on worn items
   A61B5/68B1B: . . . . Head-worn items, e.g. helmets, masks, headphones or goggles
   A61B5/68B1D: . . . . Garments; Clothes
   A61B5/68B1D1: . . . . . Vests
   A61B5/68B1D2: . . . . . Gloves
   A61B5/68B1D3: . . . . . Footwear
   A61B5/68B1F: . . . . Diapers
   A61B5/68B1H: . . . . Wristwatch-type devices
   A61B5/68B1J: . . . . External prosthesis
   A61B5/68B1K: . . . . Orthopaedic devices
   A61B5/68B2: . . . Specially adapted to be attached to a specific body part A61B5/68B1 takes precedence
   A61B5/68B2B: . . . . Head
   A61B5/68B2B1: . . . . . Ear
   A61B5/68B2B1B: . . . . . . Ear lobe
   A61B5/68B2B1D: . . . . . . Ear canal
   A61B5/68B2B2: . . . . .  Ear lobe[N1110]
   A61B5/68B2B3: . . . . .  Ear canal[N1110]
   A61B5/68B2B4: . . . . . Nose
   A61B5/68B2B5: . . . . . Mouth, e.g., oral cavity; tongue; Lips; Teeth
   A61B5/68B2B6: . . . . . Eye
   A61B5/68B2D: . . . . Neck
   A61B5/68B2F: . . . . Trunk, e.g., chest, back, abdomen, hip
   A61B5/68B2H: . . . . Arm or wrist
   A61B5/68B2J: . . . . Hand
   A61B5/68B2J1: . . . . . Finger
   A61B5/68B2L: . . . . Leg
   A61B5/68B2N: . . . . Foot or ankle
   A61B5/68B3: . . . Means for maintaining contact with the body (A61B5/68B1 takes precedence
   A61B5/68B3B: . . . . Straps, bands or harnesses
   A61B5/68B3D: . . . . using adhesives A61B5/0408F takes precedence
   A61B5/68B3D1: . . . . . Adhesive patches
   A61B5/68B3F: . . . . using vacuum
   A61B5/68B3H: . . . . Supports or holders, e.g., articulated arms
   A61B5/68B3J: . . . . Sutures
   A61B5/68B3L: . . . . Clamps or clips
   A61B5/68B3N: . . . . Anchoring means, e.g. barbs
   A61B5/68B4: . . . Indicating the position of the sensor on the body
   A61B5/68B4B: . . . . by using templates
   A61B5/68B4D: . . . . by marking the skin
   A61B5/68B5: . . . Monitoring or controlling sensor contact pressure
   A61B5/68B6: . . . Monitoring or controlling distance between sensor and tissue
   A61B5/68D: . . specially adapted to be brought in contact with an internal body part, i.e. invasive
   A61B5/68D1: . . . mounted on an invasive device
   A61B5/68D1B: . . . . Needles
   A61B5/68D1B2: . . . . . in combination with a needle set
   A61B5/68D1D: . . . . Microneedles
   A61B5/68D1F: . . . . Guide wires
   A61B5/68D1H: . . . . Catheters
   A61B5/68D1H1: . . . . . with a balloon
   A61B5/68D1H2: . . . . . with a distal curved tip
   A61B5/68D1H3: . . . . . with a distal loop
   A61B5/68D1H4: . . . . . with a distal pigtail shape
   A61B5/68D1H5: . . . . . with a distal basket, e.g. expandable basket
   A61B5/68D1H6: . . . . . with multiple distal splines
   A61B5/68D1J: . . . . Permanently implanted devices, e.g. pacemakers, other stimulators, biochips A61B5/68D1K takes precedence
   A61B5/68D1K: . . . . Capsules, e.g. for swallowing or implanting
   A61B5/68D1L: . . . . Stents
   A61B5/68D1M: . . . . Burr holes
   A61B5/68D1N: . . . . Access ports
   A61B5/68D1P: . . . . Extracorporeal blood circuits, e.g. dialysis circuits
   A61B5/68D2: . . . specially adapted to be attached or implanted in a specific body part A61B5/68D1 takes precedence
   A61B5/68D2A: . . . . Brain
   A61B5/68D2B: . . . . Heart
   A61B5/68D2C: . . . . Oesophagus
   A61B5/68D2D: . . . . Stomach
   A61B5/68D2E: . . . . Intestine
   A61B5/68D2F: . . . . Bladder
   A61B5/68D2G: . . . . Uterus
   A61B5/68D2H: . . . . Blood vessel
   A61B5/68D2J: . . . . Nerve
   A61B5/68D2K: . . . . Bone
   A61B5/68D3: . . . Means for maintaining contact with the body (A61B5/68D1 takes precedence
   A61B5/68D3B: . . . . using adhesives
   A61B5/68D3D: . . . . Anchoring means
   A61B5/68D3F: . . . . Sutures
   A61B5/68D3H: . . . . Clamps or clips
   A61B5/68D5: . . . Monitoring or controlling sensor contact pressure
   A61B5/68D6: . . . Monitoring or controlling distance between sensor and tissue
   A61B5/68F: . . mounted on external non-worn devices, e.g. non-medical devices [M1203]
   A61B5/68F1: . . . Cabins
   A61B5/68F10: . . . Portable consumer electronic devices, e.g. music players, telephones, tablet computers
   A61B5/68F2: . . . Rooms
   A61B5/68F3: . . . Furniture
   A61B5/68F4: . . . Mats
   A61B5/68F5: . . . Cars
   A61B5/68F6: . . . Wheel chairs
   A61B5/68F7: . . . Sport equipment
   A61B5/68F8: . . . Toys
   A61B5/68F9: . . . Computer input devices, e.g. mice or keyboards
   A61B5/70: Means for positioning the patient in relation to the detecting, measuring or recording means
   A61B5/70J: . . Posture restraints
   A61B5/70K: . . Tables
   A61B5/70L: . . Indicia not located on the patient, e.g. floor marking
   A61B5/70N: . . Breast positioning means
   A61B5/72: Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes algorithms for computer assisted diagnosis G06F19/00M3; pattern recognition G06K9/00
   A61B5/72B: . . for noise prevention, reduction or removal
   A61B5/72B2: . . . of noise induced by motion artifacts
   A61B5/72B2B: . . . . using a separate sensor to detect motion or using motion information derived from signals other than the physiological signal to be measured
   A61B5/72B2D: . . . . using signal cancellation, e.g. based on input of two identical physiological sensors spaced apart, or based on two signals derived from the same sensor, for different optical wavelengths
   A61B5/72B4: . . . [N: of noise originating from a therapeutic or surgical apparatus, e.g. from a pacemaker
   A61B5/72D: . . [N: Determining signal validity, reliability or quality (A61B5/72B2 and A61B5/72B4 take precedence)]
   A61B5/72F: . . Details of analog processing, e.g. isolation amplifier, gain or sensitivity adjustment, filtering, baseline or drift compensation A61B5/04J, A61B5/04R, A61B5/0428 take precedence; transformers for specific applications H01F38/00; amplifiers H03F
   A61B5/72H: . . Signal modulation applied to the input signal sent to patient or subject; demodulation to recover the physiological signal (modulation H03C)
   A61B5/72J: . . [N: involving compression of the physiological signal, e.g. to extend the signal recording period
   A61B5/72K: . . Details of waveform analysis A61B5/0452 takes precedence
   A61B5/72K10: . . . characterised by using transforms
   A61B5/72K10B: . . . . using Fourier transforms
   A61B5/72K10D: . . . . using Wavelet transforms
   A61B5/72K12: . . . Classification of physiological signals or data, e.g. using neural networks, statistical classifiers, expert systems or fuzzy systems neural networks per se G01N3/00; expert systems per se G06N5/00
   A61B5/72K12B: . . . . involving training the classification device
   A61B5/72K2: . . . using differentiation including higher order derivatives
   A61B5/72K4: . . . using integration
   A61B5/72K6: . . . using correlation, e.g. template matching or determination of similarity
   A61B5/72K8: . . . using specific filters therefor, e.g. Kalman or adaptive filters (A61B5/04R2 and A61B5/04R4 take precedence
   A61B5/72M: . . Specific aspects of physiological measurement analysis A61B5/04R, A61B5/0452 and A61B5/048 take precedence
   A61B5/72M10: . . . for compensation of signal variation due to stress unintentionally induced in the patient, e.g. due to the stress of the medical environment or examination (deliberately inducing physiological or psychological stress A61B5/48X)
   A61B5/72M2: . . . [N: Determining trends in physiological measurement data; Predicting development of a medical condition based on physiological measurements, e.g. determining a risk factor
   A61B5/72M4: . . . Artificial waveform generation or derivation, e.g. synthesising signals from measured signals A61B5/0402K takes precedence
   A61B5/72M6: . . . Event detection, e.g. detecting unique waveforms indicative of a medical condition A61B5/40F6, A61B5/48C8, A61B5/0452, A61B5/08T take precedence
   A61B5/72M8: . . . for synchronising or triggering a physiological measurement or image acquisition with a physiological event or waveform, e.g. an ECG signal A61B6/52B, A61B6/54B, A61B8/52B, A61B8/54B take precedence
   A61B5/72M8B: . . . . Retrospective gating, i.e. associating measured signals or images with a physiological event after the actual measurement or image acquisition, e.g. by simultaneously recording an additional physiological signal during the measurement or image acquisition
   A61B5/72M8D: . . . . Prospective gating, i.e. predicting the occurrence of a physiological event for use as a synchronisation signal
   A61B5/74: Details of notification to user or communication with user or patient indicating measured values G01D7/00; user input means input or output arrangements for computers G06F3/00
   A61B5/74B: . . using sound
   A61B5/74B2: . . . using synthesised speech
   A61B5/74B4: . . . Sound rendering of measured values, e.g. by pitch or volume variation A61B5/74B2 takes precedence
   A61B5/74D: . . using visual displays A61B5/044 takes precedence
   A61B5/74D10: . . . Display arrangements, e.g. multiple display units
   A61B5/74D12: . . . using a holographic display
   A61B5/74D2: . . . Displaying combinations of multiple images regardless of image source, e.g. displaying a reference anatomical image with a live image (geometric transforms for image registration G06T3/00R; enhancement using image fusion G06T5/50; algorithms for registration of images G06T7/00D1
   A61B5/74D4: . . . Displaying an image simultaneously with additional graphical information, e.g. symbols, charts, function plots
   A61B5/74D6: . . . Displaying user selection data, e.g. icons in a graphical user interface
   A61B5/74D8: . . . Displaying an avatar, e.g. an animated cartoon character
   A61B5/74F: . . [N: characterised by tactile indication, e.g. vibration or electrical stimulation]
   A61B5/74H: . . Alarms related to a physiological condition, e.g. details of setting alarm thresholds or avoiding false alarms (alarms per se G08B)
   A61B5/74K: . . Arrangements for interactive communication between patient and care services, e.g. by using a telephone network telemetry of measured physiological signal A61B5/00B
   A61B5/74K2: . . . in case of emergency, i.e. alerting emergency services
   A61B5/74M: . . User input or interface means, e.g. keyboard, pointing device, joystick
   A61B5/74M2: . . . Selection of a region of interest, e.g. using a graphics tablet
   A61B5/74M2B: . . . . Automatic selection of region of interest
   A61B5/74M4: . . . Voice-controlled interfaces
   A61B5/74M6: . . . using a reader or scanner device, e.g. barcode scanner
   A61B5/1455G: . . .  for glucose
   A61B5/1459G: . . . . invasive optical for glucose
   A61B5/1459N: . . . . invasive optical for gases
   A61B5/1473G: . . . .  for glucose
   A61B5/1473N: . . . .  for blood gases
   A61B5/1477G: . . . .  for glucose
   A61B5/1477N: . . . .  for blood gases
   A61B5/1486G: . . . for glucose
   A61B5/1486G2: . . . .  invasive, e.g. by introdcution of catheter or needle
   A61B6/00: Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment
   A61B6/00B: Mounting of the radiation source relatively to the patient, bed, screen or film (constructional details of X-ray apparatus in general H05G1/02)
   A61B6/00B10: . . Details of transmission, e.g. of supply voltage or signals between stationary and moving parts (flexible or turnable line connectors H01R35/00; constructional details H05G1/02; power supply arrangements for feeding the X-ray tube H05G1/10)
   A61B6/00B12: . . Mobile X-ray equipment
   A61B6/00B2: . . Mounting to ceiling
   A61B6/00B4: . . Mounting to counterpoise or springs
   A61B6/00B6: . . Servo-controlled movement of the radiation source
   A61B6/00B6B: . . . using power assist circuits, e.g. servosystems
   A61B6/00B8: . . Simultaneous movement of the radiation source and the radiation detector, e.g. coupled by C-frame (A61B6/03 takes precedence)
   A61B6/00D: Applications or adaptations other than for dentistry (for dentistry A61B6/14)
   A61B6/00D2: . . for craniography
   A61B6/00D3: . . for mammography (mammography by transillumination A61B5/00P2; patient immobilising means for mammography A61B6/04D2; ultrasonic mammography A61B8/08F)
   A61B6/00D3B: . . . with suspended breasts, e.g. patient in prone position[N0002]
   A61B6/00D4: . . for angiography, i.e. studying blood circulation by means of contrast agent and multiple exposure (apparatus for introducing media into the body A61M37/00)
   A61B6/00D6: . . Observing movement of contrast agent, e.g. barium swallow examination
   A61B6/00D8: . . for endoradiography, i.e. radiation applied to body cavities (therapy by radiation sources introduced into the body A61N5/10B)
   A61B6/00D9: . . Examining bone tissue, e.g. for mineral content
   A61B6/00F: Generating signals of physiological origin to be used to initiate radiation (circuit arrangements for obtaining X-ray photography at predetermined instants in the movement of an object, e.g.part of a human body, H05G1/62)
   A61B6/00H: Testing of X-ray installation, e.g. by phantoms (radio-opaque markers A61B19/00R)
   A61B6/02: Devices for diagnosis sequentially in different planes; Stereoscopic radiation diagnosis
   A61B6/02B: . . Stereoscopic imaging [M1110]
   A61B6/02D: . . Tomosynthesis
   A61B6/02F: . . Devices to set pivot point
   A61B6/02H: . . characterised by the use of a particular data acquisition trajectory, e.g. helical or spiral
   A61B6/02J: . . using optical superposition methods, e.g. tomosynthesis or coded aperture imaging (investigating or analysing materials by optical means G01N21/00)
   A61B6/02L: . . using image intensifiers (image intensifiers in general H05G1/64, H01J31/00)
   A61B6/03: . . Computerised tomographs [M1110]
   A61B6/03B: . . . Transmission computed tomography (CT) [M1110]
   A61B6/03B1: . . . . Mechanical aspects of CT
   A61B6/03B10: . . . . using a scanned X-ray target (X-ray tubes wherein the point of impact of the cathode ray is movable H01J35/24)
   A61B6/03B12: . . . . scanning simultaneously multiple slices of the body
   A61B6/03B12B: . . . . . for producing inclined scans, e.g. by tilting the gantry
   A61B6/03B14: . . . . using radiation attenuators adapted to the shape of the body to be scanned (scattering or absorbing devices G21K1/10)
   A61B6/03B16: . . . . Details of detector arrangements specially adapted therefor (measurement of nuclear and X-radiation G01T)
   A61B6/03B16B: . . . . . Circuits specially adapted therefor
   A61B6/03B16D: . . . . . Two-dimensional detector arrangements
   A61B6/03B18: . . . . using X-ray beams of two or more distinct energy ranges
   A61B6/03B2: . . . . using one detector coupled to one pencil-shaped X-ray beam
   A61B6/03B20: . . . . Mechanical aspects, e.g. cooling circuits
   A61B6/03B4: . . . . using multiple detectors coupled to one fan-shaped X-ray beam
   A61B6/03B4B: . . . . . and a shift mechanism, e.g. to modify magnification
   A61B6/03B4D: . . . . . and helical scanning
   A61B6/03B6: . . . . using an array of stationary detectors and a mobile X-ray beam (A61B6/03B10 takes precedence)
   A61B6/03B8: . . . . using two or more sets of X-ray source/detector units (A61B6/03B12 takes precedence; using X-ray beams of two or more distinct energy ranges A61B6/03B18)
   A61B6/03D: . . . Emission tomography detector details for PET G01T1/29D4, detector details for SPECT G01T1/164B2
   A61B6/04: Positioning of patients; Tiltable beds or the like
   A61B6/04A: . . Tables or beds
   A61B6/04A10: . . . Tables or beds with heating or cooling means
   A61B6/04A2: . . . Tables or beds with compression means
   A61B6/04A4: . . . Tables or beds with immobilising means
   A61B6/04A4B: . . . . Patient cradles
   A61B6/04A6: . . . Tables or beds with means for imaging suspended breasts
   A61B6/04A8: . . . Tables or beds made from non-metallic materials
   A61B6/04B: . . Servo-controlled positioning of patient tables
   A61B6/04C: . . Servo-controlled positioning
   A61B6/04D: . . Tables or beds provided with compression means
   A61B6/04D2: . . . for mammography
   A61B6/04E: . . Supports mounted to ceiling
   A61B6/04F: . . Tables or beds provided with patient immobilising means
   A61B6/04F2: . . . Patient cradles
   A61B6/04G: . . Endless-band supports
   A61B6/04H: . . Tables or beds made from non-metallic materials, e.g. resins (A61B5/055B takes precedence)
   A61B6/04J: . . Tables or beds provided with heating or cooling means
   A61B6/04K: . . Patient positioning chairs
   A61B6/04L: . . Supports mounted to ceiling
   A61B6/04M: . . Inflatable rests for lifting of patients
   A61B6/04N: . . Endless-band supports[N9507]
   A61B6/04P: . . using markers or indicia for aiding patient positioning
   A61B6/06: Diaphragms for particular diagnostic applications, e.g. tomography, i.e. not of general applicability diaphragms, e.g. variable, or collimators in general G21K1/02
   A61B6/06B: . .  situated between the source and the patient[N1110]
   A61B6/06D: . .  situated between the patient and detector[N1110]
   A61B6/08: Auxiliary means for directing the radiation beam to a particular spot, e.g. using light beams
   A61B6/10: Application or adaptation of safety means
   A61B6/10B: . . Protection against mechanical damage, e.g. anti-collision devices
   A61B6/10B2: . . . Braking or locking devices
   A61B6/10D: . . Protection against radiation, e.g. shielding techniques for handling radiation not otherwise provided for G21K
   A61B6/12: Devices for detecting or locating foreign bodies
   A61B6/14: Applications or adaptations for dentistry
   A61B6/14B: . . by intraoral means X-ray tubes having a small cross-section to facilitate introduction into small cavities H01J35/32
   A61B6/40: with arrangements for generating radiation specially adapted for radiation diagnosis X-ray tubes or details thereof H01J35/00
   A61B6/40B: . . characterised by using a plurality of source units circuit arrangements driving apparatuses comprising more than one X ray tube H05G1/70
   A61B6/40B2: . . . arranged in multiple source-detector units
   A61B6/40D: . . involving movement of the focal spot
   A61B6/40D2: . . . resulting in acquisition of views from substantially different positions, e.g. EBCT
   A61B6/40F: . . the source being combined with a filter or grating filters for radiation per se G21K1/10
   A61B6/40F2: . . . K-edge filters
   A61B6/40H: . . Source units adapted to modify characteristics of the beam during the data acquisition process A61B6/40D, A61B6/40F take precedence; arrangements changing the time structure of an already generated radiation beam G21K1/04C
   A61B6/40J: . . by using a source unit in the interior of the body A61B6/03D takes precedence; X-ray tubes with small cross-section H01J35/32
   A61B6/40L: . . adapted for producing a particular type of beam
   A61B6/40L2: . . . Pencil beams
   A61B6/40L4: . . . Fan-beams
   A61B6/40L6: . . . Cone-beams
   A61B6/40L8: . . . [N: for producing synchrotron radiation]
   A61B6/42: with arrangements for detecting radiation specially adapted for radiation diagnosis details of radiation detection G01T1/00
   A61B6/42B: . . characterised by using a particular type of detector
   A61B6/42B10: . . . using detectors specifically adapted to be used in the interior of the body detector details for in vivo counting G01T1/161
   A61B6/42B12: . . . [N: for detecting non x-ray radiation, e.g. gamma radiation (A61B6/03D takes precedence)]
   A61B6/42B2: . . . using storage phosphor screens details of stimulable phosphor sheets G01T1/29D5
   A61B6/42B4: . . . using image intensifiers
   A61B6/42B6: . . . using matrix detectors for semiconductor radiation detectors G01T1/24, G01T1/29D1C
   A61B6/42B8: . . . using energy resolving detectors, e.g. photon counting detectors for nuclear medicine G01T1/16, G01T1/29
   A61B6/42D: . . characterised by using a plurality of detector units A61B6/40B2 takes precedence
   A61B6/42F: . . using a detector unit almost surrounding the patient , e.g. more than 180°
   A61B6/42H: . . characterised by a detector unit being housed in a cassette
   A61B6/42J: . . the detector being combined with a grid or grating
   A61B6/44: Constructional features of the device for radiation diagnosis
   A61B6/44B: . . the device being mobile or portable, e.g. mounted on a trolley or handheld
   A61B6/44D: . . the device being modular
   A61B6/44F: . . related to combined acquisition of different diagnostic modalities
   A61B6/44H: . . related to hygiene or sterilisation
   A61B6/44J: . . related to the mounting of source units and detector units A61B6/02 takes precedence
   A61B6/44J10: . . . the source unit or the detector unit being mounted to counterpoise or springs
   A61B6/44J2: . . . the source unit and the detector unit being coupled by a rigid structure
   A61B6/44J2B: . . . . the rigid structure being a C-arm or U-arm [M1207]
   A61B6/44J2D: . . . . Tiltable gantries
   A61B6/44J4: . . . the source unit and the detector unit being able to move relative to each other
   A61B6/44J6: . . . the source unit or the detector unit being attached to robotic arms
   A61B6/44J8: . . . the source unit or the detector unit being mounted to ceiling
   A61B6/44L: . . related to servo controlled movement of the source unit
   A61B6/44L2: . . . involving power assist circuits
   A61B6/44P: . . Means for cooling A61B6/04A10 takes precedence
   A61B6/44R: . . Means for identifying the diagnostic device
   A61B6/46: with special arrangements for interfacing with the operator or the patient
   A61B6/46B: . . Displaying means of special interest
   A61B6/46B10: . . . adapted to display 3D data 3D image rendering G06T15/00; manipulating 3D models for computer graphics G06T19
   A61B6/46B2: . . . characterised by constructional features of the display
   A61B6/46B4: . . . characterised by displaying multiple images or images and diagnostic data on one display
   A61B6/46B6: . . . involving a plurality of displays
   A61B6/46B8: . . . adapted to display user selection data, e.g. icons or menus
   A61B6/46D: . . characterised by special input means
   A61B6/46D2: . . . allowing annotation or message recording
   A61B6/46D4: . . . for selecting a region of interest (ROI)
   A61B6/48: Diagnostic techniques A61B6/02B, A61B6/03B, A61B6/03D take precedence
   A61B6/48B: . . involving the use of contrast agents
   A61B6/48D: . . involving multiple energy imaging
   A61B6/48F: . . involving scattered radiation
   A61B6/48H: . . involving phase contrast X-ray imaging
   A61B6/48J: . . involving fluorescence X-ray imaging
   A61B6/48L: . . involving generating temporal series of image data
   A61B6/48L2: . . . involving fluoroscopy
   A61B6/48N: . . involving pre-scan acquisition
   A61B6/50: Clinical applications dentistry A61B6/14 takes precedence
   A61B6/50B: . . involving diagnosis of head, e.g. neuroimaging, craniography
   A61B6/50D: . . involving diagnosis of breast, i.e. mammography
   A61B6/50F: . . involving diagnosis of heart
   A61B6/50H: . . involving diagnosis of blood vessels, e.g. by angiography
   A61B6/50J: . . involving diagnosis of bone
   A61B6/50L: . . involving diagnosis of nerves
   A61B6/50N: . . involving determination of haemodynamic parameters, e.g. perfusion CT
   A61B6/50P: . . for non-human patients
   A61B6/52: Devices using data or image processing specially adapted for radiation diagnosis (image processing per se G06T)
   A61B6/52B: . . involving processing of raw data to produce diagnostic data
   A61B6/52D: . . involving processing of medical diagnostic data
   A61B6/52D2: . . . extracting a diagnostic or physiological parameter from medical diagnostic data details of algorithms to analyse biomedical images G06T7/00B2; algorithms for computer assisted diagnosis G06F19/00M3
   A61B6/52D4: . . . generating planar views from image data, e.g. extracting a coronal view from a 3D image
   A61B6/52D6: . . . combining image data of a patient, e.g. combining a functional image with an anatomical image details of algorithms for image registration G06T7/00D1
   A61B6/52D6B: . . . . [N: combining images from the same or different radiation imaging techniques, e.g. PET and CT]
   A61B6/52D6B2: . . . . . [N: combining overlapping radiation images, e.g. by stitching]
   A61B6/52D6D: . . . . [N: combining images from different diagnostic modalities, e.g. X-ray and ultrasound]
   A61B6/52D8: . . . removing objects from field of view, e.g. removing patient table from a CT image
   A61B6/52F: . . involving detection or reduction of artifacts or noise details of algorithms for image enhancement G06T7/00D
   A61B6/52F2: . . . due to motion
   A61B6/52F2B: . . . . using data from a motion artifact sensor A61B6/52F2D takes precedence
   A61B6/52F2D: . . . . involving measuring table sag
   A61B6/52F4: . . . due to scatter
   A61B6/52H: . . involving retrospective matching to a physiological signal
   A61B6/52J: . . involving using additional data, e.g. patient information, image labeling, acquisition parameters
   A61B6/54: Control of devices for radiation diagnosis
   A61B6/54B: . . involving acquisition triggered by a physiological signal
   A61B6/54D: . . involving control of exposure
   A61B6/54D2: . . . dependent on patient size
   A61B6/54F: . . involving automatic set-up of acquisition parameters
   A61B6/54H: . . involving tracking of position of the device or parts of the device using an image of a phantom A61B6/58D6
   A61B6/54J: . . [N: Remote control of radiation diagnosis devices]
   A61B6/56: Details of data transmission or power supply, e.g. use of slip rings
   A61B6/56B: . . involving image data transmission via a network transmission or management of patient information G06F19/00M5
   A61B6/56D: . . involving communication between imaging systems
   A61B6/58: Testing, adjusting or calibrating devices for radiation diagnosis
   A61B6/58B: . . Remote testing of the device
   A61B6/58D: . . Calibration
   A61B6/58D2: . . . using calibration phantoms models for medical purposes G09B23/28
   A61B6/58D2B: . . . . [N: determining position of components of the device using images of the phantom]
   A61B6/58D4: . . . Calibration of detector units
   A61B6/58F: . . Detection of faults or malfunction of the device
   A61B6/58H: . . Alignment of source unit to detector unit
   A61B6/58J: . . Setting distance between source unit and detector unit
   A61B6/58L: . . Setting distance between source unit and patient
   A61B7/00: Instruments for auscultation
   A61B7/00B: Detecting cranial noise, e.g. caused by aneurism
   A61B7/00D: Detecting lung or respiration noise
   A61B7/00F: Detecting noise caused by implants, e.g. cardiac valves
   A61B7/00H: Detecting skeletal, cartilage or muscle noise A61B7/00D and A61B7/00J take precedence
   A61B7/00J: Detecting noise of gastric tract, e.g. caused by voiding
   A61B7/02: Stethoscopes acoustic details thereof G10K11/00
   A61B7/02B: . . for introduction into the body, e.g. into the oesophagus oesophageal ECG probes A61B5/042B
   A61B7/02D: . . comprising more than one sound collector
   A61B7/04: . . Electric stethoscopes
   A61B7/04B: . . . Detection of Korotkoff sounds A61B5/0225 takes precedence; measuring blood pressure A61B5/021
   A61B8/00: Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves
   A61B8/00B: Details of transducer positioning, e.g. by a coupling medium
   A61B8/00D: by tracers, e.g. microbubbles introduced into the bloodstream
   A61B8/02: Measuring pulse or heart rate
   A61B8/02B: . . of a foetus (measuring heart rate of a foetus in general A61B5/024B)
   A61B8/04: Measuring blood pressure
   A61B8/06: Measuring blood flow
   A61B8/06B: . . to determine blood output from the heart in general A61B5/029
   A61B8/06D: . . by devices introduced into the body, e.g. catheters (in body cavities in general A61B8/12)
   A61B8/06F: . . combined with B-scan, e.g. tomography
   A61B8/08: Detecting organic movements or changes, e.g. tumours, cysts, swellings
   A61B8/08B: . .  involving measuring tissue velocity (A61B8/06 takes precedence)[C1111]
   A61B8/08B2: . . .  using Doppler signals[N1111]
   A61B8/08D: . . for diagnosis of the brain
   A61B8/08D2: . . . using echo-encephalography
   A61B8/08F: . . for diagnosis of the breast, e.g. mammography
   A61B8/08F2: . . . with suspended breasts, e.g. patient in prone position[N0002]
   A61B8/08H: . . involving detecting or locating foreign bodies or organic structures
   A61B8/08H2: . . . for locating instruments
   A61B8/08H4: . . . for locating body or organic structures, e.g. tumours, calculi, blood vessels, nodules
   A61B8/08J: . . involving measuring tissue layers, e.g. skin, interfaces [M1111]
   A61B8/08P: . . involving foetal diagnosis; pre-natal or peri-natal diagnosis of the baby
   A61B8/08R: . . for diagnosis of bone A61B5/45B takes precedence
   A61B8/08S: . . for diagnosis of the heart
   A61B8/08T: . . for diagnosis of blood vessels
   A61B8/10: Eye inspection
   A61B8/12: In body cavities or body tracts, e.g. by using catheters ]
   A61B8/12B: . . using mechanical scanning, e.g. by micro-motor (mechanical steering of sound beams G10K11/35)[C9807]
   A61B8/12D: . . using electronic scanning, e.g. by phased array (electrical steering of transducer arrays G10K11/34)
   A61B8/13: Tomography
   A61B8/14: . . Echo-tomography
   A61B8/14B: . . . characterised by scanning multiple planes
   A61B8/15: . . Transmission-tomography
   A61B8/40: Positioning of patients, e.g. means for holding or immobilising parts of the patient's body
   A61B8/40B: . . [N: using compression means]
   A61B8/40D: . . [N: using means for diagnosing suspended breasts]
   A61B8/42: Details of probe positioning or probe attachment to the patient
   A61B8/42B: . . by using holders, e.g. positioning frames
   A61B8/42B2: . . . characterised by articulated arms
   A61B8/42B4: . . . characterised by straps, belts, cuffs or braces
   A61B8/42B6: . . . characterised by adhesive patches
   A61B8/42D: . . involving determining the position of the probe, e.g. with respect to an external reference frame or to the patient
   A61B8/42D2: . . . using sensors mounted on the probe
   A61B8/42D4: . . . using sensors not mounted on the probe, e.g. mounted on an external reference frame
   A61B8/42F: . . involving the acoustic interface between the transducer and the tissue
   A61B8/42F2: . . . characterised by sound-transmitting media or devices for coupling the transducer to the tissue
   A61B8/42F4: . . . characterised by determining or monitoring the contact between the transducer and the tissue
   A61B8/44: Constructional features of the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic diagnostic device
   A61B8/44B: . . Device being mounted on a trolley
   A61B8/44D: . . Device being modular
   A61B8/44F: . . related to combined acquisition of different diagnostic modalities, e.g. combination of ultrasound and X-ray acquisitions
   A61B8/44H: . . related to hygiene or sterilisation
   A61B8/44J: . . Device being portable or laptop-like
   A61B8/44L: . . involving a docking unit
   A61B8/44M: . . [N: Means for identifying the diagnostic device, e.g. barcodes]
   A61B8/44N: . . related to the probe
   A61B8/44N2: . . . Details of catheter construction
   A61B8/44N4: . . . Features of the external shape of the probe, e.g. ergonomic aspects
   A61B8/44N6: . . . Features of the scanning mechanism, e.g. for moving the transducer within the housing of the probe
   A61B8/44N6B: . . . . [N: involving deflection of the probe]
   A61B8/44N8: . . . Wireless probes
   A61B8/44P: . . using several separate ultrasound transducers or probes
   A61B8/44R: . . characterised by features of the ultrasound transducer
   A61B8/44R2: . . . the transducer being a phased array
   A61B8/44R4: . . . characterised by the arrangement of the transducer elements devices for short-range imaging using particular transducer elements arrangements under G01S15/89D1; arrangements of transducers in generation of mechanical vibrations of infrasonic, sonic or ultrasonic frequency B06B1/06C
   A61B8/46: Ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic diagnostic devices with special arrangements for interfacing with the operator or the patient
   A61B8/46B: . . Displaying means of special interest
   A61B8/46B10: . . . adapted to display 3D data 3D imaging and stereoscopic displays in devices for short-range imaging with acoustic waves G01S15/89D9 and G01S7/52S8B3, respectively; 3D image rendering G06T15/00; manipulating 3D models for computer graphics G06T19/00
   A61B8/46B2: . . . characterised by constructional features of the display
   A61B8/46B4: . . . characterised by displaying multiple images or images and diagnostic data on one display composite display in devices for short-range imaging with acoustic waves G01S7/52S8B6
   A61B8/46B6: . . . involving a plurality of displays
   A61B8/46B8: . . . adapted to display user selection data e.g. icons or menus
   A61B8/46D: . . characterised by special input means
   A61B8/46D2: . . . allowing annotation or message recording
   A61B8/46D4: . . . for selection of a region of interest
   A61B8/48: Diagnostic techniques A61B8/13 takes precedence
   A61B8/48B: . . involving the use of contrast agent, e.g. micro-bubbles introduced into the bloodstream analysis of echo signal exploiting properties of a contrast enhancer in devices for short-range imaging with acoustic waves G01S7/52S2F1B
   A61B8/48D: . . involving the acquisition of a 3D volume of data
   A61B8/48F: . . involving measuring strain or elastic properties [M1207]
   A61B8/48H: . . involving arbitrary m-mode
   A61B8/48J: . . [N: involving Doppler signals]
   A61B8/52: Devices using data or image processing specially adapted for diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves (image processing per se G06T)
   A61B8/52B: . . [N: involving processing of raw data to produce diagnostic data, e.g. for generating an image (reconstruction G06T11/00)]
   A61B8/52D: . . involving processing of medical diagnostic data
   A61B8/52D2: . . . for extracting a diagnostic or physiological parameter from medical diagnostic data for algorithms to analyse biomedical images G06T7/00B2; for algorithms for computer assisted diagnosis G06F19/00M3
   A61B8/52D4: . . . for generating planar views from image data in a user selectable plane not corresponding to the acquisition plane
   A61B8/52D6: . . . for combining image data of patient, e.g. merging several images from different acquisition modes into one image for image registration algorithms G06T7/00D1
   A61B8/52D6B: . . . . [N: combining images from the same or different imaging techniques, e.g. color Doppler and B-mode]
   A61B8/52D6B2: . . . . . [N: combining overlapping images, e.g. spatial compounding]
   A61B8/52D6D: . . . . [N: combining images from different diagnostic modalities, e.g. ultrasound and X-ray]
   A61B8/52F: . . involving detection or reduction of artifacts for image enhancement algorithms G06T5/00
   A61B8/52F2: . . . due to motion
   A61B8/52H: . . involving retrospective matching to a physiological signal
   A61B8/52J: . . [N: using additional data, e.g. patient information, image labeling, acquisition parameters]
   A61B8/54: Control of the diagnostic device
   A61B8/54B: . . involving acquisition triggered by a physiological signal
   A61B8/54D: . . involving monitoring or regulation of device temperature
   A61B8/56: Details of data transmission or power supply
   A61B8/56B: . . involving data transmission via a network management of patient information using digital computers G06F19/00M5
   A61B8/58: Testing, adjusting or calibrating the diagnostic device
   A61B8/58B: . . Remote testing of the device
   A61B8/58D: . . Automatic set-up of the device
   A61B8/58F: . . [N: Calibration phantoms (models for medical purposes G09B23/28)]
   A61B9/00: Instruments for examination by percussion; Pleximeters
   A61B9/00B: Electric apparatus for detecting reflex action, e.g. monitoring depth of anaesthesia detection of movements A61B5/11
   A61B10/00: Other methods or instruments for diagnosis, e.g. instruments for taking a cell sample, for biopsy, for vaccination diagnosis ; Sex determination; Ovulation-period determination ; Throat striking implements
   A61B10/00D: Ovulation-period determination for animals A61D17/00H
   A61B10/00E: Vaccination diagnosis other than by injuring the skin, e.g. allergy test patches
   A61B10/00F: Devices for taking faeces samples; Faecal examination devices anal receptacles A61F5/451
   A61B10/00G: Detection of breast cancer mammography by transillumination A61B5/00P2, by X-rays A61B6/00D3, by ultrasonic means A61B8/08F
   A61B10/00L: Devices for taking samples of body liquids devices for taking blood samples A61B5/14B
   A61B10/00L1: . . for taking amniotic fluid samples
   A61B10/00L2: . . for taking saliva or sputum samples devices for receiving spittle A61J 9/00
   A61B10/00L4: . . for taking sperm samples artificial insemination A61B17/43; for animals A61D19/02B; genital receptacles for the male member A61F5/453; massage of the genitals A61H19/00
   A61B10/00L6: . . for taking sweat or sebum samples measuring sweat production A61B5/00E
   A61B10/00L8: . . for taking urine samples measuring urological functions A61B5/20; genital receptacles A61F5/451; urinals for bed-ridden persons A61G9/00U
   A61B10/00S: Casings for storing test samples A61B10/00C, A61B10/00F and A61B10/00L take precedence; preservation of living parts of the human or animal body A01N1/02; containers for retaining a material to be analysed B01L3/00C; test tubes B01L3/14; containers for enzymology or microbiology C12M1/16; swab-sampler being part of enzymology or microbiology container C12M1/30
   A61B10/02: [N: Instruments for taking a cell sample or for biopsy (A61B10/00F and A61B10/00L take precedence; needle locating or guiding means A61B17/34D; samplers for enzymology or microbiology C12M1/26; sampling or preparing biological specimens G01N33/483B)]
   A61B10/02P: . . [N: Pointed or sharp biopsy instruments]
   A61B10/02P2: . . . [N: for prostate]
   A61B10/02P4: . . . [N: for taking bone, bone marrow or cartilage samples]
   A61B10/02P6: . . . [N: means for severing sample]
   A61B10/02P6N: . . . . [N: with sample notch, e.g. on the side of inner stylet]
   A61B10/02P8: . . . [N: with vacuum aspiration, e.g. caused by retractable plunger or by connected syringe (A61B10/02P4, A61B10/02P6 take precedence)]
   A61B10/02U: . . [N: for uterus (A61B10/00L takes precedence)]
   A61B10/04: . . Endoscopic instruments
   A61B10/06: . . Biopsy forceps [N: e.g. with cup-shaped jaws]
   A61B13/00: Instruments for depressing the tongue
   A61B16/00: Devices specially adapted for vivisection or autopsy
   A61B17/00: Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets
   A61B17/00B: Vein tendon strippers tube strippers A61M1/00R
   A61B17/00E: for minimally invasive surgery A61B17/02E, A61B17/04E, A61B17/12L2, A61B17/128E, A61B17/28E, A61B17/32E take precedence
   A61B17/00L: Surgical glue applicators surgical adhesives A61L24/00; two-component delivery syringes A61M5/19
   A61B17/00P: Implements for plugging an opening in the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, e.g. for sealing a vessel puncture or closing a cardiac septal defect sutures A61B17/04; closing rectum or urethra near body surface A61F2/00B2
   A61B17/02: for holding wounds open; Tractors
   A61B17/22B12: . . . with means for locating or checking the concrement, e.g. X-ray apparatus, imaging means (A61B17/22B6 takes precedence)[C9604]
   A61B17/22B12B: . . . . integrated in a central portion of the shock wave apparatus
   A61B17/22B4: . . . characterised by coupling elements between the apparatus, e.g. shock wave apparatus or locating means, and the patient, e.g. details of bag, pressure control of bag on patient
   A61B17/22B6: . . . Means for positioning patient, shock wave apparatus or locating means, e.g. mechanical aspects, patient beds, arms, aiming means (positioning of patients for radiation diagnosis A61B6/04; positioning of locating means inside shock wave apparatus A61B17/22B12B)[C9807]
   A61B17/22C: . . by means of cutting or abrading, e.g. curettes for scraping-out (A61B17/22J takes precedence; endoscopic cutting instruments A61B17/32E)[C9412]
   A61B17/22C1: . . . with a continuously-rotating cutting instrument (A61B17/22C2, A61B17/22C4, A61B17/22C8 take precedence; for removing intra-ocular material A61F9/007R6)[N9411][C9807]
   A61B17/22C2: . . . through sidehole, e.g. sliding or rotating cutter inside catheter
   A61B17/22C4: . . . Pullback cutting; Combined forward and pullback cutting, e.g. with cutters at both sides of the plaque
   A61B17/22C6: . . . Curettes, e.g. hollow scraping instruments
   A61B17/22C8: . . . with radially expandable cutting or abrading elements (A61B17/22C4 takes precedence)[C9411]
   A61B17/22E4: . . . having wire-like gripping elements, e.g. formed as loops or baskets (surgical snare instruments A61B17/32B)
   A61B17/22J: . . using cutting jets[N9412]
   A61B17/28E: . . Forceps for use in minimally invasive surgery, e.g. endoscopic surgery (A61B17/04E takes precedence; endoscopic cutting devices A61B17/32E)
   A61B17/28E8: . . . Handles
   A61B17/02A: . . with antagonistic arms as supports for retractor elements
   A61B17/02E: . . for minimally invasive surgery A61B17/02E, A61B17/02L, A61B17/04E, A61B17/12L2, A61B17/128E, A61B17/28E, A61B17/32E take precedence
   A61B17/02F: . . for eye surgery
   A61B17/02J: . . Joint distractors
   A61B17/02L: . . Abdominal wall lifters
   A61B17/02R: . . with ring member to support retractor elements
   A61B17/32B: . . Surgical snare instruments (for removing or smashing calculi A61B17/22E4; tonsillotomes A61B17/26)
   A61B17/32C: . . Scalpels or scalpel-like knives (A61B17/32U takes precedence)
   A61B17/32C1: . . . with detachable blade
   A61B17/32C1P: . . . . Packages or dispensers for scalpel-blades (for sharps A61B19/02P2)
   A61B17/32C1R: . . . . Devices for removing or collecting used scalpel-blades (for sharps A61B19/02R2)
   A61B17/32D: . . Scissors
   A61B17/32E8: . . . Forceps-like instruments for cutting or punching bone or cartilage, e.g. rongeurs (A61B17/32E2 takes precedence; forceps for biopsy A61B10/00C4A; non-endoscopic rongeurs A61B17/16C)[N9805]
   A61B17/32F: . . for skin incisions
   A61B17/32G: . . Punch-like cutting instruments, e.g. using a cylindrical or oval knife (A61B17/326 takes precedence; trepans or craniotomes A61B17/16T; for use on the cornea A61F9/007)[C9807]
   A61B17/32J: . . using cutting jets (A61B17/22J takes precedence)[C9412]
   A61B17/04: for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
   A61B17/04A: . . Suture anchors, buttons or pledgets, i.e. means for attaching sutures to bone, cartilage or soft tissue; Instruments for applying or removing suture anchors A61B17/064B takes precedence; fixation devices for tendons or ligaments A61F2/08B6
   A61B17/04B: . . Suture bridges
   A61B17/04C: . . [N:Instruments for cutting sutures ]
   A61B17/04E: . . Suturing instruments for use in minimally invasive surgery, e.g. endoscopic surgery
   A61B17/04G: . . Needle or suture guides guides for drills, pins or wire A61B17/17; for puncturing needles A61B17/34D
   A61B17/04H: . . Hand-held instruments for holding sutures A61B17/04E takes precedence; other holders for needles or sutures A61B17/06H; surgical forceps A61B17/28; surgical pincettes A61B17/30
   A61B17/04J: . . Devices or means, e.g. loops, for capturing the suture thread and threading it through an opening of a suturing instrument or needle eyelet
   A61B17/04K: . . Suture clamps, clips or locks, e.g. for replacing suture knots; Instruments for applying or removing suture clamps, clips or locks suture anchors A61B17/04A; wound clamps or clips A61B17/08; ligaturing clamps or clips A61B17/122
   A61B17/04M: . . Sewing machines for surgery
   A61B17/04P: . . Protective devices for suturing, i.e. for protecting the patient`s organs or the operator
   A61B17/06: . . Needles; Sutures; Needle-suture combinations ; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials
   A61B17/062: . . . Needle manipulators
   A61B17/062N: . . . . the needle being specially adapted to interact with the manipulator, e.g. being ridged to snap fit in a hole of the manipulator A61B17/06N12 takes precedence
   A61B17/064: Surgical staples, i.e. penetrating the tissue
   A61B17/064B: . . for bones, e.g. for osteosynthesis or connecting tendon to bone
   A61B17/064C: . . with separate closing member, e.g. for interlocking with staple
   A61B17/064D: . . penetrating the tissue, deformable to closed position
   A61B17/068: Surgical staplers, [N: e.g. containing multiple staples or clamps
   A61B17/068B: . . for applying U-shaped staples or clamps, e.g. without a forming anvil
   A61B17/068B2: . . . having a forming anvil staying above the tissue during stapling
   A61B17/068B4: . . . having a forming anvil staying below the tissue during stapling
   A61B17/06A: . . . Means for attaching suture to needle tipping A61B17/06T; connecting wire to other metallic objects B21F15/00
   A61B17/06H: . . . Holders for needles or sutures, e.g. racks, stands hand-held holding instruments A61B17/04H; holders for articles A61B19/02H; racks for syringes or for hypodermic or infusion needles A61M5/00S
   A61B17/06N: . . . Needles, e.g. needle tip configurations making needles B21G1/00
   A61B17/06N12: . . . . Big needles, either gripped by hand or connectable to a handle
   A61B17/06P: . . . Packages or dispensers for needles or sutures packages for sharps A61B19/02P2; for dental floss A61C15/04C; packages for needles in general B65D85/24
   A61B17/06P2: . . . . of cylindrical shape
   A61B17/06P2F: . . . . . Flat cylinders, e.g. including an inner reel
   A61B17/06P2T: . . . . . Elongate cylinders, i.e. tubes
   A61B17/06P4: . . . . of parallelepipedal shape, e.g. made of rectangular or slightly oval panels
   A61B17/06P4F: . . . . . including a retainer comprising three or more foldable panels
   A61B17/06R: . . . Devices for removing or collecting used needles or sutures A61B17/04C takes precedence; for sharps A61B19/02R2
   A61B17/06S: . . . Sutures suture materials A61L17/00; manufacture of artificial threads D01D; treatment of threads D06M
   A61B17/06T: . . . Apparatus or means for preparing the cut end of the suture thread to be attached to the needle, e.g. tipping to prevent brooming A61B17/06A takes precedence
   A61B17/70B4: . . . . . . Screws or hooks which are poly-axial, i.e. which have a rod-clamping part and bone-anchoring part which pivot relative to each other until the rod is clamped[N9809][C0305]
   A61B17/072: . . for applying a row of staples in a single action, [e.g. the staples being applied simultaneously]
   A61B17/072B: . . . the staples being applied sequentially
   A61B17/072R: . . . Reinforcements for staple line, e.g. pledgets
   A61B17/076: for removing surgical staples or wound clamps
   A61B17/08: Wound clamps or clips, i.e. not or only partly penetrating the tissue suture bridges A61B17/04B; Devices for bringing together the edges of a wound
   A61B17/88B: . . . . Tools for spinal fixation[N0408]
   A61B17/88B2: . . . . . Rod pushers and other devices for positioning vertebral hooks or screws, locking elements and rods relative to each other[N0408]
   A61B17/88H2: . . . . .  acting on screws or other anchors, e.g. hooks or wires, attached to the bone[N0806][C0904]
   A61B17/08C: . . Clips, e.g. resilient
   A61B17/08L: . . with adhesive layer
   A61B17/10: for applying or removing wound clamps, e.g. containing only one clamp or staple A61B17/076 takes precedence; containing multiple wound clamps A61B17/068 ; Wound clamp magazines
   A61B17/10P: . . Wound clamp magazines for packaging sharps A61B19/02P2
   A61B17/11: for performing anastomosis; Buttons for anastomosis
   A61B17/115: . . Staplers for performing anastomosis in a single operation
   A61B17/115B: . . . applying the staples on the outside of the lumen
   A61B17/115C: . . . Circular staplers comprising a plurality of staples
   A61B17/11D: . . of the digestive tract, e.g. bowels or oesophagus
   A61B17/11N: . . of nerves
   A61B17/11T: . . of tendons
   A61B17/12: for ligaturing or otherwise compressing tubular parts of the body, e.g. blood vessels, umbilical cord
   A61B17/122: . . Clamps or clips, e.g. for the umbilical cord for the vas deferens A61F6/20C
   A61B17/122C: . . . Packages or dispensers therefor clip magazines incorporated in a clip-applying instrument A61B17/128; for surgical articles A61B19/02P
   A61B17/122S: . . . Spring clips
   A61B17/128: . . for applying or removing clamps or clips
   A61B17/128E: . . . for minimally invasive surgery
   A61B17/12L: . . Implements for ligaturing other than by clamps or clips, e.g. using a loop with a slip knot
   A61B17/12L2: . . . for use in minimally invasive surgery, e.g. endoscopic surgery
   A61B17/12P: . . Occluding by internal devices, e.g. balloons or releasable wires plugging an opening in the wall of an organ A61B17/00P; occluders for the cervical canal A61F6/14C; vas deferens occluders A61F6/20
   A61B17/12P1: . . . [N: Type of occlusion (A61B17/12P5B1 takes precedence)]
   A61B17/12P1C: . . . . [N: complete occlusion]
   A61B17/12P1P: . . . . [N: partial occlusion]
   A61B17/12P1T: . . . . [N: temporary occlusion]
   A61B17/12P1T2: . . . . . [N: double occlusion, e.g. during anastomosis]
   A61B17/12P4: . . . Balloons[N9705]
   A61B17/12P5: . . . [N: characterised by the location of the occluder]
   A61B17/12P5A: . . . . [N: in an air passage]
   A61B17/12P5B: . . . . [N: in a blood vessel]
   A61B17/12P5B1: . . . . . [N: within an aneurysm]
   A61B17/12P5B1S: . . . . . . [N: for positioning in conjunction with a stent]
   A61B17/12P5H: . . . . [N: within the heart (for closing a cardiac septal defect A61B17/00P)]
   A61B17/12P7: . . . [N: characterised by the type of occluding device]
   A61B17/12P7B: . . . . [N: Balloons]
   A61B17/12P7C: . . . . [N: Coils or wires]
   A61B17/12P7C1: . . . . . [N: having a pre-set deployed three-dimensional shape (methods of manufacturing K61B17/00M)]
   A61B17/12P7C3: . . . . . [N: comprising additional materials, e.g. thrombogenic, having filaments, having fibers, being coated]
   A61B17/12P7C5: . . . . . [N: having stretch limiting means]
   A61B17/12P7P: . . . . [N: Solid plugs; being solid before insertion]
   A61B17/12P7S: . . . . [N: having a string of elements connected to each other]
   A61B17/12P7W: . . . . [N: having a mesh structure (A61B17/12P7C takes precedence)]
   A61B17/12P7W1: . . . . . [N: having a pre-set deployed three-dimensional shape (methods of manufacturing K61B17/00M)]
   A61B17/12P7W3: . . . . . [N: comprising additional materials, e.g. thrombogenic, having filaments, having fibers or being coated]
   A61B17/12P7Z: . . . . [N: formed by fluidized, gelatinous or cellular remodelable materials, e.g. embolic liquids, foams or extracellular matrices]
   A61B17/12P7Z1: . . . . . [N: liquid materials adapted to be injected]
   A61B17/12P7Z3: . . . . . [N: expandable in contact with liquids
   A61B17/12P7Z5: . . . . . [N: comprising a curable material]
   A61B17/132: . . Tourniquets sphygometers A61B5/02
   A61B17/132G: . . . comprising a flexible encircling member A61B17/135 takes precedence
   A61B17/132G2: . . . . with means for applying local pressure pressure pads A61F5/30
   A61B17/132G4: . . . . Tensioning clamps
   A61B17/135: . . . inflatable
   A61B17/135B: . . . . Automated control means therefor
   A61B17/14: Surgical saws ; Accessories therefor
   A61B17/14B: . . [N: Saw blades]
   A61B17/14D: . .  Chain saws[N0807]
   A61B17/14E: . .  Wire or band saws[N0807]
   A61B17/14F: . .  Circular saws[N0807]
   A61B17/14R: . . [N: reciprocating]
   A61B17/15: . . Guides therefor arrangements for guiding straight saw blades in general B23D51/02G
   A61B17/15C: . . . for corrective osteotomy
   A61B17/15C2: . . . . for removing a wedge-shaped piece of bone
   A61B17/15K: . . . for preparing bone for knee prosthesis
   A61B17/15K2: . . . . Cutting femur
   A61B17/15K4: . . . . Cutting tibia
   A61B17/15K6: . . . . Cutting patella
   A61B17/16: Bone cutting, breaking or removal means other than saws, e.g. Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans arthroscopic bone cutters A61B17/32E; dental implant drills potentially for other surgical use A61C8/00T; bone grinders A61F2/46G, A22C17/06; A61B17/16S takes precedence over all other subgroups except A61B17/17
   A61B17/16C: . . Chisels; Rongeurs; Punches; Stamps
   A61B17/16C2: . . . [N: of forceps type, i.e. having two jaw elements moving relative to each other]
   A61B17/16C2E: . . . . [N: the two jaw elements being linked to two elongated shaft elements moving longitudinally relative to each other]
   A61B17/16C2E2: . . . . . [N: the two jaw elements being integral with respective elongate shaft elements]
   A61B17/16D: . . Component parts (not used, see subgroups)
   A61B17/16D10: . . . Motors; Power supplies
   A61B17/16D12: . . . Special drive shafts, e.g. flexible shafts A61B17/16K, A61B17/16J take precedence
   A61B17/16D14: . . . Sleeves i.e. non-rotating parts surrounding the bit shaft, e.g. the sleeve forming a single unit with the bit shaft A61B17/16L takes precedence
   A61B17/16D2: . . . Drill bits, i.e. rotating tools extending from a handpiece to contact the worked material
   A61B17/16D2B: . . . . with mobile or detachable parts
   A61B17/16D4: . . . Chucks or tool parts which are to be held in a chuck
   A61B17/16D6: . . . Drill handpieces A61B17/16D8, A61B17/16D10 take precedence
   A61B17/16D6B: . . . . Drive mechanisms therefor
   A61B17/16D8: . . . Control means; Display units
   A61B17/16G: . . for grafts, harvesting or transplants
   A61B17/16H: . . Hollow drills or saws producing a curved cut, e.g. cylindrical A61B10/02P4, A61B17/16T take precedence
   A61B17/16J: . . intramedullary
   A61B17/16K: . . for producing a curved bore
   A61B17/16L: . . using fluid other than turbine drive fluid
   A61B17/16L2: . . . with sealing means
   A61B17/16N: . . for tapping
   A61B17/16Q: . . Bone breaking devices
   A61B17/16R: . . Surgical rasps, files, planes, or scrapers
   A61B17/16S: . . for particular parts of the body
   A61B17/16S10: . . . for the ear
   A61B17/16S12: . . . for the foot or ankle
   A61B17/16S14: . . . for the shoulder
   A61B17/16S16: . . . for the hand or wrist
   A61B17/16S18: . . . for the sinus or nose
   A61B17/16S2: . . . for the hip
   A61B17/16S20: . . . for the sternum
   A61B17/16S22: . . . for the ribs
   A61B17/16S2C: . . . . for the acetabulum
   A61B17/16S2F: . . . . for the upper femur A61B17/16J takes precedence
   A61B17/16S4: . . . for the spine
   A61B17/16S6: . . . for the jaw
   A61B17/16S8: . . . for the knee
   A61B17/16S8P: . . . . for the patella
   A61B17/16T: . . Trepans or craniotomes, i.e. specially adapted for drilling thin bones such as the skull
   A61B17/16W: . . specially adapted for wire insertion
   A61B17/17: . . Guides or aligning means for drills, mills, pins or wires
   A61B17/17B: . . . using imaging means, e.g. by X-rays
   A61B17/17D: . . . using electromagnetic effects, e.g. with magnet and external sensors
   A61B17/17E: . . . for external fixation
   A61B17/17F: . . . for applying tendons or ligaments implements for applying tendons or ligaments A61F2/08B4
   A61B17/17J: . . . for applying intramedullary nails or pins
   A61B17/17K: . . . [N: for applying pins along or parallel to the axis of the femoral neck]
   A61B17/17M: . . . [N: for applying transverse screws or pins through intramedullary nails or pins]
   A61B17/17P: . . . for holes for bone plates or plate screws
   A61B17/17Q: . . . for bone breaking devices
   A61B17/17R: . . . for rasps or chisels
   A61B17/17S: . . . specially designed for particular parts of the body A61B17/17B takes precedence
   A61B17/17S2: . . . . for the hip
   A61B17/17S2C: . . . . . for the acetabulum
   A61B17/17S2F: . . . . . for preparing the femur for hip prosthesis insertion
   A61B17/17S2P: . . . . . for fixing pins through femoral hip prostheses
   A61B17/17S4: . . . . for the spine
   A61B17/17S6: . . . . for the jaw guiding dental drills A61C1/08F
   A61B17/17S8: . . . . for the knee
   A61B17/17S8P: . . . . . for the patella
   A61B17/17V: . . . [N: for holes for sutures or flexible wires]
   A61B17/17W: . . . for holes for sutures or flexible wires[N9901]
   A61B17/20: for vaccinating or cleaning the skin previous to the vaccination
   A61B17/20B: . . Vaccinating by means of needles or other puncturing devices
   A61B17/22: Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on the inside of inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; Calculus removers; Calculus smashing apparatus; Apparatus for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for dilators A61M29/00
   A61B17/221: . . Gripping devices in the form of loops or baskets for gripping calculi or similar types of obstructions surgical snare instruments A61B17/32B
   A61B17/225: . . for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), e.g. by using ultrasonic waves
   A61B17/225C: . . . characterised by coupling elements between the apparatus, e.g. shock wave apparatus or locating means, and the patient, e.g. details of bags, pressure control of bag on patient
   A61B17/225M: . . . Means for positioning patient, shock wave apparatus or locating means, e.g. mechanical aspects, patient beds, support arms, aiming means positioning of patients for radiation diagnosis A61B6/04; positioning of locating means inside shock wave apparatus A61B17/225P
   A61B17/225P: . . . with means for locating or checking the concrement, e.g. X-ray apparatus, imaging means A61B17/225M takes precedence
   A61B17/225P2: . . . . integrated in a central portion of the shock wave apparatus
   A61B17/22B: . . using mechanical vibrations, e.g. ultrasonic shock waves A61B17/225 takes precedence
   A61B17/22B14: . . . Means for measuring shock waves
   A61B17/22B2: . . . in direct contact with, or very close to, the obstruction or concrement for removing obstructions in blood vessels by laserA61B18/24B
   A61B17/22B2D: . . . . the ultrasound transducer being inside patient`s body at the distal end of the catheter
   A61B17/22B2E: . . . . using electric discharge
   A61B17/22E: . . Gripping instruments, e.g. forceps, for removing or smashing calculi A61B17/221 takes precedence
   A61B17/22E2: . . . having inflatable gripping elements balloon catheters A61M25/10
   A61B17/24: for use in the oral cavity, larynx, bronchial passages or nose ; Tongue scrapers
   A61B17/24C: . . for cleaning of the tongue
   A61B17/26: . . Tonsillotomes, with or without means for stopping bleeding
   A61B17/28: Surgical forceps
   A61B17/285: . . combined with cutting implements
   A61B17/28B: . . with two or more pivotal connections A61B17/29 takes precedence
   A61B17/28D: . . with a single pivotal connection A61B17/29 takes precedence
   A61B17/28D2: . . . Pivots
   A61B17/28D4: . . . Jaws
   A61B17/28D6: . . . Locking means
   A61B17/28D8: . . . Handles
   A61B17/29: . . Forceps for use in minimally invasive surgery
   A61B17/295: . . . combined with cutting implements
   A61B17/295B: . . . . for cutting or punching bone or cartilage, e.g. rongeurs A61B17/32E2 takes precedence; forceps for biopsy A61B10/06; non-endoscopic rongeurs A61B16/16C
   A61B17/29H: . . . Handles
   A61B17/30: Surgical pincettes without pivotal connections
   A61B17/32: Surgical cutting instruments [N: (A61B18/04B takes precedence; suture cutters A61B17/04C; instruments for ligaturing or cutting A61B17/128; instruments for rupturing the amniotic membrane a61B17/42B; specially adapted knives for eye surgery A61F9/013K)]
   A61B17/3201: . . Scissors
   A61B17/3203: . . Fluid jet cutting instruments
   A61B17/3203R: . . . for removing obstructions from inner organs or blood vessels, e.g. for atherectomy
   A61B17/3205: . . Excision instruments
   A61B17/3205G: . . . Punch like cutting instruments, e.g. using a cylindrical or oval knife A61B17/326 takes precedence; trepans A61B17/16T; for use on the cornea A61F9/007
   A61B17/3205S: . . . Surgical snare instruments for removing or smashing calculi A61B17/221W; tonsillotomes A61B17/26
   A61B17/3207: . . . Atherectomy devices working by cutting or abrading; Similar devices specially adapted for non-vascular obstructions A61B17/3203R takes precedence; endoscopic cutting instruments A61B17/32E
   A61B17/3207C: . . . . Curettes, e.g. hollow scraping instruments
   A61B17/3207E: . . . . with radially expandable cutting or abrading elements A61B17/3207P takes precedence
   A61B17/3207P: . . . . Pullback cutting; combined forward and pullback cutting, e.g. with cutters at both sides of the plaque
   A61B17/3207R: . . . . with a rotating cutting instrument, e.g. motor driven A61B17/3207E, A61B17/3207P and A61B17/3207S take precedence; for removing intra-ocular material A61F9/007R6; endoscopic rotatable cutting instruments A61B17/32E2
   A61B17/3207S: . . . . through side-hole, e.g. sliding or rotating cutter inside catheter
   A61B17/3209: . . Incision instruments
   A61B17/3209F: . . . for skin incisions
   A61B17/3211: . . . Surgical scalpels, knives; Accessories therefor
   A61B17/3213: . . . . with detachable blade
   A61B17/3215: . . . . Packages or dispensers for scalpel blades for sharps A61B19/02P2
   A61B17/3217: . . . . Devices for removing or collecting used scalpel blades for sharps A61B19/02R2
   A61B17/322: . . Skin grafting apparatus
   A61B17/326: . . Circumcision apparatus
   A61B17/32E: . . Endoscopic cutting instruments e.g. arthroscopes, resectoscopes A61B10/02P, A61B17/29, A61B17/3207 take precedence
   A61B17/32E2: . . . with continuously rotating, oscillating or reciprocating cutting instruments
   A61B17/32E4: . . . adapted for use within the carpal tunnel
   A61B17/32U: . . using mechanical vibrations, e.g. ultrasonic A61B17/22B2, A61C3/03 and A61F9/007R2 take precedence
   A61B17/32U8: . . . with additional movable means for clamping or cutting tissue, e.g. with a pivoting jaw
   A61B17/34: Trocars; Puncturing needles pointed biopsy instruments A61B10/00C2; devices for piercing the ear-lobes A44C7/00B; seals or hemostasis valves A61M39/06
   A61B17/34B: . . Puncturing needles for the peridural or subarachnoid space or the plexus, e.g. for anaesthesia local anaesthesia A61M19/00
   A61B17/34D: . . Needle locating or guiding means guides for suture needles A61B17/04G; guiding or tracking by nuclear magnetic resonance G01R33/28H
   A61B17/34E: . . for introducing tubes or catheters, e.g. gastrostomy tubes, drain catheters A61B17/34G takes precedence; body piercing catheter guide needles A61M25/06
   A61B17/34G: . . Details of tips or shafts, e.g. grooves, expandable, bendable; Multiple coaxial sliding cannulas, e.g. for dilating syringe needles A61M5/32; dilators A61M29/00
   A61B17/34G4: . . . Cannulas
   A61B17/34G4A: . . . . Access ports, e.g. toroid shape introducers for instruments or hands access sites for liquids A61M1/00S
   A61B17/34G4C: . . . . being collapsible, e.g. made of thin flexible material A61B17/34G4A takes precedence
   A61B17/34G4H: . . . . with means for changing the inner diameter of the cannula, e.g. expandable A61B17/34G4A, A61B17/34G4C take precedence; catheters A61M25/06H
   A61B17/34H: . . with means for changing the diameter or the orientation of the entrance port of the cannula, e.g. for use with different-sized instruments, reduction ports, adapter seals expandable cannulas A61B17/34G
   A61B17/34J: . . for implanting or removing devices, e.g. prostheses, implants, seeds, wires devices for implanting seeds A61M37/04
   A61B17/34L: . . for bones, e.g. intraosseus injections
   A61B17/34N: . . [N: Insufflating needles, e.g. Veress needles]
   A61B17/34P: . . Powered trocars, e.g. electrosurgical cutting, lasers, powered knives
   A61B17/34Q: . . [N: Endoscopic needles, e.g. for infusion (biopsy needles A61B10/02P; catheters with injection needles A61M25/00T)]
   A61B17/34S: . . with safety means for protection against accidental cutting or pricking, e.g. limiting insertion depth, pressure sensors for the peridural space A61B17/34B
   A61B17/34S2: . . . Protecting sleeves or inner probes; Retractable tips for protecting body piercing guide needles A61M25/06E3
   A61B17/34V: . . Valves therefor, e.g. flapper valves, slide valves haemostasis valves A61M39/06; check valves A61M39/24
   A61B17/42: Gynaecological or obstetrical instruments or methods
   A61B17/425: . . for reproduction or fertilisation (not used, see subgroups)
   A61B17/42B: . . Instruments for rupturing the amniotic membrane
   A61B17/42M: . . Instruments for manoeuvring or retracting the uterus, e.g. during laparoscopic surgery
   A61B17/43: . . . for artificial insemination
   A61B17/435: . . . for embryo or ova transplantation
   A61B17/44: . . Obstetrical forceps
   A61B17/44B: . . . without pivotal connections, e.g. using vacuum
   A61B17/46: . . Embryotomes
   A61B17/48: . . Bags for midwives
   A61B17/50: Instruments, other than pincettes or toothpicks, for removing foreign bodies from the human body
   A61B17/52: . . Magnets
   A61B17/54: Chiropodists` instruments, e.g. pedicure chiropractic devices A61H1/00P
   A61B17/54P: . . using a stream or spray of abrasive particles
   A61B17/56: Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor orthopaedic methods or devices for non-surgical treatment of bones or joints A61F5/00
   A61B17/56J: . . Implants for placement in joint gaps without restricting joint motion, e.g. to reduce arthritic pain
   A61B17/58: . . for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws, setting implements or the like
   A61B17/60: . . . for external osteosynthesis, e.g. distractors, contractors
   A61B17/62: . . . . Ring frames, i.e. devices extending around the bones to be positioned
   A61B17/64: . . . . Devices extending alongside the bones to be positioned not used, see subgroups and A61B17/60
   A61B17/64B: . . . . . Devices not permitting mobility, e.g. fixed to bed, with or without means for traction or reduction without surgery A61F5/04
   A61B17/64C: . . . . . with non-continuous, e.g. hinged, pin-clamp connecting element A61B17/64D, A61B17/64G take precedence
   A61B17/64D: . . . . . specially adapted to be fitted across a bone joint
   A61B17/64F: . . . . . specially adapted for use on body parts other than limbs, e.g. trunk or head
   A61B17/64G: . . . . . Bilateral fixators, i.e. with both ends of pins or wires clamped
   A61B17/64H: . . . . . comprising a framework A61B17/64D, A61B17/64G take precedence
   A61B17/64K: . . . . . with pin-clamps fixed at ends of connecting element
   A61B17/64M: . . . . . with pin-clamps movable along a solid connecting rod
   A61B17/64M2: . . . . . . the connecting rod being threaded
   A61B17/64M4: . . . . . . the connecting rod having a non-circular section
   A61B17/64P: . . . . . allowing small-scale motion of bone ends
   A61B17/66: . . . . Alignment , compression or distraction mechanisms
   A61B17/66J: . . . . . for jaw bones, e.g. subcutaneous distractors with external access periodontal bone regeneration A61C8/00C1A
   A61B17/66J2: . . . . . . for alveolar distraction
   A61B17/68: . . . Internal fixation devices, including fasteners and spinal fixators, even if a part thereof projects from the skin bone staples A61B17/064B; dental regeneration membranes A61C8/00C1A
   A61B17/68D: . . . . comprising bone transfixation elements, e.g. bolt with a distal cooperating element such as a nut
   A61B17/68E: . . . . Elements to be fitted on the end of screws or wires, e.g. protective caps
   A61B17/68P: . . . . Plugs, i.e. elements forming interface between bone hole and implant or fastener, e.g. screw
   A61B17/68S: . . . . for reattaching pieces of the skull
   A61B17/70: . . . . Spinal positioners or stabilisers; Bone stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant
   A61B17/70B: . . . . . Screws or hooks combined with longitudinal elements which do not contact vertebrae A61B17/70J takes precedence
   A61B17/70B1: . . . . . . Longitudinal elements, e.g.rods
   A61B17/70B10: . . . . . . [N: the screws or hooks being mobile in use relative to the longitudinal element (A61B17/70B5 takes precedence)][WARNING: incomplete see A61B17/70B]
   A61B17/70B1C: . . . . . . . with a cross-section which varies along its length A61B17/70B1R takes precedence
   A61B17/70B1C2: . . . . . . . . Parts of the longitudinal elements, e.g. their ends, being specially adapted to fit in the screw or hook heads
   A61B17/70B1C4: . . . . . . . . Parts of the longitudinal elements, e.g. their ends, being specially adapted to fit around the screw or hook heads
   A61B17/70B1C6: . . . . . . . . with parts of, or attached to, the longitudinal elements, bearing against an outside of the screw or hook heads, e.g. nuts on threaded rods A61B17/70B1C4 takes precedence
   A61B17/70B1E: . . . . . . . Longitudinal elements with a non-circular, e.g. rectangular, cross-section A61B17/70B1C2, A61B17/70B1C4 take precedence
   A61B17/70B1G: . . . . . . . Longitudinal element being non-straight, e.g. curved, angled or branched adjustable length longitudinal elements A61B17/70B1L; A61B17/70B1R takes precedence, e.g. coil springs
   A61B17/70B1G2: . . . . . . . . the shape of the element being adjustable before use adjustable length plates A61B17/70B1L [WARNING: incomplete, see A61B17/70B1 and A61B17/70B1G ]
   A61B17/70B1L: . . . . . . . with means for adjusting the distance between two screws or hooks
   A61B17/70B1L4: . . . . . . . . electric or electromagnetic means
   A61B17/70B1L6: . . . . . . . . pneumatic or hydraulic means
   A61B17/70B1R: . . . . . . . Longitudinal elements which have flexible parts, or are connected together such that in use they can move relative to each other
   A61B17/70B1R10: . . . . . . . . [N: with a part that is flexible due to its form]
   A61B17/70B1R10B: . . . . . . . . . [N: the flexible part being a coil spring]
   A61B17/70B1R10D: . . . . . . . . . [N: the entire longitudinal element being flexible]
   A61B17/70B1R12: . . . . . . . . [N: made wholly or partly of flexible material]
   A61B17/70B1R2: . . . . . . . . having a core or insert, and a sleeve, whereby a screw or hook can move along the core or in the sleeve
   A61B17/70B1R4: . . . . . . . . [N: Tethers, i.e. longitudinal elements capable of transmitting tension only, e.g. cables, sutures]
   A61B17/70B1R6: . . . . . . . . [N: with a pivot joint]
   A61B17/70B1R8: . . . . . . . . [N: with a sliding joint]
   A61B17/70B2: . . . . . . Screws or hooks with U-shaped head or back through which longitudinal rods pass
   A61B17/70B2L: . . . . . . . characterised by a lateral opening
   A61B17/70B5: . . . . . . Screws or hooks, wherein a rod-clamping part and a bone-anchoring part can pivot relative to each other
   A61B17/70B5B: . . . . . . . wherein pivoting is blocked when the rod is clamped
   A61B17/70B5D: . . . . . . . to a different extent in different directions, e.g. within one plane only
   A61B17/70B5F: . . . . . . . the longitudinal element passing through a ball-joint in the screw head
   A61B17/70B6: . . . . . . with single longitudinal rod offset laterally from single row of screws or hooks A61B17/70B8 takes precedence
   A61B17/70B7: . . . . . . with a longitudinal element fixed to one or more transverse elements which connect multiple screws or hooks
   A61B17/70B8: . . . . . . also having plates, staples or washers bearing on the vertebrae
   A61B17/70C: . . . . . Clamps comprising opposed elements which grasp one vertebra between them
   A61B17/70D: . . . . . Connectors, not bearing on the vertebrae, for rigidly linking longitudinal elements together A61B17/70G, A61B17/70E, A61B17/70B1R take precedence
   A61B17/70D2: . . . . . . for linking adjacent ends of longitudinal elements
   A61B17/70D4: . . . . . . of variable length
   A61B17/70E: . . . . . attached by wires, straps, sutures or cables
   A61B17/70G: . . . . . connected to sacrum, pelvis or skull
   A61B17/70H: . . . . . Hooks with specially-designed bone-contacting part
   A61B17/70J: . . . . . Plates mounted on top of bone anchor heads or shoulders
   A61B17/70K: . . . . . Cortical plates
   A61B17/70L: . . . . . for stabilising vertebrae or discs by improving the condition of their tissues, e.g. using implanted medication or fluid exchange intraosseous injection devices A61B17/34L
   A61B17/70P: . . . . . Devices acting on, attached to, or simulating the effect of, vertebral processes, vertebral facets or ribs rib fixation devices A61B17/80H6; Tools for such devices
   A61B17/70P10: . . . . . . Devices acting on, or attached to, a transverse process or rib; Tools therefor
   A61B17/70P2: . . . . . . Devices acting on, attached to, or simulating the effect of, vertebral facets; Tools therefor
   A61B17/70P4: . . . . . . Devices with changeable shape, e.g. collapsible or having retractable arms to aid implantation; Tools therefor
   A61B17/70P6: . . . . . . Devices bearing against one or more spinous processes and also attached to another part of the spine; Tools therefor
   A61B17/70P8: . . . . . . Devices comprising separate rigid parts, assembled in situ, to bear on each side of spinous processes; Tools therefor
   A61B17/70Q: . . . . . for expanding or repairing the vertebral arch or wedged between laminae or pedicles
   A61B17/70T: . . . . . Tools specially adapted for spinal fixation operations other than for bone removal or filler handling A61B17/70P, A61B17/80J, A61B17/88C2D take precedence; for spinal image producing devices A61B19/00N; markers A61B19/00R
   A61B17/70T10: . . . . . . for applying, tightening or removing longitudinal element-to-bone anchor locking elements, e.g. caps, set screws, nuts or wedges
   A61B17/70T2: . . . . . . for driving, positioning or assembling spinal clamps or bone anchors specially adapted for spinal fixation
   A61B17/70T21: . . . . . . for checking pedicle hole has correct depth or has an intact wall pedicle drill depth limiters A61B17/16D8
   A61B17/70T2B: . . . . . . . for moving bone anchors attached to vertebrae, thereby displacing the vertebrae
   A61B17/70T2B2: . . . . . . . . Tools requiring anchors to be already mounted on an implanted longitudinal or transverse element, e.g. where said element guides the anchor motion
   A61B17/70T2B5: . . . . . . . . with tubular extensions coaxially mounted on the bone anchors
   A61B17/70T2D: . . . . . . . for driving, i.e. rotating, screws or screw parts specially adapted for spinal fixation, e.g. for driving polyaxial or tulip-headed screws driving other bone screws A61B17/88S
   A61B17/70T4: . . . . . . Tools for guidance or insertion of tethers, rod-to-anchor connectors, rod-to-rod connectors, or longitudinal elements
   A61B17/70T4C: . . . . . . . for insertion of a longitudinal element down one or more hollow screw or hook extensions, i.e. at least a part of the element within an extension has a component of movement parallel to the extension's axis
   A61B17/70T4E: . . . . . . . Rod reducers, i.e. devices providing a mechanical advantage to allow a user to force a rod into or onto an anchor head other than by means of a rod-to-bone anchor locking element; rod removers
   A61B17/70T4E2: . . . . . . . . [N wherein the rod is moved transverse to the axis of the bone anchor]
   A61B17/70T4G: . . . . . . . wherein insertion is along an arcuate path
   A61B17/70U: . . . . . Solid vertebral fillers; devices for inserting such fillers
   A61B17/70U2: . . . . . . the filler comprising unlinked macroscopic particles
   A61B17/70V: . . . . . Stabilisers comprising fluid filler in an implant, e.g. balloon; devices for inserting or filling such implants disc prostheses made of inflatable chambers or pockets filled with fluid A61F2/44B; replacing the nucleus pulposus K61F2/44D6
   A61B17/70V2: . . . . . . wherein the implant is permeable or has openings, e.g. fenestrated screw hollow surgical screws A61B17/86D
   A61B17/72: . . . . Intramedullary pins, nails or other devices A61B17/74D2 takes precedence
   A61B17/72B: . . . . . Flexible pins, e.g. ENDER pins
   A61B17/72C: . . . . . for bone lengthening or compression A61B17/72E6 takes precedence
   A61B17/72C2: . . . . . . for bone compression
   A61B17/72E: . . . . . with special means of locking the nail to the bone
   A61B17/72E2: . . . . . . the nail having separate elements through which screws pass
   A61B17/72E4: . . . . . . with locking pins or screws of special form
   A61B17/72E6: . . . . . . [N: with laterally expanding parts, e.g. for gripping the bone]
   A61B17/72E6B: . . . . . . . [N: with fingers moving radially outwardly]
   A61B17/72E6E: . . . . . . . [N: with expanding cylindrical parts]
   A61B17/72G: . . . . . with laterally expanding parts, e.g. for gripping the bone[N9509]
   A61B17/72H: . . . . . with special cross-section of the nail
   A61B17/72J: . . . . . [N: for small bones, e.g. in the foot, ankle, hand or wrist]
   A61B17/74: . . . . Devices for the head or neck or trochanter of the femur trochanteric devices connected to the proximal part of an endoprosthetic femoral shaft A61F2/30B7; endoprosthetic internal fixation devices for the head or neck of the femur A61F2/36A
   A61B17/74B: . . . . . with means for changing the angle between the screw or pin and the shaft of the femur[N9509]
   A61B17/74D: . . . . . [N: having one or more longitudinal elements oriented along or parallel to the axis of the neck]
   A61B17/74D2: . . . . . . [N: the longitudinal elements coupled to an intramedullary nail]
   A61B17/74D4: . . . . . . [N: the longitudinal elements coupled to a plate opposite the femoral head]
   A61B17/74D6: . . . . . . [N: with means for adapting the angle between the longitudinal elements and the shaft axis of the femur]
   A61B17/78: . . . . . fixed by
   A61B17/80: . . . . Cortical plates i.e. bone plates; Instruments for holding or positioning cortical plates, or for compressing bone attached to them A61B17/70 takes precedence
   A61B17/80A: . . . . . with means for extending or compressing the bone or bones
   A61B17/80A1: . . . . . . the plate having a ratchet
   A61B17/80A2: . . . . . . the extension or compression force being caused by interaction of the plate hole and the screws
   A61B17/80A5: . . . . . . where the means are a separate tool rather than being part of the plate
   A61B17/80B: . . . . . Variable length plates
   A61B17/80C: . . . . . Cushions, i.e. elements forming interface between bone plate and bone
   A61B17/80D: . . . . . having indirect contact with screw heads, or having contact with screw heads maintained with the aid of additional components, e.g. nuts, wedges or head covers
   A61B17/80D2: . . . . . . the additional component being inserted in the screw head
   A61B17/80D4: . . . . . . the additional component being a cover over the screw head
   A61B17/80D6: . . . . . . wherein the additional element surrounds the screw head in the plate hole
   A61B17/80F: . . . . . immobilised relative to screws by interlocking form of the heads and plate holes, e.g. conical or threaded
   A61B17/80F2: . . . . . . the interlocking form comprising a thread
   A61B17/80H: . . . . . specially adapted for particular bones A61B17/70 and A61B17/74 take precedence
   A61B17/80H2: . . . . . . for pelvic reconstruction
   A61B17/80H4: . . . . . . for the jaw prostheses for mandibular reconstruction A61F2/28B
   A61B17/80H6: . . . . . . for the ribs or the sternum
   A61B17/80J: . . . . . Instruments for holding or positioning bone plates, or for adjusting screw-to-plate locking mechanisms
   A61B17/80P: . . . . . with pliable or malleable elements or having a mesh-like structure, e.g. small strips for craniofacial surgery A61B17/80H4, A61B17/80H6 take precedence; connecting prostheses with the body A61F2/00
   A61B17/80S: . . . . . with bone-penetrating elements, e.g. blade or prong for osteotomy bone staples A61B17/064B
   A61B17/80W: . . . . . Osteotomy wedges [WARNING: incomplete see A61B17/80S ]
   A61B17/82: . . . . for bone cerclage [N: (apparatus for manipulating wires or straps A61B17/88D; wires, bands or straps other than cerclage A61B17/84B)]
   A61B17/82K: . . . . . for the sternum
   A61B17/82N: . . . . . Nets or webs
   A61B17/84: . . . . Fasteners therefor or fasteners being internal fixation devices
   A61B17/84B: . . . . . Flexible wires, bands or straps A61B17/72, A61B17/82, A61B17/86 take precedence
   A61B17/84E: . . . . . [N: with expandable anchors or anchors having movable parts]
   A61B17/84N: . . . . . [N: Nails or pins, i.e. anchors without movable parts, holding by friction only, with or without structured surface (A61B17/72, A61B17/86 take precedence)]
   A61B17/84N2: . . . . . . [N: Kirschner wires, i.e. thin, long nails]
   A61B17/86: . . . . . Threaded wires , pins or screws; Nuts therefor A61B17/72, A61B17/74, A61F2/44F take precedence
   A61B17/86A: . . . . . . Heads, i.e. proximal ends projecting from bone
   A61B17/86A2: . . . . . . . specially shaped for gripping driver
   A61B17/86A2C: . . . . . . . . [N: at the central region of the screw head]
   A61B17/86A2P: . . . . . . . . [N: at the periphery of the screw head]
   A61B17/86B: . . . . . . Shanks, i.e. parts contacting bone tissue screw-in dental implants A61C8/00F
   A61B17/86B2: . . . . . . . with thread interrupted or changing its form along shank, other than constant taper
   A61B17/86B4: . . . . . . . Tips of screws
   A61B17/86D: . . . . . . hollow, e.g. with socket or cannulated
   A61B17/86G: . . . . . . Headless screws, e.g. ligament interference screws
   A61B17/86H: . . . . . . Packages or dispensers for bone screws or threaded wires
   A61B17/86M: . . . . . . Material or manufacture
   A61B17/86N: . . . . . . Nuts
   A61B17/86P: . . . . . . comprising multiple separate parts
   A61B17/86T: . . . . . . characterised by an open form, e.g. wire helix
   A61B17/86W: . . . . . . Washers surrounding screw head in plate hole A61B17/80D6, between bone plate and bone A61B17/80C
   A61B17/88: . . . Osteosynthesis instruments; Methods or means for implanting or extracting internal or external fixation devices
   A61B17/88A: . . . . Equipment for handling bone cement or other fluid fillers plugs or restrictors for bone cement A61F2/30B1
   A61B17/88A2: . . . . . for introducing fluid filler into bone or extracting it A61B17/70V, A61B17/88A4 take precedence; for introducing bone graft A61F2/46A
   A61B17/88A22: . . . . . for removing cement from a bone cavity (using surgical bone chisels, drills, mills, rasps, reamers or scrapers A61B17/16; using laser A61B18/20; using ultrasonic surgical instruments A61N7/00
   A61B17/88A2A: . . . . . . with sealing collar for bone cavity
   A61B17/88A2C: . . . . . . characterised by the introducer tip, i.e. the part inserted into or onto the bone
   A61B17/88A2E: . . . . . . characterised by the conduit, e.g. tube, along which fluid flows into the body or by conduit connections
   A61B17/88A2G: . . . . . . characterised by the introducer proximal part, e.g. cannula handle, or by parts which are inserted inside each other, e.g. stylet and cannula A61B17/88A2J takes precedence
   A61B17/88A2H: . . . . . . characterised by means facilitating expulsion of fluid from the introducer, e.g. a screw pump plunger, hydraulic force transmissions, application of vibrations or a vacuum
   A61B17/88A2J: . . . . . . characterised by syringe details A61B17/88A2H, A61B17/88A2V take precedence
   A61B17/88A2L: . . . . . .  via a bone anchor e.g. a screw [N1109]
   A61B17/88A2V: . . . . . . with filtering, degassing, venting or pressure relief means
   A61B17/88A4: . . . . . Tools for preparing, e.g. curing, cement or other fluid fillers (B01F takes precedence); Means for supplying cement or other fluid fillers to an introducing tool, e.g. cartridge handling means
   A61B17/88A4C: . . . . . . for heating, cooling or curing the filler
   A61B17/88A4M: . . . . . . [for mixing, with or without means for supplying the mixed filler to an injecting tool]
   A61B17/88A6: . . . . . the tool being specially adapted to engage a prosthesis
   A61B17/88C: . . . . Tools for expanding or compacting bones or discs or cavities therein A61B17/88A2, A61B17/70V take precedence
   A61B17/88C2: . . . . . capable of being assembled or enlarged, or changing shape, inside the bone or disc
   A61B17/88C2B: . . . . . . inflatable, e.g. kyphoplasty balloons
   A61B17/88C2D: . . . . . . laterally or radially expansible inflatable A61B17/88C2B
   A61B17/88D: . . . . Apparatus for manipulating flexible wires or straps
   A61B17/88F: . . . . Apparatus for shaping or cutting osteosynthetic equipment
   A61B17/88H: . . . . for gripping or pushing bones, e.g. approximators
   A61B17/88J: . . . .  Bone compactors[N0807]
   A61B17/88L: . . . . Tensioning devices
   A61B17/88N: . . . .  for injecting reinforcing materials into bone (prosthesis cement injection A61F2/46C2; graft material injection onto or between bones A61F2/46A; trocars for intraosseous injections A61B17/34L)[N0407][C0806]
   A61B17/88P: . . . . Instruments for putting said fixation devices against or away from the bone A61B17/70T, A61B17/80J take precedence
   A61B17/88R: . . . .  for expanding bones other than by injecting materials[N0806]
   A61B17/88S: . . . . Screwdrivers, spanners or wrenches
   A61B17/88S2: . . . . . [N: characterised by the cross-section of the driver bit]
   A61B17/88S2C: . . . . . . [N: the driver bit acting on the central region of the screw head]
   A61B17/88S2P: . . . . . . [N: the driver bit acting on the periphery of the screw head]
   A61B17/88S4: . . . . . [N: holding the screw head]
   A61B17/88S4C: . . . . . . [N: at its central region]
   A61B17/88S4P: . . . . . . [N: at its periphery]
   A61B17/88S6: . . . . . [N: holding the implant into or through which the screw is to be inserted (A61B17/70T2D, A61B17/70T10 take precedence)]
   A61B17/88T: . . . . Guide wires or guide pins
   A61B17/92: . . . . Impactors or extractors, e.g. for removing intramedullary devices insertion or extraction of artificial joints A61F2/46B
   A61B17/92B: . . . . . for intramedullary devices
   A61B18/00: Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body
   A61B18/00B: using additional gas becoming plasma[N9702]
   A61B18/00D: Smoke evacuation systems[N9702]
   A61B18/02: by cooling, e.g. cryogenic techniques
   A61B18/02B: . . ultrasonic, e.g. for destroying tissue or enhancing freezing
   A61B18/02D: . . with open-end cryogenic probe, e.g. for spraying fluid directly on tissue or via a tissue-contacting porous tip
   A61B18/04: by heating
   A61B18/04B: . . [N: using additional gas becoming plasma]
   A61B18/06: . . caused by chemical reaction, e.g. moxaburners
   A61B18/08: . . by means of electrically-heated probes
   A61B18/08B: . . . Probes or electrodes therefor
   A61B18/08B2: . . . . with a closed loop[N9702]
   A61B18/08B4: . . . . Forceps, scissors
   A61B18/10: . . . Power sources therefor
   A61B18/12: . . by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current
   A61B18/12G: . . . Generators therefor
   A61B18/12G2: . . . . having an open-loop configuration[N9702]
   A61B18/12G4: . . . . the tissue impedance being the main controlling parameter[N9702]
   A61B18/12G6: . . . . with circuits for assuring patient safety
   A61B18/14: . . . Probes or electrodes therefor
   A61B18/14B: . . . . Probes for open surgery
   A61B18/14C: . . . . Connectors therefor[N9702]
   A61B18/14D: . . . . having a loop-like mechanical structure[N9702]
   A61B18/14F: . . . . Probes having pivoting end effectors, e.g. forceps
   A61B18/14F2: . . . . . at the distal end of a shaft, e.g. forceps or scissors at the end of a rigid rod
   A61B18/14F2V: . . . . . . wherein sliding surfaces cause opening/closing of the end effectors
   A61B18/14H: . . . .  for treatment of the skin[N9911][C1004]
   A61B18/14H6: . . . . .  for removal of hair by destruction of hair follicles in the skin[N1004]
   A61B18/14N: . . . . Needle-like probes
   A61B18/14P: . . . . having a short, rigid shaft for accessing the inner body transcutaneously, e.g. for neurosurgery or arthroscopy
   A61B18/14R: . . . . having a long rigid shaft for accessing the inner body transcutaneously in minimal invasive surgery, e.g. laparoscopy
   A61B18/14S: . . . . having a short rigid shaft for accessing the inner body through natural openings
   A61B18/14T: . . . . Trocar-like, i.e. devices producing an enlarged transcutaneous opening
   A61B18/14U: . . . . bow shaped or with rotatable body at cantilever end, e.g. for resectoscopes, or coagulating rollers
   A61B18/14V: . . . . having a flexible, catheter-like structure, e.g. for heart ablation A61B18/14N takes precedence
   A61B18/14V2: . . . . . the distal end, after deployment, having an essentially cylindrical form without lateral protrusions or abutments (A61B18/14V4 takes precedence)[N9909][C0001]
   A61B18/14V4: . . . . . the distal end being expandable, e.g. in form of a basket or balloon[N9909]
   A61B18/16: . . . . Indifferent or passive electrodes for grounding
   A61B18/18: by applying electromagnetic radiation, e.g. microwaves
   A61B18/18M: . . using microwaves
   A61B18/20: . . using laser
   A61B18/20B: . . . the beam being delivered through a hollow tube, e.g. forming an articulated arm through a flexible conduit A61B18/22; Hand-pieces therefor
   A61B18/20D: . . . Automatic control, e.g. safety systems using feedback, computer-controlled positioning or irradiating[N9702]
   A61B18/20H: . . . applying laser energy to the outside of the body
   A61B18/22: . . . the beam being directed along or through a flexible conduit, e.g. an optical fibre; Couplings , hand-pieces therefor
   A61B18/24: . . . . with a catheter
   A61B18/24B: . . . . . for removing obstructions in blood vessels or calculi
   A61B18/26: . . . . for producing a shock wave, e.g. laser lithotripsy
   A61B18/28: . . . . for heating a thermal probe or absorber
   A61B19/00: Instruments, implements or accessories for surgery or diagnosis not covered by any of the groups A61B1/00 to A61B17/00 , e.g. for stereotaxis, sterile operation, luxation treatment, wound edge protectors
   A61B19/00A: Identification means for patients or instruments, e.g. identification tags[C0111]
   A61B19/00B: for stereotaxic surgery (using radio-opaque markers A61B19/00R)
   A61B19/00B2: . . with needle or instrument guides, e.g. arcuate slides, ball joints (needle guiding or locating means A61B17/34D)[N9410]
   A61B19/00B4: . . Fixators for body parts, e.g. head fixators, skull clamps or bite blocks (tables with compression means for mammography A61B6/04D2; tables with patient immobilising means for radiation diagnosis A61B6/04F); Constructional details thereof, e.g. fixating pins (bone screws or pins A61B17/86)[N9410][C9807]
   A61B19/00C: Cleaning devices specially adapted for surgical instruments (disinfecting A61L2/00; cleaning in general B08B)
   A61B19/00D: Apparatus for sterile operations, e.g. apparatus fixed to patient for providing an aseptic surgical environment
   A61B19/00E: Computer-aided planning, simulation or modeling of a surgical operation[C0906]
   A61B19/00F: Splash shields for protection of the surgeon, e.g. splash guards connected to the apparatus (A41D13/00F takes precedence)[C0002]
   A61B19/00G: Measuring instruments not otherwise provided for
   A61B19/00H: Supports as part of surgical instruments, e.g. articulated arms, headbands (A61B19/00M takes precedence; holders for articles A61B19/02H)[C9412]
   A61B19/00J: Supports for surgeons, e.g. chairs, hand supports (seats for the dentist or surgeon associated with dental or operating chairs A61G15/00)
   A61B19/00K: Implements for cleaning or washing surgeon`s hands or patient`s skin (hand-held absorbent pads or swabs containing a cleaning liquid, e.g. in a rupturable reservoir, A61M35/00B2)
   A61B19/00M: Manipulators specially adapted for use in surgery[C0906]
   A61B19/00M2: . .  Surgical robots[N0903]
   A61B19/00N: Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for, e.g. operation microscopes; Operation lamp handles
   A61B19/00N10: . . Devices for correlating different surgical images or relating image positions to body positions
   A61B19/00N2: . .  Devices for illuminating a surgical field[N0903]
   A61B19/00N3: . .  Image-producing devices, e.g. surgical cameras (A61B19/00N4, A61B19/00N6 take precedence)[N0903]
   A61B19/00N4: . .  Surgical microscopes[N0903]
   A61B19/00N6: . .  Surgical systems with images on a monitor during operation[N0903]
   A61B19/00N6T: . . .  Systems for tracking the position of an instrument during image guided surgery, e.g. surgical navigation systems[N0903]
   A61B19/00P: Protection of tissue around surgical sites against effects of non-mechanical surgery, e.g. laser surgery (protection of eyes against laser radiation A61F9/02F)[C9602]
   A61B19/00R: Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers (mechanical markers for eye-keratomy A61F9/013M; markers in surgical tampons or sponges A61F13/44; markers on catheters A61M25/01C1)[C0202]
   A61B19/00T: Devices for expanding tissue, e.g. skin tissue (implements for holding wounds open, surgical tractors A61B17/02; implantable mammary prosthesis A61F2/12; dilators A61M29/00)
   A61B19/00U: User interfaces for surgical systems[N0903]
   A61B19/02: Protective casings or covers for appliances or instruments, e.g. boxes or sterile covers; Instrument tables or cupboards; Doctors` bags cleaning devices for surgical instruments A61B19/00C; instrument-protective drapes A61B19/08B; for sterilising articles A61L2/00; for cleaning for sterilising hypodermic or infusion needles or syringes A61M5/00C; for preservation of living parts of the human or animal body A01N1/02
   A61B19/02F: . . Furniture specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis, e.g. cabinets, carts, cupboards or tables supports for surgeons A61B19/00J; medicine cabinets A47B67/00; accommodation for nursing A61G12/00
   A61B19/02H: . . Holders for articles, e.g. magnetic holders, racks, stands holders for suture needles or materials A61B17/06H; supports as part of surgical instruments A61B19/00H; drapes with means to hold surgical instruments A61B19/10; hangers for particular articles A47F7/00; for tooth drills A61C3/04; for receptacles and tubing attached to beds A61G7/05H; for pharmaceutical containers A61J1/16; for irrigation devices A61M3/02E; racks for syringes or for hypodermic or infusion needles A61M5/00S; for infusion devices A61M5/14R; for catheters A61M25/02; holding devices for laboratory apparatus B01L9/00; racks for work tools B25H3/04
   A61B19/02P: . . Casings for packaging, protecting or dispensing articles for endoscopes A61B1/00J; for test samples A61B10/00S; for sutures A61B17/06P; for ligaturing clips A61B17/122C; for gloves or finger-stalls A61B19/04P; for dental floss A61C15/04C; for dental instruments A61C19/02; for prostheses A61F2/00P; for contraceptive devices A61F6/00P; for bandages or the like A61F15/00B; for pharmaceutical products A61J1/00; for catheters A61M25/00P; in general B65D, e.g. with dispensing means B65D83/00; for ampoules B65D85/42; for clinical thermometers G01K1/08B; for optical fibres G02B6/44C8A; for X-ray films G03C3/00D
   A61B19/02P2: . . . for sharps for suture needles A61B17/06P; for scalpel-blades A61B17/3215; for wound clamps A61B17/10P; for used sharps A61B19/02R2; for syringes or for hypodermic or infusion needles A61M5/00P, A61M5/162B, A61M5/32B
   A61B19/02P4: . . . Carrying bags, cases, trusses bags for midwives A61B17/48; bags in general A45C; first-aid kits A61F17/00
   A61B19/02P4D: . . . . Doctors` or nurses` bags
   A61B19/02P6: . . . Trays serving trays A47G23/06
   A61B19/02R: . . Casings for removing or collecting used articles for sutures A61B17/06R; accessories for operating tables, e.g. for collecting body wastes A61G13/10; combustible sputum cups A61J19/06; sterilising refuse A61L11/00; for destroying hypodermic or infusion needles or syringes A61M5/32C4; disposal of medical waste by destroying it or transforming it into something useful or harmless B09B3/00M; for domestic refuse or the like B65F
   A61B19/02R2: . . . for sharps for suture needles A61B17/06R; for scalpel-blades A61B17/3217; for syringes or for hypodermic or infusion needles A61M5/32C
   A61B19/02R8: . . . for absorbent articles, e.g. bandages, cotton balls, covers, drapes, dressings, garments, gauze, gowns, napkins, sponges, swabs or towels devices for determining blood loss A61B5/14D
   A61B19/04: Operating gloves; Finger-stalls for operating; Devices for treating them, e.g. cleaning, powdering
   A61B19/04D: . . Devices for detecting perforations in surgical gloves or finger-stalls
   A61B19/04P: . . Packages or dispensers for gloves or finger-stalls
   A61B19/08: Surgical drapes
   A61B19/08B: . . for protection of instruments, e.g. microscopes for part of endoscope entering the body A61B1/00J
   A61B19/08G: . . for surgery through the lower body openings, e.g. urology, gynaecology
   A61B19/08L: . . Drape material, e.g. laminates; Manufacture thereof
   A61B19/10: . . with means to retain or hold surgical implements holders for articles A61B19/02H
   A61B19/12: . . tubular, e.g. for arms or legs A61B19/08G takes precedence
   A61B19/20: [N: for stereotaxic surgery (using radio-opaque markers A61B19/54)]
   A61B19/20B: . . [N: with needle or instrument guides, e.g. arcuate slides, ball joints (needle guiding or locating means A61B17/34D)]
   A61B19/20D: . . [N: Fixators for body parts, e.g. head fixators, skull clamps or bite blocks (tables with compression means for mammography A61B6/04D2; tables with patient immobilising means for radiation diagnosis A61B6/04F); Constructional details thereof, e.g. fixating pins (bone screws or pins A61B17/86)]
   A61B19/22: [N: Manipulators specially adapted for use in surgery]
   A61B19/22B: . . [N: Surgical robots]
   A61B19/24: [N: Devices for expanding tissue, e.g. skin tissue (implements for holding wounds open, surgical tractors A61B17/02; implantable mammary prosthesis A61F2/12; dilators A61M29/00)]
   A61B19/26: [N: Supports as part of surgical instruments, e.g. articulated arms, headbands (A61B19/22 takes precedence; holders for articles A61B19/02H)]
   A61B19/28: [N: Supports for surgeons, e.g. chairs, hand supports (seats for the dentist or surgeon associated with dental or operating chairs A61G15/00)]
   A61B19/30: [N: Automatic limiting or abutting means, e.g. for safety
   A61B19/34: [N: Cleaning devices specially adapted for surgical instruments (disinfecting A61L2/00; cleaning in general B08B)]
   A61B19/36: [N: Implements for cleaning or washing surgeon`s hands or patient`s skin (hand-held absorbent pads or swabs containing a cleaning liquid, e.g. in a rupturable reservoir, A61M35/00B2)]
   A61B19/38: [N: Apparatus for sterile operations, e.g. apparatus fixed to patient for providing an aseptic surgical environment]
   A61B19/40: [N: Protection of tissue around surgical sites against effects of non-mechanical surgery, e.g. laser surgery (protection of eyes against laser radiation A61F9/02F)]
   A61B19/42: [N: Splash shields for protection of the surgeon, e.g. splash guards connected to the apparatus (A41D13/00F takes precedence)]
   A61B19/44: [N: Identification means for patients or instruments, e.g. identification tags]
   A61B19/46: [N: Measuring instruments not otherwise provided for (for implanting artificial joints A61F2/46M)]
   A61B19/50: [N: Computer-aided planning, simulation or modeling of a surgical operation]
   A61B19/52: [N: Image-producing devices or illumination devices not otherwise provided for, e.g. operation microscopes; Operation lamp handles]
   A61B19/52B: . . [N: Devices for illuminating a surgical field]
   A61B19/52D: . . [N: Image-producing devices, e.g. surgical cameras (A61B19/52F, A61B19/52H take precedence)]
   A61B19/52F: . . [N: Surgical microscopes]
   A61B19/52H: . . [N: Surgical systems with images on a monitor during operation]
   A61B19/52H12: . . . [N: Systems for tracking the position of an instrument during image guided surgery, e.g. surgical navigation systems]
   A61B19/54: [N: Markers, e.g. radio-opaque or breast lesions markers (mechanical markers for eye-keratomy A61F9/013M; markers in surgical tampons or sponges A61F13/44; markers on catheters A61M25/01C1)]
   A61B19/56: [N: User interfaces for surgical systems]