Browse classification

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T:
 T04:
  T04L: INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO TRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION
   T04L1/00: Arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received
   T04L1/00A: Systems modifying transmission characteristics according to link quality, e.g. power backoff
   T04L1/00A1: . . by adapting the transmission rate
   T04L1/00A13: . . arrangements specific to the transmitter
   T04L1/00A13B: . . . where the transmitter decides based on inferences
   T04L1/00A13D: . . . evaluation of received explicit signalling
   T04L1/00A15: . . arrangements specific to the receiver
   T04L1/00A15B: . . . Blind format detection
   T04L1/00A15D: . . . other detection of signalling
   T04L1/00A1M: . . . by switching between different modulation schemes
   T04L1/00A1M1: . . . . applied to control information
   T04L1/00A1M3: . . . . applied to payload information
   T04L1/00A3: . . by adapting the transmission format
   T04L1/00A3L: . . . by modifying the frame length
   T04L1/00A3L1: . . . . by supplementing frame payload, e.g. with padding bits
   T04L1/00A5: . . by adapting the channel coding
   T04L1/00A5C: . . . applied to control information
   T04L1/00A5D: . . . applied to payload information
   T04L1/00A5R: . . . Rate matching
   T04L1/00A7: . . by adapting the source coding
   T04L1/00A8: . . characterised by the adaptation strategy
   T04L1/00A8L: . . . involving special memory structures
   T04L1/00A8Q: . . . where the mode-switching is based on Quality of Service requirement
   T04L1/00A8Q1: . . . . based on latency requirement
   T04L1/00A8S: . . . in which mode-switching is based on a statistical approach
   T04L1/00A8S1: . . . . Algorithms with memory of the previous states
   T04L1/00A8S5: . . . . in which the algorithm uses adaptive thresholds
   T04L1/00A8U: . . . in which mode-switching is influenced by the user
   T04L1/00A9: . . characterised by the signalling
   T04L1/00A9A: . . . Transmission of mode-switching indication
   T04L1/00A9B: . . . Transmission of channel quality indication
   T04L1/00A9C: . . . Scheduling of signalling
   T04L1/00A9F: . . . Formatting
   T04L1/00A9F1: . . . . Reduction of the amount of signaling, e.g. retention of useful signaling or differential signaling
   T04L1/00A9F5: . . . . Adaptive formatting arrangements particular to signalling
   T04L1/00A9F7: . . . . Multiple signaling transmission
   T04L1/00A9N: . . . Without explicit signalling
   T04L1/00B: by using forward error control
   T04L1/00B11: . . Transmission of coding parameters to receiver
   T04L1/00B13: . . Distributed coding, e.g. network coding, involving channel coding
   T04L1/00B13N: . . . Cooperative coding
   T04L1/00B3: . . Arrangements at the transmitter end
   T04L1/00B3E: . . . Encoding specially adapted to other signal generation operation, e.g. in order to reduce transmit distortions, jitter, or to improve signal shape
   T04L1/00B3H: . . . Realisations of complexity reduction techniques, e.g. use of look-up tables
   T04L1/00B3H1: . . . . specially adapted for power saving
   T04L1/00B5: . . Arrangements at the receiver end
   T04L1/00B5B: . . . Code rate detection or code type detection
   T04L1/00B5E: . . . Decoding adapted to other signal detection operation
   T04L1/00B5E3: . . . . in conjunction with detection of multiuser or interfering signals, e.g. iteration between CDMA or MIMO detector and FEC decoder
   T04L1/00B5E5: . . . . Iterative decoding, including iteration between signal detection and decoding operation
   T04L1/00B5E5S: . . . . . Stopping criteria
   T04L1/00B5H: . . . Details of hardware realizations of complexity reduction techniques, e.g. pipelining or use of lookup-tables
   T04L1/00B5H1: . . . . specially adapted for power saving
   T04L1/00B5L: . . . Maximum-likelihood or sequential decoding, e.g. Viterbi, Fano, ZJ algorithms
   T04L1/00B5M: . . . MAP-decoding
   T04L1/00B7: . . Systems characterised by the type of error-control code used
   T04L1/00B7B: . . . Block codes
   T04L1/00B7B1: . . . . Block-coded modulation
   T04L1/00B7C: . . . Convolutional codes
   T04L1/00B7C1: . . . . Trellis-coded modulation
   T04L1/00B7E: . . . Error detection only
   T04L1/00B7E1: . . . . Single parity check
   T04L1/00B7K: . . . Concatenated codes
   T04L1/00B7K1: . . . . Serial concatenation
   T04L1/00B7K3: . . . . Parallel concatenation, turbo codes
   T04L1/00B7P: . . . Punctured codes
   T04L1/00B7P1: . . . . Puncturing patterns
   T04L1/00B7R: . . . Rate matching
   T04L1/00B7R1: . . . . by puncturing
   T04L1/00B7R1P: . . . . . Puncturing patterns
   T04L1/00B7U: . . . Unequal error protection
   T04L1/00B7V: . . . Use of interleaving
   T04L1/00B8: . . Error control for data other than payload data, e.g. control data
   T04L1/00B8F: . . . Special arrangements for feedback channel
   T04L1/00B9: . . Systems including interleavers
   T04L1/00F: Avoidance of errors by organising the transmitted data in a format specifically designed to deal with errors
   T04L1/00F1: . . Formats for control data
   T04L1/00F1A: . . . where the control data relates to payload of a different packet
   T04L1/00F1C: . . . Formats specially adapted to avoid errors in the feedback channel
   T04L1/00F1E: . . . fields explicitly indicating existence of error in data being transmitted
   T04L1/00F2: . . Formatting with frames or packets; Protocol or part of protocol for error control
   T04L1/00F3: . . Formats for payload data
   T04L1/00F4: . . Formatting with cells
   T04L1/00F5: . . Unequal error protection
   T04L1/00F5C: . . . in control part
   T04L1/00F5P: . . . in payload
   T04L1/00F7: . . arrangements specific to transmitters
   T04L1/00F9: . . arrangements specific to receivers
   T04L1/00L: Error control systems characterized by the level of error control
   T04L1/00L1: . . Robust systems
   T04L1/00L3: . . Systems tolerating a certain degree of errors
   T04L1/00L5: . . Systems with unequal error protection
   T04L1/00T: Error control systems characterised by the topology of the transmission link
   T04L1/00T1: . . Point-to-multipoint
   T04L1/00T11: . . Relays
   T04L1/00T3: . . Bus
   T04L1/00T5: . . Ring
   T04L1/00T7: . . Channel splitting in point-to-point links
   T04L1/00U: Unequal error protection
   T04L1/02: by diversity reception
   T04L1/04: . . using frequency diversity
   T04L1/06: . . using space diversity
   T04L1/06F: . . . Space-frequency coding
   T04L1/06M: . . . Space-time modulation
   T04L1/06T: . . . Space-time coding
   T04L1/06T3: . . . . Transmitter arrangements
   T04L1/06T5: . . . . Receiver arrangements
   T04L1/06T7: . . . . Properties of the code
   T04L1/06T7B: . . . . . block codes
   T04L1/06T7C: . . . . . convolutional codes
   T04L1/06T7K: . . . . . Cyclotomic systems, e.g. Bell Labs Layered Space Time (BLAST)
   T04L1/06T7L: . . . . . Limited orthogonality systems
   T04L1/06T7T: . . . . . Orthogonal systems, e.g. using Alamouti codes
   T04L1/06T9: . . . . characterised by the signaling
   T04L1/06T9A: . . . . . adapting space time parameters, i.e. modifying the space time matrix
   T04L1/06T9F: . . . . . Full feedback
   T04L1/06T9P: . . . . . Partial feedback, e.g. partial channel state information (CSI)
   T04L1/08: by repeating transmission, e.g. Verdan system
   T04L1/12: by using a return channel
   T04L1/12E: . . Arrangements for preventing errors in the return channel
   T04L1/14: . . in which the signals are sent back to the transmitter to be checked echo systems
   T04L1/16: . . in which the return channel carries supervisory signals
   T04L1/16F: . . . Details of the supervisory signal
   T04L1/16F1: . . . . using bitmaps
   T04L1/16F11: . . . . Implicit acknowledgement of correct or incorrect reception, e.g. with a moving window
   T04L1/16F13: . . . . the supervisory signal being transmitted together with payload signals; piggybacking
   T04L1/16F15: . . . . the supervisory signal being transmitted together with control information
   T04L1/16F15T: . . . . . where the control information is for timing, e.g. time stamps
   T04L1/16F17: . . . . the supervisory signal being transmitted in response to a specific request, e.g. to a polling signal
   T04L1/16F19: . . . . Physical properties of the supervisory signal, e.g. acknowledgement by energy bursts
   T04L1/16F3: . . . . Group acknowledgement, i.e. the acknowledgement message defining a range of identifiers, e.g. of sequence numbers
   T04L1/16F5: . . . . List acknowledgements, i.e. the acknowledgement message consisting of a list of identifiers, e.g. of sequence numbers
   T04L1/16F7: . . . . Cumulative acknowledgement, i.e. the acknowledgement message applying to all previous messages
   T04L1/16F9: . . . . Formats specially adapted for sequence numbers
   T04L1/16F9W: . . . . . Variable formats
   T04L1/18: . . . ARQ protocols
   T04L1/18A: . . . . Stop-and-wait protocols
   T04L1/18B: . . . . Go-back-N protocols
   T04L1/18C: . . . . Selective-repeat protocols
   T04L1/18D: . . . . Hybrid protocols
   T04L1/18D1: . . . . . with retransmission of the same, encoded, message
   T04L1/18D2: . . . . . with retransmission of additional or different redundancy
   T04L1/18H: . . . . involving configuration of ARQ with parallel processes
   T04L1/18P: . . . . Adaptation of specific ARQ protocol parameters according to transmission conditions
   T04L1/18R: . . . . Arrangements specific to the receiver end
   T04L1/18R1: . . . . . Details of sliding window management
   T04L1/18R11: . . . . . Physical mapping arrangements
   T04L1/18R13: . . . . . ARQ related signaling
   T04L1/18R3: . . . . . Buffer management
   T04L1/18R3A: . . . . . . for semi-reliable protocols, e.g. for less sensitive applications such as streaming video
   T04L1/18R3B: . . . . . . Resequencing
   T04L1/18R3C: . . . . . . Combining techniques, e.g. code combining
   T04L1/18R5: . . . . . Time-out mechanisms
   T04L1/18R5M: . . . . . . using multiple timers
   T04L1/18R7: . . . . . Scheduling and prioritising arrangements
   T04L1/18R9: . . . . . Transmission or retransmission of more than one copy of acknowledgement message
   T04L1/18T: . . . . Arrangements specific to the transmitter end
   T04L1/18T1: . . . . . Details of sliding window management
   T04L1/18T11: . . . . . Physical mapping arrangements (physical resource mapping in general H04L5)
   T04L1/18T13: . . . . . ARQ related signaling
   T04L1/18T3: . . . . . Buffer management
   T04L1/18T3A: . . . . . . for semi-reliable protocols, e.g. for less sensitive applications like streaming video
   T04L1/18T5: . . . . . Time-out mechanisms
   T04L1/18T5M: . . . . . . using multiple timers
   T04L1/18T7: . . . . . Scheduling and prioritising arrangements
   T04L1/18T9: . . . . . Transmission or retransmission of more than one copy of a message
   T04L1/20: using signal quality detector
   T04L1/20C: . . Frame classification, e.g. bad, good or erased
   T04L1/20E: . . Details of error rate determination, e.g. BER, FER or WER
   T04L1/20J: . . jitter monitoring
   T04L1/20M: . . for modulated signals
   T04L1/20R: . . involving signal re-encoding
   T04L1/22: using redundant apparatus to increase reliability see G06F11/08 to G06F11/20
   T04L1/24: Testing correct operation
   T04L1/24B: . . using pseudo-errors
   T04L1/24C: . . by comparing a transmitted test signal with a locally generated replica
   T04L1/24C1: . . . at the transmitter, using a loop-back
   T04L1/24C2: . . . test sequence generators
   T04L1/24D: . . by using the properties of transmission codes
   T04L1/24D1: . . . two-level transmission codes, e.g. binary
   T04L1/24D2: . . . three-level transmission codes, e.g. ternary
   T04L1/24M: . . Distortion measuring systems
   T04L5/00: Arrangements affording multiple use of the transmission path
   T04L5/00A: Arrangements for dividing the transmission path
   T04L5/00A2: . . Two-dimensional division
   T04L5/00A2A: . . . Time-frequency
   T04L5/00A2A1: . . . . the frequencies being orthogonal e.g. OFDM(A), DMT)
   T04L5/00A2A11: . . . . . [N: the frequencies being arranged in component carriers ]
   T04L5/00A2A13: . . . . . [N: Hopping in multicarrier systems (for frequency hopping in spread spectrum systems H04B1/713)]
   T04L5/00A2A1W: . . . . . Wavelet-division
   T04L5/00A3: . . Three-dimensional division
   T04L5/00A3A: . . . Time-frequency-code
   T04L5/00A3A1: . . . . in which a distinct code is applied, as a temporal sequence, to each frequency
   T04L5/00A3A3: . . . . in which one code is applied, as a temporal sequence, to all frequencies
   T04L5/00A3A5: . . . . in which codes are applied as a frequency-domain sequences, e.g. MC-CDMA
   T04L5/00A3C: . . . Time-frequency-space
   T04L5/00A3C1: . . . . [N: Spatial division following the spatial signature of the channel]
   T04L5/00A4: . . Division using four or more dimensions
   T04L5/00A9: . . Variable division
   T04L5/00C: Arrangements for allocating sub-channels of the transmission path
   T04L5/00C1: . . Distributed allocation, i.e. involving a plurality of allocating devices, each making partial allocation
   T04L5/00C1A: . . . each allocating device acting autonomously, i.e. without negotiation with other allocating devices
   T04L5/00C1B: . . . [N: Resource allocation in a cooperative multipoint environment ]
   T04L5/00C2: . . Inter-user or inter-terminal allocation
   T04L5/00C2A: . . . Frequency-contiguous, i.e. with no allocation of frequencies for one user or terminal between the frequencies allocated to another
   T04L5/00C2B: . . . Frequency-non-contiguous
   T04L5/00C3: . . intra-user or intra-terminal allocation
   T04L5/00C4: . . allocation of payload
   T04L5/00C4A: . . . Determination of how many bits are transmitted on different sub-channels
   T04L5/00C5: . . Allocation of pilot signals, i.e. of signals known to the receiver
   T04L5/00C5A: . . . of common pilots, i.e. pilots destined for multiple users or terminals
   T04L5/00C5B: . . . of dedicated pilots, i.e. pilots destined for a single user or terminal
   T04L5/00C6: . . Allocation of signaling, i.e. of overhead other than pilot signals
   T04L5/00C6A: . . . [N: Physical resource allocation for ACK/NACK (for physical mapping arrangements in ARQ protocols H04L1/18R11) ]
   T04L5/00C6B: . . . [N: Physical resource allocation for CQI]
   T04L5/00C7: . . Allocation criteria
   T04L5/00C7A: . . . Quality of the received signal, e.g. BER, SNR, water filling
   T04L5/00C7B: . . . Avoidance of ingress interference, e.g. ham radio channels
   T04L5/00C7C: . . . Rate requirement of the data, e.g. scalable bandwidth, data priority
   T04L5/00C7D: . . . Requirements on out-of-channel emissions
   T04L5/00C7E: . . . [N: Allocation algorithms which involve graph matching]
   T04L5/00C7F: . . . [N: Allocation based on distance or geographical location (allocation based on terminal or device properties in general, H04W72/04S2)]
   T04L5/00C7G: . . . [N: Allocation based on fairness other than the proportional kind]
   T04L5/00C7H: . . . [N: Allocation arrangements that take into account other cell interferences (for intercell interference mitigation or co-ordination in orthogonal multiplex systems H04J11/00F2)]
   T04L5/00C7K: . . . [N: Allocation using proportional fairness]
   T04L5/00C7U: . . . [N: Allocation utility-based]
   T04L5/00C8: . . Timing of allocation
   T04L5/00C8A: . . . once only, on installation
   T04L5/00C8C: . . . at predetermined intervals
   T04L5/00C8C1: . . . . symbol-by-symbol
   T04L5/00C8E: . . . when channel conditions change
   T04L5/00C8G: . . . when data requirements change
   T04L5/00C8G1: . . . . due to addition or removal of users or terminals
   T04L5/00E: Signaling for the administration of the divided path
   T04L5/00E1: . . indication of how the channel is divided
   T04L5/00E2: . . indication of how sub-channels of the path are allocated
   T04L5/00E3: . . Indication of changes in allocation
   T04L5/00E3A: . . . [N: Signalling of the activation or deactivation of component carriers, subcarriers or frequency bands]
   T04L5/02: Channels characterised by the type of signal
   T04L5/02Q: . . Multiplexing of multicarrier modulation signals
   T04L5/02Q1: . . . using code division
   T04L5/04: . . the signals being represented by different amplitude or polarities, e.g. quadriplex
   T04L5/06: . . the signals being represented by different frequencies
   T04L5/08: . . . each combination of signals in different channels being represented by a fixed frequency e.g. twinplex; see H04L27/16
   T04L5/10: . . . with dynamo-electric generation of carriers; with mechanical filters or demodulators
   T04L5/12: . . the signals being represented by different phase modulations of a single carrier
   T04L5/14: Two-way operation using the same type of signal, i.e. duplex
   T04L5/14B: . . Artificial lines or their setting for line transmission systems in general H04B3/40
   T04L5/14C: . . using control lines
   T04L5/14D: . . for simultaneous baseband signals
   T04L5/14P: . . for modulated signals H04L5/14T takes precedence
   T04L5/14R: . . [N: Negotiation of transmission parameters prior to communication (modified according to link quality H04L1/00A)]
   T04L5/14R1: . . . of transmission speed
   T04L5/14R3: . . . of modulation type
   T04L5/14S: . . Suppression of signals in the return path, i.e. bidirectional control circuits
   T04L5/14T: . . using time-sharing
   T04L5/14T1: . . . operating bitwise
   T04L5/14T2: . . . operating bytewise
   T04L5/14T2B: . . . . with time compression, e.g. operating according to the ping-pong technique
   T04L5/16: . . Half-duplex systems; Simplex-duplex switching; Transmission of break signals non automatically inverting the direction of transmission
   T04L5/18: . . Automatic changing of the traffic direction
   T04L5/20: using different combinations of lines, e.g. phantom working phantom interconnection between telephone switching centres H04M7/08; coupling arrangements therefor H04L25/02K3
   T04L5/22: using time-division multiplexing in general H04J3/00
   T04L5/22T: . . combined with the use of transition coding transition coding H04L25/493
   T04L5/24: . . with start-stop synchronous converters
   T04L5/24B: . . . with a number of discharge tubes or semiconductor elements which successively connect the different channels to the transmission channels see: H04L13/00 to H04L23/00, H03K5/15, H03K17/62, H04J3/04D
   T04L5/26: . . combined with the use of different frequencies
   T04L7/00: Arrangements for synchronising receiver with transmitter
   T04L7/00A: Initialisation of the receiver
   T04L7/00B: Synchronisation information channels, e.g. clock distribution lines
   T04L7/00B2: . . by comparing receiver clock with transmitter clock
   T04L7/00C: correction of synchronization errors
   T04L7/00C1: . . correction by interpolation
   T04L7/00C1B: . . . interpolation of clock signal
   T04L7/00C1D: . . . interpolation of received data signal
   T04L7/00C2: . . Correction by delay
   T04L7/00C2A: . . . Delay of clock signal
   T04L7/00C2B: . . . Delay of data signal
   T04L7/00C3: . . Correction by a latch cascade
   T04L7/00C4: . . Correction by an elastic buffer
   T04L7/00D: Detection of the synchronisation error by features other than the received signal transition
   T04L7/00D1: . . detection of error based on equalizer tap values
   T04L7/00D2: . . detection of error based on data decision error, e.g. Mueller type detection
   T04L7/00D3: . . detection of error based on transmission code rule
   T04L7/00D4: . . detection of error based on maximum signal power, e.g. peak value, maximizing autocorrelation
   T04L7/00P: with photonic or optical means
   T04L7/00R: Receiver details
   T04L7/00R2: . . taking measures against momentary loss of synchronisation, e.g. inhibiting the synchronisation, using idle words or using redundant clocks
   T04L7/00R4: . . Preprocessing of received signal for synchronisation, e.g. by code conversion, pulse generation or edge detection
   T04L7/00T: Transmitter details
   T04L7/00Z: with mechanical means
   T04L7/02: Speed or phase control by the received code signals, the signals containing no special synchronisation information
   T04L7/027: . . extracting the synchronising or clock signal from the received signal spectrum, e.g. by using a resonant or bandpass circuit
   T04L7/027B: . . . with squaring loop
   T04L7/027C: . . . with Costas loop
   T04L7/027D: . . . Self-sustaining, e.g. by tuned delay line and a feedback path to a logical gate
   T04L7/027E: . . . Band edge detection
   T04L7/02V: . . Tracking other signal characteristics or values
   T04L7/02V1: . . . of equaliser output signal or tap values
   T04L7/02V2: . . . of decision values e.g. hard/soft
   T04L7/02V3: . . . of transmission code rule
   T04L7/033: . . using the transitions of the received signal to control the phase of the synchronising-signal-generating means, e.g. using a phase-locked loop
   T04L7/033B: . . . with a digital phase-locked loop (PLL) processing binary samples, e.g. add or subtract logic for correction of receiver clock
   T04L7/033C: . . . with an integrator- detector
   T04L7/033D: . . . Processing of samples having at least three levels, e.g. soft decisions
   T04L7/033D2: . . . . Gardner detector
   T04L7/033E: . . . Selecting between two or more discretely delayed clocks or selecting between two or more discretely delayed received code signals
   T04L7/033E2: . . . . the correction of the phase error being performed by a feed forward loop
   T04L7/04: Speed or phase control by synchronisation signals
   T04L7/04B: . . using special codes as synchronising signal
   T04L7/04B1: . . . Detectors therefor, e.g. correlators, state machines
   T04L7/04B10: . . . using a dotting sequence
   T04L7/04B12: . . . using a sine signal or unmodulated carrier
   T04L7/04B2: . . . Pseudo-noise (PN) codes variable during transmission
   T04L7/04B3: . . . using a single bit, e.g. start stop bit
   T04L7/04B7: . . . Fill bit or bits, idle words
   T04L7/04C: . . using the properties of error detecting or error correcting codes, e.g. parity as synchronisation signal
   T04L7/06: . . the synchronisation signals differing from the information signals in amplitude, polarity, frequency or length
   T04L7/06B: . . . and superimposed by modulation
   T04L7/08: . . the synchronisation signals reocurring cyclically
   T04L7/10: . . Arrangements for initial synchronisation
   T04L9/00: Arrangements for secret or secure communication
   T04L9/00C: using chaotic signals
   T04L9/00K: [N: Countermeasures against attacks on cryptographic mechanisms (network architectures or network communication protocols for protection against malicious traffic H04L63/14D)]
   T04L9/00K2: . . [N: for power analysis, e.g. differential power analysis [DPA] or simple power analysis [SPA]]
   T04L9/00K4: . . [N: for fault attacks]
   T04L9/00K6: . . [N: for timing attacks]
   T04L9/00M: involving public key infrastructure [PKI trust models ]
   T04L9/00M6: . . involving hierarchical structures
   T04L9/00P: involving homomorphic encryption
   T04L9/06: the encryption apparatus using shift registers or memories for block-wise or stream coding, e.g. DES systems; or RC4; Hash functions; Pseudorandom sequence generators
   T04L9/06B: . . including means for manipulating block length
   T04L9/06C: . . Countermeasures against differential power analysis
   T04L9/06D: . . [N: Block ciphers, i.e. encrypting groups of characters of a plain text message using fixed encryption transformation]
   T04L9/06D2: . . . [N: with splitting of the data block into left and right halves, e.g. Feistel based algorithms, DES, FEAL, IDEA or KASUMI]
   T04L9/06D4: . . . [N: Substitution permutation network [SPN], i.e. cipher composed of a number of stages or rounds each involving linear and nonlinear transformations, e.g. AES algorithms]
   T04L9/06D6: . . . [N: Modes of operation, e.g. cipher block chaining [CBC], electronic codebook [ECB] or Galois/counter mode [GCM]]
   T04L9/06F: . . [N: Hash functions, e.g. MD5, SHA, HMAC or f9 MAC]
   T04L9/06M: . . [N: Encryption by serially and continuously modifying data stream elements, e.g. stream cipher systems, RC4, SEAL or A5/3]
   T04L9/06M2: . . . [N: Pseudorandom key sequence combined element-for-element with data sequence, e.g. one-time-pad [OTP] or Vernam''s cipher]
   T04L9/06M2B: . . . . [N: with particular pseudorandom sequence generator]
   T04L9/06M2B2: . . . . . [N: producing a non-linear pseudorandom sequence]
   T04L9/06R: . . including means for processing multiple rounds
   T04L9/06R1: . . . specifically for Rijndael
   T04L9/06R3: . . . with splitting of the data block into left and right halves, e.g. Feistel structure
   T04L9/06V: . . including variable substitution, permutation, order or number of rounds, controlled by a key and/or the input data
   T04L9/08: Key distribution or management, e.g. generation, sharing or updating, of cryptographic keys or passwords network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting key management in a packet data network H04L63/06
   T04L9/08B: . . using a key distribution center, a trusted party or a key server
   T04L9/08B2: . . . involving a conference key or a group key
   T04L9/08C: . . using a control vector
   T04L9/08D: . . using Diffie-Hellman key agreement
   T04L9/08D2: . . . with user authentication or key authentication
   T04L9/08F: . . Key establishment, i.e. cryptographic processes or cryptographic protocols whereby a shared secret becomes available to two or more parties, for subsequent use
   T04L9/08F2: . . . [N: Key transport or distribution, i.e. key establishment techniques where one party creates or otherwise obtains a secret value, and securely transfers it to the other(s) (network architectures or network communication protocols for key distribution in a packet data network H04L63/06B)]
   T04L9/08F2B: . . . . [N: using key encryption key]
   T04L9/08F2D: . . . . using asymmetric-key encryption or public key infrastructure [PKI , e.g. key signature or public key certificates]
   T04L9/08F2F: . . . . [N: involving distinctive intermediate devices or communication paths (network architectures or network communication protocols using different networks H04L63/18)
   T04L9/08F2H: . . . . involving central third party, e.g. key distribution center [KDC or trusted third party [TTP]
   T04L9/08F2H2: . . . . . [N: involving conference or group key (network architectures or network communication protocols for key management in group communication in a packet data network H04L63/06C)]
   T04L9/08F2H2B: . . . . . . [N: using tree structure or hierarchical structure]
   T04L9/08F4: . . . [N: Key agreement, i.e. key establishment technique in which a shared key is derived by parties as a function of information contributed by, or associated with, each of these (network architectures or network communication protocols for key exchange in a packet data network H04L63/06A)]
   T04L9/08F4B: . . . . [N: involving Diffie-Hellman or related key agreement protocols]
   T04L9/08F4B2: . . . . . [N: with user authentication or key authentication, e.g. ElGamal, MTI, MQV-Menezes-Qu-Vanstone protocol or Diffie-Hellman protocols using implicitly-certified keys]
   T04L9/08F4D: . . . . [N: involving identity based encryption [IBE] schemes]
   T04L9/08F6: . . . [N: Secret sharing or secret splitting, e.g. threshold schemes]
   T04L9/08F8: . . . [N: Quantum cryptography (transmission systems employing electromagnetic waves other than radio waves, e.g. light, infra-red H04B10; wavelength-division multiplex systems H04J14/02)]"
   T04L9/08F8B: . . . . [N: involving additional nodes, e.g. quantum relays, repeaters, intermediate nodes or remote nodes]
   T04L9/08F8D: . . . . [N: Details about key distillation or coding, e.g. reconciliation, error correction, privacy amplification, polarisation coding or phase coding]
   T04L9/08H: . . Generation of secret information including derivation or calculation of cryptographic keys or passwords
   T04L9/08H10: . . . [N: based on channel impulse response [CIR]]
   T04L9/08H12: . . . [N: using additional device, e.g. trusted platform module [TPM], smartcard, USB or hardware security module [HSM]]
   T04L9/08H2: . . . [N: involving passwords or one-time passwords (network architectures or network communication protocols for using one-time keys in a packet data network H04L63/06D)]
   T04L9/08H4: . . . [N: involving user or device identifiers, e.g. serial number, physical or biometrical information, DNA, hand-signature or measurable physical characteristics]
   T04L9/08H6: . . . [N: involving random numbers or seeds]
   T04L9/08H8: . . . [N: using geo-location information, e.g. location data, time, relative position or proximity to other entities]
   T04L9/08M: . . Usage controlling of secret information, e.g. techniques for restricting cryptographic keys to pre-authorized uses, different access levels, validity of crypto-period, different key- or password length, or different strong and weak cryptographic algorithms network architectures or network communication protocols for using time-dependent keys in a packet data network H04L63/06E
   T04L9/08Q: . . using quantum cryptography
   T04L9/08R: . . using key recovery or key escrow
   T04L9/08S: . . using secret sharing
   T04L9/08T: . . Revocation or update of secret information, e.g. encryption key update or rekeying
   T04L9/08V: . . Escrow, recovery or storing of secret information, e.g. secret key escrow or cryptographic key storage
   T04L9/08V2: . . . [N: involving additional devices, e.g. trusted platform module [TPM], smartcard or USB]
   T04L9/10: with particular housing, physical features or manual controls not used; see H04L9/00
   T04L9/12: Transmitting and receiving encryption devices synchronised or initially set up in a particular manner
   T04L9/14: using a plurality of keys or algorithms
   T04L9/16: . . the keys or algorithms being changed during operation
   T04L9/18: Encryption by serially and continuously modifying data stream elements, e.g. stream cipher systems
   T04L9/20: . . Pseudorandom key sequence combined element-for-element with data sequence
   T04L9/22: . . . with particular pseudorandom sequence generator
   T04L9/24: . . . . sequence produced by more than one generator not used; see H04L9/22
   T04L9/26: . . . . producing a non-linear pseudorandom sequence
   T04L9/28: using particular encryption algorithm
   T04L9/30: . . Public key, i.e. encryption algorithm being computationally infeasible to invert and user's encryption keys not requiring secrecy
   T04L9/30B: . . . underlying computational problems or public-key parameters
   T04L9/30B2: . . . . [N: involving the discrete logarithm problem, e.g. ElGamal or Diffie-Hellman systems]
   T04L9/30B4: . . . . [N: involving the integer factorization problem, e.g. RSA or quadratic sieve [QS] schemes]
   T04L9/30B6: . . . . [N: details relating to polynomials generation, e.g. generation of irreducible polynomials]
   T04L9/30B8: . . . . [N: details relating to pseudo-prime or prime number generation, e.g. primality test)]
   T04L9/30E: . . . based on error correction codes, e.g. McEliece
   T04L9/30F: . . . based on factoring a large integer, e.g. Rivest-Shamir-Adleman [RSA]
   T04L9/30K: . . . based on a modular knapsack
   T04L9/30L: . . . based on discrete logarithm, e.g. ElGamal
   T04L9/30M: . . . involving algebraic varieties, e.g. elliptic or hyper-elliptic curves
   T04L9/30M2: . . . . [N: involving pairings, e.g. identity based encryption [IBE], bilinear mappings or bilinear pairings, e.g. Weil or Tate pairing]
   T04L9/30P: . . . based on polynomial equations
   T04L9/30Q: . . . based on probabilistic schemes
   T04L9/30R: . . . involving Lattices or polynomial equations, e.g. NTRU scheme
   T04L9/32: including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system, or for message authentication, e.g. authorization, entity authentication, data integrity or data verification, non-repudiation, key authentication or verification of credentials
   T04L9/32A: . . involving a third party or a trusted authority
   T04L9/32B: . . using a non-public key algorithm
   T04L9/32C: . . using a zero-knowledge proof
   T04L9/32D: . . [N: involving a third party or a trusted authority]
   T04L9/32D2: . . . [N: using tickets or tokens, e.g. Kerberos (network architectures or network communication protocols for entities authentication using tickets in a packet data network H04L63/08A)]
   T04L9/32F: . . [N: using a plurality of channels (network architectures or network communication protocols using different networks H04L63/18)]
   T04L9/32G: . . [N: using proof of knowledge, e.g. Fiat-Shamir, GQ, Schnorr, ornon-interactive zero-knowledge proofs]
   T04L9/32G2: . . . [N: interactive zero-knowledge proofs]
   T04L9/32H: . . using hash functions
   T04L9/32J: . . [N: using a predetermined code, e.g. password, passphrase or PIN (network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using passwords in a packet data network H04L63/08D)]
   T04L9/32J2: . . . [N: One-time or temporary data, i.e. information which is sent for every authentication or authorization, e.g. one-time-password, one-time-token or one-time-key]
   T04L9/32J4: . . . [N: Biological data, e.g. fingerprint, voice or retina (network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using biometrical features in a packet data network H04L63/08F)]
   T04L9/32K: . . [N: involving additional secure or trusted devices, e.g. TPM, smartcard, USB or software token (network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using an additional device in a packet data network H04L63/08E)]
   T04L9/32L: . . [N: using cryptographic hash functions]
   T04L9/32L2: . . . [N: involving non-keyed hash functions, e.g. modification detection codes [MDCs], MD5, SHA or RIPEMD]
   T04L9/32L4: . . . [N: involving keyed hash functions, e.g. message authentication codes [MACs], CBC-MAC or HMAC]
   T04L9/32M: . . for message authentication
   T04L9/32N: . . [N: involving digital signatures]
   T04L9/32N2: . . . [N: using RSA or related signature schemes, e.g. Rabin scheme]
   T04L9/32N4: . . . [N: using DSA or related signature schemes, e.g. elliptic based signatures, ElGamal or Schnorr schemes]
   T04L9/32N6: . . . [N: using group based signatures, e.g. ring or threshold signatures]
   T04L9/32N8: . . . [N: using blind signatures]
   T04L9/32P: . . involving the concurrent use of a plurality of channels of different nature
   T04L9/32Q: . . [N: involving certificates, e.g. public key certificate [PKC] or attribute certificate [AC]; Public key infrastructure [PKI] arrangements (network architectures or network communication protocols for supporting authentication of entities using certificates in a packet data network H04L63/08C)]
   T04L9/32Q2: . . . [N: using certificate chains, trees or paths; Hierarchical trust model]
   T04L9/32Q4: . . . [N: using certificate validation, registration, distribution or revocation, e.g. certificate revocation list [CRL]]
   T04L9/32R: . . using challenge-response
   T04L9/32R2: . . . for mutual authentication
   T04L9/32R4: . . . involving splitting up or repeating the challenge and/or response
   T04L9/32R6: . . . [N: using physically unclonable functions [PUF]]
   T04L9/32S: . . using electronic signatures
   T04L9/32S1: . . . using blind signatures
   T04L9/32S3: . . . involving a plurality or a group of signers
   T04L9/32S5: . . . with message recovery
   T04L9/32S5P: . . . . with partial message recovery
   T04L9/32T: . . using time stamps or public key certificates
   T04L9/32V: . . [N: involving time stamps, e.g. generation of time stamps]
   T04L9/34: Bits, or blocks of bits, of the telegraphic message being interchanged in time
   T04L9/36: with means for detecting characters not meant for transmission
   T04L9/38: Encryption being effected by mechanical apparatus, e.g. rotating cams, switches, keytape punchers
   T04L12/00: Data switching networks
   T04L12/02: Details
   T04L12/26T1: . . . . Distortion measuring systems
   T04L12/04: . . Switchboards
   T04L12/56D5R: . . . . . With actions at intermediate nodes, e.g. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)
   T04L12/56E: . . . Fast packet switching
   T04L12/56E1: . . . . by space division, e.g. banyan, cross-bar, bus-matrix
   T04L12/56E2: . . . . by a shared medium, e.g. bus, ring
   T04L12/56E3: . . . . by a shared memory
   T04L12/56E6: . . . . Multilayer switching, e.g. IP switching
   T04L12/56E8: . . . . LAN switches, e.g. Ethernet switches
   T04L12/56Q1: . . . . Buffering arrangements in a network node or end terminal
   T04L12/56Q3: . . . . Queue scheduling
   T04L12/56Q31: . . . . Bandwidth attribution to queues
   T04L12/56Q31A: . . . . . Static queue service slot or fixed bandwidth allocation
   T04L12/56Q31B: . . . . . Dynamic queue service slot or variable bandwidth allocation
   T04L12/56Q31B1: . . . . . . Queue skipping
   T04L12/56Q31C: . . . . . Redistribution of residual bandwidth
   T04L12/56Q31D: . . . . . Quantum based scheduling, e.g. credit or deficit based scheduling, token bank
   T04L12/56Q31E: . . . . . Minimum bandwidth guarantee
   T04L12/56Q32: . . . . Loss aware scheduling
   T04L12/56Q33: . . . . Delay aware scheduling
   T04L12/56Q33A: . . . . . Attaching a time tag to queues
   T04L12/56Q33B: . . . . . Attaching a deadline to packets, e.g. earliest due date first
   T04L12/56Q33B1: . . . . . . Deadline varies as a function of time spent in the queue
   T04L12/56Q33C: . . . . . Calendar queues or timing rings
   T04L12/56Q34: . . . . Changing or combining different scheduling modes, e.g. multimode scheduling
   T04L12/56Q35: . . . . Hierarchical scheduling
   T04L12/56Q36: . . . . General aspects
   T04L12/56Q36A: . . . . . Arrangements for avoiding Head of Line Blocking
   T04L12/56Q36B: . . . . . Individual queue per connection or flow, e.g. per VC
   T04L12/56Q36C: . . . . . Individual queue per QOS, rate or priority
   T04L12/56Q36D: . . . . . Queue service order
   T04L12/56Q36D1: . . . . . . fixed service order, e.g. Round Robin
   T04L12/56Q36D2: . . . . . . weighted service order (T04L12/56Q31, T04L12/56Q32 and T04L12/56Q33 take priority)
   T04L12/56Q36D3: . . . . . . variable service order
   T04L12/56Q36E: . . . . . Altering the ordering of packets in an individual queue
   T04L12/56Q36F: . . . . . Modifications to standard FIFO or LIFO
   T04L12/56Q36G: . . . . . Other criteria for service slot or service order
   T04L12/56Q36G1: . . . . . . based on queue load conditions, e.g. longest queue first
   T04L12/56Q36G2: . . . . . . based on channel conditions
   T04L12/56Q36G3: . . . . . . based on past bandwidth allocation
   T04L12/56Q36G4: . . . . . . based on policing
   T04L12/56Q36G5: . . . . . . based on priority
   T04L12/56Q36G6: . . . . . . based on packet size, e.g. shortest packet first
   T04L12/56Q36H: . . . . . Provisions for avoiding starvation of low priority queues
   T04L12/56Q36J: . . . . . Fair share of resources, e.g. WFQ
   T04L12/56Q36M: . . . . . Multiple queues per individual QOS, connection, flow or priority
   T04L12/56Q4: . . . . Wraparound memory, e.g. overrun or underrun detection
   T04L12/56T1: . . . . Congestion identification
   T04L12/56T10: . . . . at layers above network layer
   T04L12/56T10A: . . . . . at transport layer (e.g. TCP related)
   T04L12/56T10B: . . . . . Integration of transport layer protocols, e.g. TCP and UDP
   T04L12/56T11: . . . . Policing
   T04L12/56T12: . . . . Using leaky bucket
   T04L12/56T12A: . . . . . Token bucket
   T04L12/56T13: . . . . Traffic shaping
   T04L12/56T13A: . . . . . Determination of shaping rate, e.g. using a moving window
   T04L12/56T14: . . . . Bit dropping
   T04L12/56T15: . . . . Traffic type related (e.g. priority, quality of service (QOS))
   T04L12/56T15A: . . . . . Different Services (e.g. Type of Service (TOS))
   T04L12/56T15B: . . . . . Real time traffic
   T04L12/56T15C: . . . . . Service specification, e.g. SLA
   T04L12/56T15C1: . . . . . . Mapping QOS requirements between different networks
   T04L12/56T15C2: . . . . . . Allocation of priorities to traffic types
   T04L12/56T15D: . . . . . Flow classification
   T04L12/56T15E: . . . . . using preemption
   T04L12/56T15F: . . . . . Modification of priorities while in transit
   T04L12/56T15G: . . . . . Modification of handling priority for control packets, e.g. for ACK or signaling packets
   T04L12/56T15H: . . . . . Application aware
   T04L12/56T15J: . . . . . Flow identification, e.g. detecting Skype traffic
   T04L12/56T15M: . . . . . Mapping QOS requirements between different networks
   T04L12/56T16: . . . . Rate modification upon detection by the source of changing network conditions
   T04L12/56T17: . . . . Explicit feedback to the source, e.g. choke packet
   T04L12/56T17A: . . . . . Source rate modification after feedback
   T04L12/56T17A1: . . . . . . Stopping:restarting the source (e.g. X-on, X-off)
   T04L12/56T17B: . . . . . Credit based
   T04L12/56T18: . . . . Window size evaluation or update, e.g. using information derived from ACK packets
   T04L12/56T19: . . . . using time considerations
   T04L12/56T19A: . . . . . Network and process delay, e.g. jitter, round trip time (RTT)
   T04L12/56T19B: . . . . . Time to live
   T04L12/56T1A: . . . . . using a dedicated packet
   T04L12/56T2: . . . . Congestion avoidance or recovery
   T04L12/56T20: . . . . Using a combination of thresholds
   T04L12/56T21: . . . . using information about buffer occupancy at either end or transit nodes
   T04L12/56T22: . . . . Tagging of packets (e.g. Discard Eligibility bit (DE))
   T04L12/56T23: . . . . Packet discarding or delaying
   T04L12/56T23A: . . . . . Discarding or blocking control packets, e.g. ACK packets
   T04L12/56T23B: . . . . . With random discard, e.g. Random Early Discard (RED)
   T04L12/56T24: . . . . Forward notification
   T04L12/56T25: . . . . Sequence integrity (e.g. sequence numbers)
   T04L12/56T26: . . . . Embedded flow control information in regular packets (e.g. Piggybacking)
   T04L12/56T27: . . . . Evaluation of the packet size (e.g. Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU))
   T04L12/56T27A: . . . . . Dynamic adaptation of the packet size
   T04L12/56T28: . . . . Slow start
   T04L12/56T29: . . . . Adapting coding or compression rate
   T04L12/56T2A: . . . . . Diverting traffic away from congested spots
   T04L12/56T2B: . . . . . Load balancing, e.g. traffic engineering
   T04L12/56T2P: . . . . . Congestion prediction
   T04L12/56T3: . . . . in a LAN segment (e.g. ring, bus)
   T04L12/56T30: . . . . Credit based
   T04L12/56T31: . . . . Using splitted connections, e.g. IP spoofing
   T04L12/56T32: . . . . Actions on aggregated flows or links
   T04L12/56T3A: . . . . . by jamming the transmission media
   T04L12/56T4: . . . . in wireless networks
   T04L12/56T5: . . . . In relation to broadcast or multicast
   T04L12/56T6: . . . . in connection oriented networks (e.g. Frame Relay)
   T04L12/56T7: . . . . Hop by hop
   T04L12/56T8: . . . . End to end
   T04L12/56W1: . . . . Multipoint routing
   T04L12/56W10: . . . . Flooding
   T04L12/56W11: . . . . Source routing
   T04L12/56W12: . . . . Backward learning
   T04L12/56W13: . . . . Flow based routing
   T04L12/56W14: . . . . Wormhole routing
   T04L12/56W15: . . . . Centralised routing
   T04L12/56W16: . . . . Distributed routing
   T04L12/56W17: . . . . Topology update details
   T04L12/56W17A: . . . . . Routing table update consistency, e.g. epoch number
   T04L12/56W17B: . . . . . Delayed use of routing table update
   T04L12/56W17C: . . . . . Updating only a limited number of routers, e.g. fish-eye update
   T04L12/56W17D: . . . . . Details of Hello or keep-alive messages
   T04L12/56W17E: . . . . . Dynamic adaptation of the update interval, e.g. event-triggered update
   T04L12/56W18: . . . . Cluster building
   T04L12/56W19: . . . . Path calculation
   T04L12/56W19A: . . . . . Minimising delay
   T04L12/56W19B: . . . . . Minimising distance, number of hops
   T04L12/56W19C: . . . . . Evaluation of link metrics
   T04L12/56W19D: . . . . . Using a combination of metrics
   T04L12/56W19E: . . . . . Based on throughput or bandwidth
   T04L12/56W19F: . . . . . Minimizing geographical or physical path length
   T04L12/56W19G: . . . . . Based on intermediate node capabilities
   T04L12/56W19H: . . . . . For finding disjoint paths
   T04L12/56W19H1: . . . . . . With disjoint links
   T04L12/56W19H2: . . . . . . With disjoint nodes
   T04L12/56W2: . . . . Loop free
   T04L12/56W20: . . . . Routing tree calculation
   T04L12/56W21: . . . . Using label swapping, e.g. multi-protocol label switch (MPLS)
   T04L12/56W21A: . . . . . Frame based
   T04L12/56W21B: . . . . . Cell based
   T04L12/56W21C: . . . . . Label distribution
   T04L12/56W22: . . . . Multiprotocol routers
   T04L12/56W23: . . . . Organisation of routing tables
   T04L12/56W24: . . . . Routing software
   T04L12/56W24A: . . . . . Software download or update
   T04L12/56W24B: . . . . . Routing instructions carried by the data packet, e.g. active networks
   T04L12/56W25: . . . . Association of routers
   T04L12/56W25A: . . . . . Stackable routers
   T04L12/56W25B: . . . . . Virtual routers
   T04L12/56W26: . . . . Router architecture
   T04L12/56W26A: . . . . . Route cache and its operation
   T04L12/56W27: . . . . Wavelength
   T04L12/56W28: . . . . Using an overlay routing layer
   T04L12/56W29: . . . . Layer 2 routing, e.g. in Ethernet based MAN's
   T04L12/56W3: . . . . Hop count for routing purposes, e.g. TTL
   T04L12/56W30: . . . . Pseudowire emulation, e.g. IETF WG PWE3
   T04L12/56W31: . . . . Techniques for monitoring of routing metrics
   T04L12/56W32: . . . . Routing based on the source address
   T04L12/56W4: . . . . Alternate routing
   T04L12/56W5: . . . . Multipath
   T04L12/56W5A: . . . . . Link aggregation, e.g. trunking
   T04L12/56W6: . . . . Routing in wireless networks
   T04L12/56W6A: . . . . . Power aware routing
   T04L12/56W6B: . . . . . Mobile stations used as relay points
   T04L12/56W6C: . . . . . Rerouting actions after handoff
   T04L12/56W6D: . . . . . Route selection based on link transmission quality
   T04L12/56W7: . . . . Route discovery packet
   T04L12/56W8: . . . . Route fault recovery
   T04L12/56W9: . . . . Special provisions for routing multiclass traffic
   T04L12/56W9A: . . . . . Route determination based on requested QOS
   T04L12/56W9B: . . . . . Route determination for signaling traffic
   T04L12/56W9C: . . . . . Route determination based on the nature of the carried application
   T04L12/56W9C1: . . . . . . For real time traffic
   T04L12/56W9D: . . . . . Route determination based on user's profile, e.g. for premium users
   T04L12/06: . . Answer-back mechanisms or circuits
   T04L12/64B21: . . . High-speed serial buses supporting isochronous applications, e.g. IEEE 1394; Details thereof
   T04L12/64B21A: . . . . Isochronous transmission
   T04L12/64B21B: . . . . Bandwidth and channel allocation
   T04L12/64B21C: . . . . Packet processing, packet format
   T04L12/64B21D: . . . . Bus configuration
   T04L12/64B21E: . . . . Bus arbitration
   T04L12/64B21F: . . . . Bus bridging
   T04L12/64B21G: . . . . Interconnection with other networks
   T04L12/64B21H: . . . . Security, encription, content protection
   T04L12/64B21I: . . . . Wireless
   T04L12/64B21J: . . . . Interconnection of audio:video/imaging devices
   T04L12/64B21K: . . . . Interconnection of computers and peripherals
   T04L12/08: . . Allotting numbers to messages; Counting characters, words or messages
   T04L12/10: . . Current supply arrangements
   T04L12/12: . . Arrangements for remote connection or disconnection of substations or of equipment thereof
   T04L12/14: . . Charging arrangements
   T04L12/14A: . . . [N: Architecture for metering, charging or billing]
   T04L12/14A1: . . . . [N: Policy-and-charging control [PCC] architecture]
   T04L12/14C: . . . [N: Indication of costs]
   T04L12/14C1: . . . . [N: in real-time]
   T04L12/14C1A: . . . . . [N: Advice of charge with threshold, e.g. user indicating maximum cost]
   T04L12/14C2: . . . . [N: Indication of expected costs]
   T04L12/14F: . . . [N: involving dedicated fields in the data packet for billing purposes]
   T04L12/14J: . . . [N: Invoice generation, e.g. customization, lay-out, database processing, algorithms for calculating the bill or formatting invoices as WWW pages (invoicing in general G06Q30/00B)]
   T04L12/14M: . . . [N: Metric aspects]
   T04L12/14M1: . . . . [N: volume-based]
   T04L12/14M2: . . . . [N: time-based]
   T04L12/14N: . . . [N: at network operator level]
   T04L12/14N1: . . . . [N: inter-operator billing]
   T04L12/14N2: . . . . [N: trading network capacity or selecting route based on tariff]
   T04L12/14P: . . . [N: Methods or systems for payment or settlement of the charges for data transmission involving significant interaction with the data transmission network]
   T04L12/14P1: . . . . [N: using an account]
   T04L12/14P2: . . . . [N: using digital cash]
   T04L12/14P3: . . . . [N: using a card, such as credit card, prepay card or SIM]
   T04L12/14P4: . . . . [N: involving prepayment]
   T04L12/14P5: . . . . [N: splitting of costs]
   T04L12/14P5A: . . . . . [N: the splitting involving a third party]
   T04L12/14P5B: . . . . . [N: the splitting involving only the communication parties]
   T04L12/14P6: . . . . [N: involving use of telephony infrastructure for billing for the transport of data, e.g. call detail record [CDR] or intelligent network infrastructure]
   T04L12/14T: . . . [N: Tariff-related aspects]
   T04L12/14T1: . . . . [N: dependent on congestion]
   T04L12/14T2: . . . . [N: negotiation of tariff]
   T04L12/14T3: . . . . [N: involving discounts]
   T04L12/16: . . Arrangements for providing special services to substations
   T04L12/18: . . . for broadcast or conference, e.g. multicast
   T04L12/18B: . . . . for stock exchange and similar applications
   T04L12/18C: . . . . for auctioneering devices
   T04L12/18D: . . . . for computer conferences, e.g. chat rooms
   T04L12/18D1: . . . . . Conference organisation arrangements, e.g. handling schedules, setting up parameters needed by nodes to attend a conference, booking network resources, notifying involved parties
   T04L12/18D2: . . . . . Conducting the conference, e.g. admission, detection, selection or grouping of participants, correlating users to one or more conference sessions, prioritising transmission
   T04L12/18D3: . . . . . Network arrangements for conference optimisation or adaptation
   T04L12/18D4: . . . . . Tracking arrangements for later retrieval, e.g. recording contents, participants activities or behavior, network status
   T04L12/18E: . . . . with heterogeneous network architecture
   T04L12/18E1: . . . . . with heterogeneous receivers, e.g. layered multicast
   T04L12/18L: . . . . broadcast or multicast in a specific location, e.g. geocast
   T04L12/18M: . . . . with management of multicast group membership
   T04L12/18N: . . . . with non-centralised forwarding system, e.g. chaincast
   T04L12/18P: . . . . adapted to provide push services, e.g. data channels
   T04L12/18R: . . . . comprising mechanisms for improved reliability, e.g. status reports
   T04L12/18R1: . . . . . Measures taken after transmission, e.g. acknowledgments
   T04L12/18R1A: . . . . . . avoiding ACK or NACK implosion
   T04L12/18R2: . . . . . Measures taken prior to transmission
   T04L12/18S: . . . . with schedule organisation, e.g. priority, or sequence management
   T04L12/18T: . . . . with traffic restrictions for efficiency improvement involving subnets or subdomains,
   T04L12/18W: . . . . in combination with wireless systems
   T04L12/18Y: . . . . for short real-time information, e.g. alarms, notifications, alerts, updates
   T04L12/22: . . Arrangements for preventing the taking of data from a data transmission channel without authorisation
   T04L12/24: . . Arrangements for maintenance or administration
   T04L12/24A: . . . involving integration and standardization
   T04L12/24A1: . . . . using standardized network management architectures, e.g. Telecommunication Management network (TMN), Unified Network Management Architecture (UNMA)
   T04L12/24A2: . . . . using standardized network management protocols, e.g. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), Common Management Interface Protocol (CMIP)
   T04L12/24A3: . . . . Multivendor or Multistandard integration
   T04L12/24A4: . . . . Mapping and translation of multiple network management protocols
   T04L12/24A5: . . . . using object oriented techniques, e.g. Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for representation of network management data
   T04L12/24A6: . . . . using relational databases for representation of network management data, e.g. managing via Structured Query Language (SQL)
   T04L12/24A7: . . . . using Internet technology, e.g. a standard Web Browser at the management workstation
   T04L12/24B: . . . Architectural aspects of network management arrangements
   T04L12/24B1: . . . . Arrangements involving multiple distributed management centers cooperatively managing the network
   T04L12/24B2: . . . . Arrangements involving a hierarchical management structure
   T04L12/24B3: . . . . Aspects of Network management Agents
   T04L12/24B4: . . . . Arrangements involving Customer Network Management (CNM)
   T04L12/24C: . . . involving network analysis
   T04L12/24C1: . . . . using statistical methods, e.g. distribution tests, establishing statistical profiles, calculating probabilities
   T04L12/24C2: . . . . for automatically determining the actual topology of a network
   T04L12/24C3: . . . . Service management, i.e. managing value added network services and related parameters, e.g. Service Level Agreements (SLAs), responsetimes, performance, throughput
   T04L12/24C4: . . . . involving monitoring of all traffic over a specific network link
   T04L12/24D: . . . involving management of faults, events, alarms
   T04L12/24D1: . . . . Alarm and event filtering, e.g. for reduction of information
   T04L12/24D2: . . . . Alarm and event correlation
   T04L12/24D3: . . . . Automatic restoration of network faults
   T04L12/24D4: . . . . involving Artificial Intelligence algorithms, e.g. expert systems, rule based systems, genetic algorithms
   T04L12/24E: . . . Configuration management of network or network elements
   T04L12/24E1: . . . . Configuration setting of network or network elements
   T04L12/24E1A: . . . . . for initial configuration or provisioning
   T04L12/24E1A1: . . . . . . Plug-and-play configuration
   T04L12/24E1B: . . . . . Changing of configuration
   T04L12/24E1B1: . . . . . . due to adaptation, e.g. in response to network events
   T04L12/24E1B2: . . . . . . due to updating or upgrading of network functionality, e.g. firmware
   T04L12/24E1B3: . . . . . . Configuration optimization
   T04L12/24E1B3A: . . . . . . . for network cost reduction
   T04L12/24E1B3B: . . . . . . . for network speed increase
   T04L12/24E1B3C: . . . . . . . to reduce network energy consumption
   T04L12/24E1B3D: . . . . . . . to enhance reliability, e.g. reduce downtime
   T04L12/24E1C: . . . . . Configuration by copying
   T04L12/24E1C1: . . . . . . based on generic templates
   T04L12/24E1C2: . . . . . . based on copy from other elements
   T04L12/24E2: . . . . Bandwidth and capacity management, i.e. automatically increasing or decreasing capacities, e.g. bandwidth on demand
   T04L12/24E3: . . . . Assignment of logical groupings to network elements; Policy based network management and configuration
   T04L12/24E4: . . . . Keeping track of network configuration
   T04L12/24E4A: . . . . . by actively collecting or retrieving configuration information
   T04L12/24E4B: . . . . . by archiving or backing up configuration information
   T04L12/24E4C: . . . . . by keeping history of different configuration generations or versions
   T04L12/24E4D: . . . . . by rolling back to previous configuration versions
   T04L12/24E5: . . . . Checking configuration
   T04L12/24E5A: . . . . . by validating configuration within one network element
   T04L12/24E5B: . . . . . by checking configuration conflicts with other network elements
   T04L12/24E6: . . . . Aspects of the degree of configuration automation
   T04L12/24E6A: . . . . . Manual configuration through operator
   T04L12/24E6B: . . . . . Semiautomatic configuration, e.g. proposals from system
   T04L12/24E6C: . . . . . Fully automatic configuration
   T04L12/24E7: . . . . Techniques to speed-up the configuration process
   T04L12/24F: . . . Hardware and software tools for network management
   T04L12/24F1: . . . . for network design, e.g. with integrated simulation and design testing
   T04L12/24F2: . . . . Network management software packages, e.g. HP Openview, Netview 6000
   T04L12/24F3: . . . . using graphical user interfaces (GUI)
   T04L12/24F4: . . . . using dedicated network management hardware
   T04L12/24F5: . . . . using dedicated tools for local area network (LAN) management
   T04L12/24G: . . . Security in network management, e.g. restricting network management access
   T04L12/24H: . . . Decision processes by autonomous network management units using voting and bidding
   T04L12/24I: . . . Specific management aspects for broadband networks
   T04L12/24S: . . . Network Service management, ensuring proper service fulfillment according to an agreement or contract between two parties, e.g. between an IT-provider and a customer
   T04L12/24S1: . . . . Managing Service Level Agreement (SLA) or interaction between SLA and Quality of Service (QoS)
   T04L12/24S1A: . . . . . Defining or negotiating SLA contracts, guarantees or penalties
   T04L12/24S1B: . . . . . Measuring SLA quality parameters, e.g. against possible contract or guarantee violations
   T04L12/24S1B1: . . . . . . Service Availability
   T04L12/24S1B1A: . . . . . . . Actual status of service availability, e.g. which services are available at this point in time
   T04L12/24S1B1B: . . . . . . . Statistics of service availability, e.g. in percentage or over a given time
   T04L12/24S1B2: . . . . . . Service Performance, i.e. performance on service level, e.g. response time or Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF)
   T04L12/24S1C: . . . . . Ensuring SLA
   T04L12/24S1C1: . . . . . . by giving priorities, e.g. assigning classes of service
   T04L12/24S1C2: . . . . . . by proactively reacting to service quality change
   T04L12/24S1D: . . . . . Service quality level based billing, e.g. dependent on measured service level customer is charged more or less
   T04L12/24S1E: . . . . . Generating service level reports, e.g. generating a report based on data showing the performance levels for individual customers or individual services
   T04L12/24S1F: . . . . . Measuring contribution of individual network components to actual service level, e.g. identifying network entities, such as nodes, links, applications, that affect or are responsible for actual quality of service, such as service failure or service quality degradation
   T04L12/24S1G: . . . . . Testing of service level quality, e.g. simulating service usage by active agents to automatically measure service level compliance
   T04L12/24S2: . . . . Service Implementation
   T04L12/24S2A: . . . . . Making Service Definitions prior to deployment
   T04L12/24S2A1: . . . . . . Automatic and semi-automatic definitions, e.g. definition templates
   T04L12/24S2A2: . . . . . . Service on demand, i.e. services are defined and provided in real time as requested by the user
   T04L12/24S2B: . . . . . Automatic Provisioning of the Service triggered by the Service Manager, e.g. concrete service implementation by automatic configuration of network components
   T04L12/24S3: . . . . Service discovery by the Service Manager, identifying service elements or services and dependencies among the elements and services of a network
   T04L12/24S4: . . . . Customer care, order and problem handling, or Informing end-user of service situation
   T04L12/24S4A: . . . . . Customer Relationship Management, e.g. handling of customer data, contracts, customer history
   T04L12/24S4B: . . . . . Customer-centric QoS measurement
   T04L12/24S4C: . . . . . Filtering out customers affected by service problems, e.g. identifying customers affected by service problems as network element failures, network congestion or service degradation
   T04L12/24S4D: . . . . . Handling of Trouble Tickets
   T04L12/24S5: . . . . Managing simple transport services, i.e. providing only network infrastructure
   T04L12/24S6: . . . . Type of value added network service under agreement, if relevant for the management's process
   T04L12/24S6A: . . . . . wherein the managed service relates to web hosting
   T04L12/24S6B: . . . . . wherein the managed service relates to voice services
   T04L12/24S6C: . . . . . wherein the managed service relates to audio / video / TV
   T04L12/24S6D: . . . . . wherein the managed service relates to messaging
   T04L12/24S6E: . . . . . wherein the managed service relates to chat services
   T04L12/24S6F: . . . . . wherein the managed service relates to access to distributed or central networked applications)
   T04L12/24S6G: . . . . . wherein the managed service relates to media content delivery over network
   T04L12/26: . . Monitoring arrangements; Testing arrangements
   T04L12/26M: . . . Monitoring arrangements
   T04L12/26M1: . . . . Aspects related to the reduction of monitoring data
   T04L12/26M1A: . . . . . Sampling of monitoring data, i.e. storing only a selection of packets
   T04L12/26M1A1: . . . . . . Adaptive sampling, i.e. dynamically adjusting the sampling rate
   T04L12/26M1B: . . . . . Flow generation, i.e. aggregating captured packet data into flows, a flow being defined as a unidirectional sequence of packets all sharing same network parameters
   T04L12/26M1C: . . . . . Filtering, i.e. reduction of monitored data by applying filters
   T04L12/26M2: . . . . Aspects related to the further processing of captured monitoring data
   T04L12/26M2A: . . . . . Graphical visualization of monitoring data
   T04L12/26M2B: . . . . . Report generation
   T04L12/26M2B1: . . . . . . Traffic related reporting, i.e. reporting the overall traffic on a Tap-Point in the network
   T04L12/26M2B2: . . . . . . Device related reporting, i.e. reporting traffic characteristics for a specific device or network node
   T04L12/26M2B3: . . . . . . Time frame related reporting, i.e. formatting traffic reports with respect to certain time intervals, e.g. per second, minute, hour, day or week, or choosable timeframes
   T04L12/26M3: . . . . Monitored metrics
   T04L12/26M3A: . . . . . Availability
   T04L12/26M3A1: . . . . . . Connectivity, i.e. monitoring whether a link is active or a device is connected
   T04L12/26M3A2: . . . . . . Functioning, i.e. monitoring the status of the connected device, e.g. whether the device is or working properly, monitoring network element resource metrics like CPU or memory utilization or printer utilization
   T04L12/26M3B: . . . . . Errors
   T04L12/26M3B1: . . . . . . Packet loss
   T04L12/26M3B1A: . . . . . . . One way packet loss
   T04L12/26M3B1B: . . . . . . . Round trip packet loss
   T04L12/26M3B2: . . . . . . Monitoring transmission errors including all layer independent errors which can be recognized after reception of any transmitted data as bit errors, e.g. CRC checksum errors, packet errors
   T04L12/26M3C: . . . . . Delays
   T04L12/26M3C1: . . . . . . One way delays
   T04L12/26M3C2: . . . . . . Round trip delays
   T04L12/26M3C3: . . . . . . Jitter
   T04L12/26M3D: . . . . . Network utilization
   T04L12/26M3D1: . . . . . . Utilization of link capacity, i.e. percentage or absolute value of link capacity used
   T04L12/26M3D2: . . . . . . Throughput, e.g. observing the time required to get a certain amount of bits across a link or path, thus the ratio of bits per time unit
   T04L12/26M3D3: . . . . . . Packet rate
   T04L12/26M4: . . . . Active monitoring, e.g. heartbeat protocols, polling, ping, trace-route
   T04L12/26M4A: . . . . . Adaptive polling, i.e. dynamically adapting the polling rate
   T04L12/26M4B: . . . . . Adding timestamps to packets
   T04L12/26M5: . . . . Dedicated network monitoring probes
   T04L12/26M6: . . . . Software tools for monitoring, i.e. software packages
   T04L12/26M7: . . . . Monitoring thresholds, i.e. monitoring, if observed parameters or metrics are within upper or lower thresholds
   T04L12/26M8: . . . . Protocol analyzers
   T04L12/26T: . . . Testing equipment; Routine testing
   T04L12/28: characterised by path configuration, e.g. local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN)
   T04L12/28B: . . Broadband local area networks
   T04L12/28H: . . Home automation networks
   T04L12/28H1: . . . Home Audio Video Interoperability (HAVI) networks
   T04L12/28H10: . . . characterised by the type of medium used
   T04L12/28H10A: . . . . Wireless
   T04L12/28H10B: . . . . Mains power line
   T04L12/28H10C: . . . . Telephone line
   T04L12/28H11: . . . characterised by the type of home appliance used
   T04L12/28H11A: . . . . Audio/video appliances
   T04L12/28H11B: . . . . Generic home appliances, e.g. refrigerators
   T04L12/28H2: . . . Exchanging configuration information on appliance services in a home automation network
   T04L12/28H2A: . . . . indicating that an appliance service is present in a home automation network
   T04L12/28H2B: . . . . indicating a format for calling an appliance service function in a home automation network
   T04L12/28H2C: . . . . describing content present in a home automation network, e.g. audio video content
   T04L12/28H2D: . . . . Exchanging control software or macros for controlling appliance services in a home automation network
   T04L12/28H3: . . . Controlling appliance services of a home automation network by calling their functionalities
   T04L12/28H3A: . . . . from a device located outside both the home and the home network
   T04L12/28H3B: . . . . based on user interaction within the home
   T04L12/28H3C: . . . . Avoiding conflicts related to the use of home appliances
   T04L12/28H4: . . . Reporting information sensed by appliance or service execution status of appliance services in a home automation network
   T04L12/28H4A: . . . . Reporting to a device located outside the home and the home network
   T04L12/28H4B: . . . . Reporting to a device within the home network; wherein the reception of the information reported automatically triggers the execution of a home appliance functionality
   T04L12/28H4B1: . . . . . involving user profiles according to which the execution of a home appliance functionality is automatically triggered
   T04L12/28H5: . . . Processing of data at an internetworking point of a home automation network
   T04L12/28H5A: . . . . Interconnection of the control functionalities between home networks
   T04L12/28H5B: . . . . Switching of information between an external network and a home network
   T04L12/28H5C: . . . . Protocol conversion between an external network and a home network
   T04L12/28H6: . . . Distribution of signals within a home automation network, e.g. involving splitting/multiplexing signals to/from different paths
   T04L12/28M: . . Metropolitan area networks
   T04L12/28P: . . Wide area networks, e.g. public data networks
   T04L12/28P1: . . . Access arrangements, e.g. Internet access
   T04L12/28P1B: . . . . Access network architectures
   T04L12/28P1B1: . . . . . Point-to-point connection between the data network and the subscribers
   T04L12/28P1B2: . . . . . Point-to-multipoint connection from the data network to the subscribers
   T04L12/28P1C: . . . . Arrangements for combining access network resources elements, e.g. channel bonding
   T04L12/28P1C1: . . . . . Logical combinations
   T04L12/28P1C2: . . . . . Physical combinations
   T04L12/28P1D: . . . . Operational details of access network equipments
   T04L12/28P1D1: . . . . . Remote access server, e.g. BRAS
   T04L12/28P1D1A: . . . . . . Termination of subscriber connections
   T04L12/28P1D1B: . . . . . . Processing of data for distribution to the subscribers
   T04L12/28P1D1C: . . . . . . Handling of subscriber policies (group policies management H04L12/24E3
   T04L12/28P1D2: . . . . . Access multiplexer, e.g. DSLAM
   T04L12/28P1D2A: . . . . . . characterised by the network type on the uplink side, i.e. towards the service provider network
   T04L12/28P1D2A1: . . . . . . . IP/Ethernet DSLAM
   T04L12/28P1D2A2: . . . . . . . ATM DSLAM
   T04L12/28P1D2A3: . . . . . . . Arrangements interfacing with optical systems
   T04L12/28P1D2B: . . . . . . characterised by the offered subscriber services
   T04L12/28P1D2B1: . . . . . . . Multiservice, e.g. MSAN
   T04L12/28P1D2B2: . . . . . . . Single service
   T04L12/28P1D2C: . . . . . . characterised by the access multiplexer architecture
   T04L12/28P1D2C1: . . . . . . . Centralized processing
   T04L12/28P1D2C2: . . . . . . . Distributed processing, e.g. on line cards
   T04L12/28P1D3: . . . . . Subscriber equipments
   T04L12/28W: . . Wireless local area networks
   T04L12/40: . . Bus networks
   T04L12/403: . . . with centralised control, e.g. polling
   T04L12/403B: . . . . in which slots of a TDMA packet structure are assigned based on a contention resolution carried out at a master unit
   T04L12/407: . . . with decentralised control
   T04L12/40A: . . . Architecture of a communication node
   T04L12/40A1: . . . . Details regarding a bus controller
   T04L12/40A2: . . . . Details regarding a bus master
   T04L12/40A3: . . . . Details regarding a bus guardian
   T04L12/40A4: . . . . Details regarding a bus interface enhancer
   T04L12/40A5: . . . . Details regarding the setting of the power status of a node according to activity on the bus
   T04L12/40A6: . . . . Details regarding the feeding of energy to the node from the bus
   T04L12/40F: . . . High-speed IEEE 1394 serial bus (bus transfer protocol on a daisy chain bus using an embedded synchronisation G06F13/42D6
   T04L12/40F1: . . . . Isochronous transmission
   T04L12/40F10: . . . . Interconnection of audio or video/imaging devices
   T04L12/40F11: . . . . Interconnection of computers and peripherals
   T04L12/40F2: . . . . Bandwidth and channel allocation
   T04L12/40F3: . . . . Packet processing; Packet format
   T04L12/40F4: . . . . Bus configuration
   T04L12/40F5: . . . . Bus arbitration
   T04L12/40F6: . . . . Bus bridging
   T04L12/40F7: . . . . Interconnection with other networks
   T04L12/40F8: . . . . Security; Encryption; Content protection
   T04L12/40F9: . . . . Wireless (wireless communication networks H04W)
   T04L12/40M: . . . Management of data rate on the bus
   T04L12/40M1: . . . . Nodes adapting their rate to the physical link properties
   T04L12/40P: . . . involving priority mechanisms
   T04L12/40P1: . . . . by scheduling the transmission of messages at the communication node
   T04L12/40P2: . . . . by using dedicated slots associated with a priority level
   T04L12/40P3: . . . . by assigning priority to messages according to a message field
   T04L12/40R: . . . Flexible bus arrangements
   T04L12/40R1: . . . . involving redundancy
   T04L12/40R1A: . . . . . by using a plurality of communication lines
   T04L12/40R1B: . . . . . by using a plurality of bus systems
   T04L12/40R1C: . . . . . by using a plurality of nodes
   T04L12/40R1D: . . . . . [ N: by using a plurality of master stations]
   T04L12/40S: . . . characterized by the use of a particular bus standard
   T04L12/40S1: . . . . Controller Area Network CAN
   T04L12/40S2: . . . . Profibus
   T04L12/40S3: . . . . Modbus
   T04L12/40S4: . . . . Local Interconnect Network LIN
   T04L12/40S5: . . . . Flexray
   T04L12/40S6: . . . . LON
   T04L12/40S7: . . . . Actuator Sensor Interface ASI
   T04L12/40T: . . . Bus for use in automation systems
   T04L12/40V: . . . Bus for use in transportation systems
   T04L12/40V1: . . . . the transportation system being a vehicle
   T04L12/40V2: . . . . the transportation system being an aircraft
   T04L12/40V3: . . . . the transportation system being a waterborne vessel
   T04L12/40V4: . . . . the transportation system being a train
   T04L12/413: . . . . with random access, e.g. carrier-sense multiple-access with collision detection (CSMA-CD)
   T04L12/413B: . . . . . using bit-wise arbitration
   T04L12/417: . . . . with deterministic access, e.g. token passing
   T04L12/42: . . Loop networks
   T04L12/423: . . . with centralised control, e.g. polling
   T04L12/427: . . . with decentralised control
   T04L12/42L: . . . Interconnected ring systems
   T04L12/42S: . . . Synchronisation for ring networks
   T04L12/43: . . . . with synchronous transmission, e.g. time division multiplex (TDM), slotted rings
   T04L12/433: . . . . with asynchronous transmission, e.g. token ring, register insertion
   T04L12/437: . . . Ring fault isolation or reconfiguration
   T04L12/44: . . Star or tree networks
   T04L12/44S: . . . with switching in a hub, e.g. ETHERNET switch
   T04L12/46: . . Interconnection of networks
   T04L12/46B: . . . LAN interconnection over a backbone network, e.g. Internet, Frame Relay
   T04L12/46B1: . . . . LAN interconnection over ATM networks
   T04L12/46B3: . . . . LAN interconnection over narrowband networks, e.g. N-ISDN, PSTN, X.25
   T04L12/46B5: . . . . LAN interconnection over a LAN backbone
   T04L12/46B7: . . . . LAN interconnection over a bridge based backbone
   T04L12/46B7B: . . . . . Single bridge functionality, e.g. connection of two networks over a single bridge
   T04L12/46B9: . . . . using multilayer switching, e.g. layer 3 switching
   T04L12/46E: . . . Interconnection of networks using encapsulation techniques, e.g. tunneling
   T04L12/46R: . . . Interconnected ring systems
   T04L12/46V: . . . Virtual LANs, VLANs, e.g. virtual private networks [VPN ] [M1108]
   T04L12/46V1: . . . . Details on frame tagging
   T04L12/46V1A: . . . . . wherein a single frame includes a plurality of VLAN tags
   T04L12/46V1A1: . . . . . . wherein a VLAN tag represents a customer VLAN, e.g. C-Tag
   T04L12/46V1A2: . . . . . . wherein a VLAN tag represents a service provider backbone VLAN, e.g. B-Tag, S-Tag
   T04L12/46V1A3: . . . . . . wherein a VLAN tag represents a service instance, e.g. I-SID in PBB
   T04L12/46V1B: . . . . . Operational details on the addition or the stripping of a tag in a frame, e.g. at a provider edge node
   T04L12/46V2: . . . . Arrangements for supporting untagged frames, e.g. port-based VLANs
   T04L12/46V3: . . . . Dynamic sharing of VLAN information amongst network nodes
   T04L12/46V3A: . . . . . Arrangements for the registration or de-registration of VLAN attribute values, e.g. VLAN identifiers, port VLAN membership
   T04L12/46V3B: . . . . . characterized by the protocol used
   T04L12/46V3B1: . . . . . . MVRP [multiple VLAN registration protocol ]
   T04L12/46V3B2: . . . . . . GVRP [GARP VLAN registration protocol ]
   T04L12/46V3B3: . . . . . . VTP [VLAN trunking protocol ]
   T04L12/50: Circuits switching systems, i.e. systems in which the path is physically permanent during the communication
   T04L12/52: . . using time division techniques
   T04L12/52B: . . . involving a stored program control
   T04L12/54: Stored and forward switching systems
   T04L12/56: . . Packet switching systems
   T04L12/56A: . . . Transfer mode dependent fast packet switching, e.g. ATM
   T04L12/56A1: . . . . Bandwidth control in ATM Networks, e.g. leaky bucket
   T04L12/56A10: . . . . Network Node Interface, e.g. tandem connections, transit switching
   T04L12/56A10B: . . . . . Routing
   T04L12/56A10C: . . . . . Virtual private network (VPN); Private-network - network-interface (P-NNI)
   T04L12/56A10D: . . . . . Network design, dimensioning, topology or optimisation
   T04L12/56A10E: . . . . . Path aspects, e.g. path bundling
   T04L12/56A12: . . . . Operations, administration and maintenance (OAM)
   T04L12/56A12B: . . . . . Network management, e.g. Intelligent nets
   T04L12/56A12C: . . . . . Fault tolerance and recovery
   T04L12/56A14: . . . . Testing
   T04L12/56A16: . . . . Admission control
   T04L12/56A16B: . . . . . Signalling, e.g. protocols, reference model
   T04L12/56A16C: . . . . . Resource management and allocation
   T04L12/56A16C2: . . . . . . Bandwidth allocation
   T04L12/56A16C2A: . . . . . . . In-call negotiation
   T04L12/56A16C2B: . . . . . . . Backpressure, e.g. for ABR
   T04L12/56A16C4: . . . . . . Monitoring or policing, e.g. compliance with allocated rate, corrective actions
   T04L12/56A16C4A: . . . . . . . Leaky Buckets
   T04L12/56A18: . . . . Services, e.g. multimedia, GOS, QOS
   T04L12/56A18A: . . . . . Tariffs or charging
   T04L12/56A18B: . . . . . Connection-oriented
   T04L12/56A18B1: . . . . . . Unicast/point-to-point
   T04L12/56A18B2: . . . . . . Multicast/broadcast/point-multipoint, e.g. VOD
   T04L12/56A18B3: . . . . . . Concast/multipoint-to-point
   T04L12/56A18C: . . . . . Connectionless
   T04L12/56A18D: . . . . . Cell characteristics, e.g. loss, delay, jitter, sequence integrity
   T04L12/56A18D1: . . . . . . Cell loss
   T04L12/56A18D1A: . . . . . . . Packet discarding, e.g. EPD, PTD
   T04L12/56A18D2: . . . . . . Cell delay or jitter
   T04L12/56A18D3: . . . . . . Sequence integrity
   T04L12/56A18D4: . . . . . . Priority, marking, classes
   T04L12/56A18D5: . . . . . . Cell construction, e.g. including header, packetisation, depacketisation, assembly, reassembly
   T04L12/56A18D5A: . . . . . . . using the ATM adaptation layer (AAL)
   T04L12/56A18D5A1: . . . . . . . . using the AAL1
   T04L12/56A18D5A2: . . . . . . . . using the AAL2
   T04L12/56A18D5A3: . . . . . . . . using the AAL3/4
   T04L12/56A18D5A5: . . . . . . . . using the AAL5
   T04L12/56A18D5A6: . . . . . . . . usint the AALX
   T04L12/56A18D5B: . . . . . . . using the ATM layer
   T04L12/56A18D5B1: . . . . . . . . Minicells
   T04L12/56A18D5B2: . . . . . . . . Macrocells or frames
   T04L12/56A18E: . . . . . Support of N-ISDN
   T04L12/56A18M: . . . . . Support of Video, e.g. MPEG
   T04L12/56A18P: . . . . . Interaction of ATM with other protocols
   T04L12/56A18P1: . . . . . . IP over ATM
   T04L12/56A18P2: . . . . . . Next hop resolution protocol (NHRP)
   T04L12/56A18P3: . . . . . . Multiprotocol over ATM (MPOA)
   T04L12/56A18P4: . . . . . . Frame Relay over ATM
   T04L12/56A18V: . . . . . Support of voice
   T04L12/56A2: . . . . Switching fabrics, e.g. transport network, control network
   T04L12/56A20: . . . . Multiplexing, e.g. coding, scrambling
   T04L12/56A20B: . . . . . Coding or scrambling
   T04L12/56A20C: . . . . . Synchronisation, timing recovery or alignment
   T04L12/56A20D: . . . . . Timeslot assignment, e.g. TDMA
   T04L12/56A20E: . . . . . Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
   T04L12/56A22: . . . . Traffic aspects, e.g. arbitration, load balancing, smoothing, buffer management
   T04L12/56A22B: . . . . . Arbitration or scheduling
   T04L12/56A22C: . . . . . Load balancing, smoothing or shaping
   T04L12/56A22D: . . . . . Buffer or queue management
   T04L12/56A22D1: . . . . . . Threshold; Watermark
   T04L12/56A22D2: . . . . . . for avoiding head of line blocking
   T04L12/56A22E: . . . . . Characteristics of traffic flows
   T04L12/56A24: . . . . Addressing issues
   T04L12/56A26: . . . . Use of neural networks
   T04L12/56A28: . . . . Security aspects
   T04L12/56A2B: . . . . . Switching elements
   T04L12/56A2B1: . . . . . . using space switching
   T04L12/56A2B2: . . . . . . using shared medium
   T04L12/56A2B3: . . . . . . using shared central buffer
   T04L12/56A2C: . . . . . Switching modules and their interconnections, e.g. MIN planes
   T04L12/56A2C10: . . . . . . Perfect shuffle
   T04L12/56A2C12: . . . . . . Parallel switch planes
   T04L12/56A2C12B: . . . . . . . Cell slicing
   T04L12/56A2C2: . . . . . . Distribute and route networks, e.g. Batcher-Banyan
   T04L12/56A2C4: . . . . . . Clos
   T04L12/56A2C6: . . . . . . Crossbar or matrix
   T04L12/56A2C8: . . . . . . Full mesh, e.g. knockout
   T04L12/56A2D: . . . . . Multicast/broadcast capabilities
   T04L12/56A2E: . . . . . Control mechanisms
   T04L12/56A2F: . . . . . Routing/path finding
   T04L12/56A2F2: . . . . . . Cut-through or wormhole routing
   T04L12/56A2F4: . . . . . . Grouping
   T04L12/56A2G: . . . . . Peripheral units, e.g. policing, insertion, extraction
   T04L12/56A2G2: . . . . . . Header conversion, routing tables or routing tags
   T04L12/56A2H: . . . . . Hybrid ATM switches, e.g. ATM & STM, ATM & FR, ATM & IP
   T04L12/56A2K: . . . . . Physical details, e.g. power supply, mechanical construction, backplane
   T04L12/56A2L: . . . . . Cell switches adapted to switch variable length packets, e.g. IP packets
   T04L12/56A2M: . . . . . Expansion
   T04L12/56A4: . . . . Access techniques
   T04L12/56A4B: . . . . . Medium of transmission, e.g. fibre, cable, radio
   T04L12/56A4B1: . . . . . . Fibre
   T04L12/56A4B2: . . . . . . Metallic
   T04L12/56A4B3: . . . . . . Radio
   T04L12/56A4B4: . . . . . . Satellite
   T04L12/56A4C: . . . . . Topology
   T04L12/56A4C1: . . . . . . Star, e.g. cross-connect, concentrator, subscriber group equipment, remote electronics
   T04L12/56A4C2: . . . . . . Ring
   T04L12/56A4C3: . . . . . . Bus (including DQDB)
   T04L12/56A7: . . . . User Network Interface
   T04L12/56A7B: . . . . . Network termination, e.g. NT1, NT2, PBX
   T04L12/56A7C: . . . . . Terminal equipment, e.g. codecs, synch.
   T04L12/56A7D: . . . . . Virtual LANs; Emulation of LANs
   T04L12/56A7E: . . . . . Bridges, gateways (GW) or interworking units (IWU)
   T04L12/56B: . . . using radio channels
   T04L12/56C: . . . Routing of packets
   T04L12/56C1: . . . . Topology update or discovery
   T04L12/56C101: . . . . Multipoint routing
   T04L12/56C102: . . . . Loop free
   T04L12/56C103: . . . . Hop count for routing purposes, e.g. TTL
   T04L12/56C104: . . . . Alternate routing
   T04L12/56C105: . . . . Multipath
   T04L12/56C105A: . . . . . Link aggregation, e.g. trunking
   T04L12/56C107: . . . . Route discovery packet
   T04L12/56C108: . . . . Route fault recovery
   T04L12/56C109: . . . . Special provisions for routing multiclass traffic
   T04L12/56C109A: . . . . . Route determination based on requested QoS
   T04L12/56C109B: . . . . . Route determination for signaling traffic
   T04L12/56C109C: . . . . . Route determination based on the nature of the carried application
   T04L12/56C109C1: . . . . . . For real time traffic
   T04L12/56C109D: . . . . . Route determination based on user's profile e.g. premium users
   T04L12/56C11: . . . . Shortest path evaluation
   T04L12/56C110: . . . . Flooding
   T04L12/56C111: . . . . Source routing
   T04L12/56C112: . . . . Backward learning
   T04L12/56C113: . . . . Flow based routing
   T04L12/56C114: . . . . Wormhole routing
   T04L12/56C115: . . . . Centralised routing
   T04L12/56C116: . . . . Distributed routing
   T04L12/56C118: . . . . Cluster building
   T04L12/56C11A: . . . . . Minimising delay
   T04L12/56C11B: . . . . . Minimising distance, number of hops
   T04L12/56C11C: . . . . . Evaluation of link metrics
   T04L12/56C11D: . . . . . Using a combination of metrics
   T04L12/56C11E: . . . . . Based on throughput or bandwidth
   T04L12/56C11F: . . . . . Minimizing geographical or physical path length
   T04L12/56C11G: . . . . . Based on intermediate node capabilities
   T04L12/56C11H: . . . . . For finding disjoint paths
   T04L12/56C11H1: . . . . . . with disjoint links
   T04L12/56C11H2: . . . . . . with disjoint nodes
   T04L12/56C120: . . . . Routing tree calculation
   T04L12/56C121: . . . . Using label swapping, e.g. multi-protocol label switch [MPLS ]
   T04L12/56C121A: . . . . . Frame based
   T04L12/56C121B: . . . . . Cell based
   T04L12/56C121C: . . . . . Label distribution
   T04L12/56C122: . . . . Multiprotocol routers
   T04L12/56C123: . . . . Organisation of routing tables
   T04L12/56C124: . . . . Routing software
   T04L12/56C124A: . . . . . Software download or update
   T04L12/56C124B: . . . . . Routing instructions carried by the data packet, e.g. active networks
   T04L12/56C125: . . . . Association of routers
   T04L12/56C125A: . . . . . Stackable routers
   T04L12/56C125B: . . . . . Virtual routers
   T04L12/56C126: . . . . Router architecture
   T04L12/56C126A: . . . . . Route cache and its operation
   T04L12/56C127: . . . . Wavelength based
   T04L12/56C128: . . . . Using an overlay routing layer
   T04L12/56C129: . . . . Layer 2 routing, e.g. in Ethernet based MAN's
   T04L12/56C13: . . . . Routing performance; Theoretical aspects
   T04L12/56C130: . . . . Pseudowire emulation, e.g. IETF WG PWE3
   T04L12/56C131: . . . . Techniques for monitoring of routing metrics
   T04L12/56C132: . . . . Routing based on the source address
   T04L12/56C134: . . . . Address processing for routing
   T04L12/56C134C: . . . . . Route cache and its operation
   T04L12/56C134L: . . . . . Address table lookup or address filtering
   T04L12/56C134L1: . . . . . . using hashing
   T04L12/56C134L2: . . . . . . using content-addressable memories [CAM]
   T04L12/56C134L3: . . . . . . Longest matching prefix
   T04L12/56C134T: . . . . . Routing in networks with a plurality of addressing schemes, e.g. IPv4 and IPv6
   T04L12/56C1A: . . . . . Routing table update consistency, e.g. epoch number
   T04L12/56C1B: . . . . . Delayed use of routing table update
   T04L12/56C1C: . . . . . Updating only a limited number of routers, e.g. fish-eye update
   T04L12/56C1D: . . . . . Details of "hello" or keep-alive messages
   T04L12/56C1E: . . . . . Dynamic adaptation of the update interval, e.g. event-triggered update
   T04L12/56C3: . . . . Interdomain routing, e.g. hierarchical routing
   T04L12/56C5: . . . . Deflection routing, e.g. hot-potato routing
   T04L12/56C7: . . . . Learning-based routing, e.g. neural networks
   T04L12/56C9: . . . . Routing in connection-oriented networks, e.g. X.25, ATM
   T04L12/56D: . . . Flow control
   T04L12/56D1: . . . . Congestion identification
   T04L12/56D10: . . . . at layers above network layer
   T04L12/56D10A: . . . . . at transport layer, e.g. TCP related
   T04L12/56D10B: . . . . . Integration of transport layer protocols, e.g. TCP and UDP
   T04L12/56D11: . . . . Policing
   T04L12/56D12: . . . . Using leaky bucket
   T04L12/56D12A: . . . . . Token bucket
   T04L12/56D13: . . . . Traffic shaping
   T04L12/56D13A: . . . . . Determination of shaping rate, e.g. using a moving window
   T04L12/56D14: . . . . Bit dropping
   T04L12/56D15: . . . . Traffic type related, e.g. priority or quality of service [QoS ]
   T04L12/56D15A: . . . . . Different services e.g. type of service [ToS ]
   T04L12/56D15B: . . . . . Real time traffic
   T04L12/56D15C: . . . . . Service specification, e.g. SLA
   T04L12/56D15C2: . . . . . . Allocation of priorities to traffic types
   T04L12/56D15D: . . . . . Flow classification
   T04L12/56D15E: . . . . . using preemption
   T04L12/56D15F: . . . . . Modification of priorities while in transit
   T04L12/56D15G: . . . . . Modification of handling priority for control packets, e.g. for ACK or signaling packets
   T04L12/56D15H: . . . . . Application aware
   T04L12/56D15J: . . . . . Flow identification, e.g. detecting Skype traffic
   T04L12/56D15M: . . . . . Mapping QoS requirements between different networks
   T04L12/56D16: . . . . Rate modification upon detection by the source of changing network conditions
   T04L12/56D17: . . . . Explicit feedback to the source, e.g. choke packet
   T04L12/56D17A: . . . . . Source rate modification after feedback
   T04L12/56D17A1: . . . . . . Stopping or restarting the source, e.g. X-on, X-off
   T04L12/56D18: . . . . Window size evaluation or update, e.g. using information derived from ACK packets
   T04L12/56D19: . . . . using time considerations
   T04L12/56D19A: . . . . . Network and process delay, e.g. jitter or round trip time [RTT ]
   T04L12/56D19B: . . . . . Time to live
   T04L12/56D1A: . . . . . using a dedicated packet
   T04L12/56D2: . . . . Congestion avoidance or recovery
   T04L12/56D20: . . . . Using a combination of thresholds
   T04L12/56D21: . . . . using information about buffer occupancy at either end or transit nodes
   T04L12/56D22: . . . . Tagging of packets, e.g. discard eligibility [DE bit ]
   T04L12/56D23: . . . . Packet discarding or delaying
   T04L12/56D23A: . . . . . Discarding or blocking control packets, e.g. ACK packets
   T04L12/56D23B: . . . . . With random discard, e.g. random early discard [RED ]
   T04L12/56D24: . . . . Forward notification
   T04L12/56D25: . . . . Sequence integrity e.g. sequence numbers
   T04L12/56D26: . . . . Embedded flow control information in regular packets, e.g. Piggybacking
   T04L12/56D27: . . . . Evaluation of the packet size, e.g. maximum transfer unit [MTU ]
   T04L12/56D27A: . . . . . Dynamic adaptation of the packet size
   T04L12/56D28: . . . . Slow start
   T04L12/56D29: . . . . Adapting coding or compression rate
   T04L12/56D2A: . . . . . Diverting traffic away from congested spots
   T04L12/56D2B: . . . . . Load balancing, e.g. traffic engineering
   T04L12/56D2P: . . . . . Congestion prediction
   T04L12/56D3: . . . . in a LAN segment, e.g. ring, bus
   T04L12/56D30: . . . . Credit based
   T04L12/56D31: . . . . Using splitted connections, e.g. IP spoofing
   T04L12/56D32: . . . . Actions on aggregated flows or links
   T04L12/56D3A: . . . . . by jamming the transmission media
   T04L12/56D4: . . . . in wireless networks
   T04L12/56D5: . . . . in relation to multipoint traffic
   T04L12/56D6: . . . . in connection oriented networks, e.g. frame relay
   T04L12/56D7: . . . . Hop by hop
   T04L12/56D8: . . . . End to end
   T04L12/56F: . . . Access to open networks; Ingress point selection, e.g. ISP selection
   T04L12/56F1: . . . . Selection among different networks
   T04L12/56K: . . . Queue scheduling in packet switching networks
   T04L12/56K1: . . . . Bandwidth attribution to queues
   T04L12/56K1A: . . . . . Static queue service slot or fixed bandwidth allocation
   T04L12/56K1B: . . . . . Dynamic queue service slot or variable bandwidth allocation
   T04L12/56K1B1: . . . . . . Queue skipping
   T04L12/56K1C: . . . . . Redistribution of residual bandwidth
   T04L12/56K1D: . . . . . Quantum based scheduling, e.g. credit or deficit based scheduling, token bank
   T04L12/56K1E: . . . . . Minimum bandwidth guarantee
   T04L12/56K2: . . . . Loss aware scheduling
   T04L12/56K3: . . . . Delay aware scheduling
   T04L12/56K3A: . . . . . Attaching a time tag to queues
   T04L12/56K3B: . . . . . Attaching a deadline to packets, e.g. earliest due date first
   T04L12/56K3B1: . . . . . . Deadline varies as a function of time spent in the queue
   T04L12/56K3C: . . . . . Calendar queues or timing rings
   T04L12/56K4: . . . . Changing or combining different scheduling modes, e.g. multimode scheduling
   T04L12/56K5: . . . . Hierarchical scheduling
   T04L12/56K6: . . . . General aspects
   T04L12/56K6A: . . . . . Arrangements for avoiding head of line blocking
   T04L12/56K6B: . . . . . Individual queue per connection or flow, e.g. per VC
   T04L12/56K6C: . . . . . Individual queue per QoS, rate or priority
   T04L12/56K6D: . . . . . Queue service order
   T04L12/56K6D1: . . . . . . fixed service order, e.g. round robin
   T04L12/56K6D2: . . . . . . weighted service order
   T04L12/56K6D3: . . . . . . variable service order
   T04L12/56K6E: . . . . . Altering the ordering of packets in an individual queue
   T04L12/56K6F: . . . . . Modifications to standard FIFO or LIFO
   T04L12/56K6G: . . . . . Other criteria for service slot or service order
   T04L12/56K6G1: . . . . . . based on queue load conditions, e.g. longest queue first
   T04L12/56K6G2: . . . . . . based on channel conditions
   T04L12/56K6G3: . . . . . . based on past bandwidth allocation
   T04L12/56K6G4: . . . . . . based on policing
   T04L12/56K6G5: . . . . . . based on priority
   T04L12/56K6G6: . . . . . . based on packet size, e.g. shortest packet first
   T04L12/56K6H: . . . . . Provisions for avoiding starvation of low priority queues
   T04L12/56K6J: . . . . . Fair share of resources, e.g. WFQ
   T04L12/56K6M: . . . . . Multiple queues per individual QoS, connection, flow or priority
   T04L12/56Q: . . . Queuing arrangements in packet switching networks
   T04L12/56Q10: . . . . Separate storage for different parts of the packet, e.g. header and payload
   T04L12/56Q11: . . . . Buffer pool
   T04L12/56Q11A: . . . . . with buffers of different sizes
   T04L12/56Q12: . . . . Intermediate storage in different physical parts of a node or terminal
   T04L12/56Q12A: . . . . . in the network interface card
   T04L12/56Q12A1: . . . . . . Early interruption upon arrival of a fraction of a packet
   T04L12/56Q12B: . . . . . using an external memory or storage device
   T04L12/56Q13: . . . . Reactions to storage capacity overflow
   T04L12/56Q13A: . . . . . replacing packets in a storage arrangement, e.g. pushout
   T04L12/56Q14: . . . . Arrangements for simultaneous transmit and receive, e.g. simultaneous reading/writing from/to the storage element
   T04L12/56Q15: . . . . Arrangements for supporting packet reassembly or resequencing
   T04L12/56Q2: . . . . Dynamic buffer space allocation
   T04L12/56Q5: . . . . Storage descriptor, e.g. read or write pointers
   T04L12/56Q5L: . . . . . for supporting a linked list
   T04L12/56Q6: . . . . Plurality of buffers per packet
   T04L12/56Q7: . . . . Single buffer per packet
   T04L12/56Q8: . . . . Wraparround memory, e.g. overrun or underrun detection
   T04L12/56Q9: . . . . Common buffer combined with individual queues
   T04L12/56R: . . . Admission control; Resource allocation
   T04L12/56R1: . . . . Reservation actions
   T04L12/56R11: . . . . Micellaneous aspects
   T04L12/56R11A: . . . . . Prioritising resource allocation or reservation requests
   T04L12/56R11B: . . . . . Collecting or measuring resource availability data
   T04L12/56R11C: . . . . . Prediction of resource usage
   T04L12/56R11D: . . . . . Applicable to portable or mobile terminals
   T04L12/56R11E: . . . . . Involving tunnels, e.g. MPLS
   T04L12/56R11F: . . . . . Involving periods of time
   T04L12/56R11G: . . . . . Aggregation of resource allocation or reservation requests
   T04L12/56R11H: . . . . . Allocation of resources per group of connections, e.g. per group of users
   T04L12/56R11J: . . . . . Topology based
   T04L12/56R1A: . . . . . at the end terminals, e.g. buffer space
   T04L12/56R1B: . . . . . involving intermediate nodes, e.g. RSVP
   T04L12/56R1C: . . . . . over a plurality of alternate paths, e.g. for load balancing
   T04L12/56R1C1: . . . . . . for backup paths
   T04L12/56R3: . . . . Reactions to resource unavailability
   T04L12/56R3A: . . . . . Holding a request until resources become available
   T04L12/56R3B: . . . . . Reaction at the end points
   T04L12/56R3C: . . . . . Reaction in network
   T04L12/56R3D: . . . . . Reaction triggered by a failure
   T04L12/56R3E: . . . . . Negotiation of resources, e.g. modification of a request
   T04L12/56R5: . . . . Reallocation of resources, renegotiation of resources, as e.g. in-call renegotiation
   T04L12/56R5A: . . . . . Triggered by the network
   T04L12/56R5B: . . . . . Triggered by the end-points
   T04L12/56R5B1: . . . . . . after changing the attachment point, e.g. after hand off
   T04L12/56R7: . . . . Resource allocation architecture
   T04L12/56R7A: . . . . . Centralized allocation of resource
   T04L12/56R7B: . . . . . Hierarchical allocation of resource, e.g. involving a hierarchy of local and centralized entities
   T04L12/56R7C: . . . . . Distributed allocation of resources, e.g. bandwidth brokers
   T04L12/56R7C1: . . . . . . Involving several network domains, e.g. multilateral agreements
   T04L12/56R7C1A: . . . . . . . Mapping reservation between domains
   T04L12/56R7C2: . . . . . . Bandwidth trade among domains
   T04L12/56R7D: . . . . . Autonomous allocation of resources
   T04L12/56R9: . . . . Actions related to the nature of the flow or the user
   T04L12/56R9A: . . . . . Real time traffic
   T04L12/56R9B: . . . . . Application aware
   T04L12/56R9C: . . . . . QOS/priority aware
   T04L12/56R9D: . . . . . Broadcast/multicast traffic
   T04L12/56R9E: . . . . . User-type aware
   T04L12/56S: . . . Packet Switches, e.g. Layer 2 Switches, Layer 3 Switches, Multilayer Switches
   T04L12/56S1: . . . . Switching fabric construction
   T04L12/56S10: . . . . Provisions for supporting Expansion
   T04L12/56S11: . . . . Overload detection or protection
   T04L12/56S11A: . . . . . Overload detection
   T04L12/56S11A1: . . . . . . Policing
   T04L12/56S11C: . . . . . Corrective Measures, e.g. backpressure
   T04L12/56S11C2: . . . . . . Backpressure
   T04L12/56S11C4: . . . . . . Head-of-Line (HOL) blocking avoidance
   T04L12/56S12: . . . . Error management, e.g. prevention, detection or correction
   T04L12/56S12A: . . . . . Error prevention, e.g. sequence integrity of packets, load balancing, redundant connections through the switch fabric
   T04L12/56S12B: . . . . . Error detection
   T04L12/56S12C: . . . . . Error correction, e.g. fault recovery, fault tolerance
   T04L12/56S1A: . . . . . Crossbar or matrix
   T04L12/56S1B: . . . . . using shared medium, e.g. bus, ring
   T04L12/56S1C: . . . . . using shared central buffer or shared memory, e.g. time switching
   T04L12/56S2: . . . . Interconnection of switching modules
   T04L12/56S2A: . . . . . Distribute and route networks, e.g. sorting-routing, Batcher Banyan
   T04L12/56S2B: . . . . . Non-blocking multistage, e.g. Clos network
   T04L12/56S2B1: . . . . . . Parallel switch planes
   T04L12/56S2B2: . . . . . . Pipelined operation
   T04L12/56S3: . . . . Support for services, operations
   T04L12/56S3A: . . . . . Multicast or broadcast
   T04L12/56S3B: . . . . . QOS based
   T04L12/56S3B1: . . . . . . Real Time traffic
   T04L12/56S3C: . . . . . Port mirroring
   T04L12/56S4: . . . . Routing or path finding through the switching fabric
   T04L12/56S4A: . . . . . Cut through or wormhole routing
   T04L12/56S4B: . . . . . Store and forward routing
   T04L12/56S4C: . . . . . Connections establishment or release between ports
   T04L12/56S4C1: . . . . . . centralised controller, e.g. arbitration, scheduling
   T04L12/56S5: . . . . Peripheral units, e.g. input/output ports
   T04L12/56S5A: . . . . . Header conversion; Routing tables; Routing tags
   T04L12/56S5B: . . . . . Input queuing
   T04L12/56S5C: . . . . . Output queuing
   T04L12/56S5D: . . . . . Shared queuing
   T04L12/56S5E: . . . . . Virtual queuing
   T04L12/56S5F: . . . . . Auto-negotiation, i.e. access control between switch and link
   T04L12/56S5G: . . . . . Pipelined operation
   T04L12/56S5H: . . . . . Packet splitting
   T04L12/56S8: . . . . Application specific switches
   T04L12/56S8A: . . . . . LAN switches, e.g. Ethernet switches
   T04L12/56S8A1: . . . . . . Gigabit Ethernet switching (Gbps)
   T04L12/56S8B: . . . . . Fibre channel switches
   T04L12/56S8C: . . . . . Support for FireWire (IEEE 1394) switches
   T04L12/56S8D: . . . . . Support for virtual LAN (VLAN); VLAN tagging; Generic attribute Registration Protocol for VLAN (GVRP), e.g. IEEE 802.1q
   T04L12/56S8E: . . . . . Application aware switches, e.g. HTTP
   T04L12/56S8F: . . . . . Multilayer switching, e.g. IP switching
   T04L12/56S8G: . . . . . Hybrid IP/Ethernet switches
   T04L12/56S9: . . . . Physical details, e.g. power supply, mechanical construction, backplane
   T04L12/56T: . . . Indexing scheme relating to flow control in packet switching networks
   T04L12/56W: . . . Indexing scheme relating to packet switching systems
   T04L12/58: . . Message switching systems, e.g. electronic mail system
   T04L12/58A: . . . with automatic reactions or user delegation, e.g. automatic replies or chatbot
   T04L12/58B: . . . Real time or near real time messaging, e.g. instant messaging [IM]
   T04L12/58B1: . . . . use or manipulation of presence information in messaging
   T04L12/58B2: . . . . interacting with other applications or services
   T04L12/58C: . . . Message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities
   T04L12/58C1: . . . . with adaptation as to content
   T04L12/58C2: . . . . withadaptation as to format
   T04L12/58D: . . . messages including annexed information, e.g. attachments
   T04L12/58E: . . . messages including multimedia information
   T04L12/58F: . . . with filtering and selective blocking capabilities
   T04L12/58G: . . . with selective forwarding
   T04L12/58H: . . . including conversation history, e.g. threads
   T04L12/58L: . . . messaging using geographical location information
   T04L12/58N: . . . with notification on incoming messages
   T04L12/58R: . . . with reliability check, e.g. acknowledgments, fault reporting
   T04L12/58S: . . . messaging within social networks
   T04L12/58T: . . . with provisions for tracking systems
   T04L12/58U: . . . unified messaging, e.g. interactions between instant messaging [IM, e-mail or other types of messages such as Converged IP Messaging [CPM]]
   T04L12/58W: . . . in combination with wireless systems
   T04L12/60: . . . Manual relay systems, e.g. push-button switching
   T04L12/62: . . . . with perforated tape storage
   T04L12/64: Hybrid switching systems
   T04L12/64A: . . Hybrid switching fabrics
   T04L12/64A1: . . . Space
   T04L12/64A2: . . . Shared Medium, e.g. memory, bus, ring
   T04L12/64A3: . . . Time switching
   T04L12/64A4: . . . Switch peripheries
   T04L12/64A5: . . . Switch multicast
   T04L12/64B: . . Hybrid Transport
   T04L12/64B1: . . . Medium of transmission, e.g. fibre, cable, radio, satellite
   T04L12/64B10: . . . Internet
   T04L12/64B11: . . . N-ISDN, Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
   T04L12/64B12: . . . Digital subscriber line, e.g. DSL, ADSL, HDSL, XDSL, VDSL
   T04L12/64B13: . . . Speech, voice
   T04L12/64B14: . . . Video, e.g. MPEG
   T04L12/64B15: . . . Signalling Protocols
   T04L12/64B16: . . . Buffer Management, Threshold setting, Scheduling, Shaping
   T04L12/64B17: . . . Echo cancellation
   T04L12/64B18: . . . Silence suppression
   T04L12/64B2: . . . Access arrangements
   T04L12/64B20: . . . Feedback to the source
   T04L12/64B2A: . . . . Subscriber Access Module; Concentrator; Group equipment
   T04L12/64B3: . . . Terminal adapters
   T04L12/64B4: . . . Topology
   T04L12/64B4A: . . . . Bus
   T04L12/64B4B: . . . . Ring
   T04L12/64B4C: . . . . Star
   T04L12/64B5: . . . Network Node Interface, e.g. Routing, Path finding
   T04L12/64B6: . . . Admission control
   T04L12/64B6A: . . . . Medium Access Control (MAC)
   T04L12/64B6A1: . . . . . Deterministic, e.g. Token, DQDB
   T04L12/64B6A2: . . . . . Random, e.g. Ethernet
   T04L12/64B6C: . . . . Channel and bandwidth allocation
   T04L12/64B6D: . . . . Multiplexing, e.g. TDMA, CDMA
   T04L12/64B6E: . . . . Movable boundaries in packets or frames
   T04L12/64B7: . . . Priority
   T04L12/64B8: . . . Information loss recovery, e.g. error correction, prediction
   T04L12/64B9: . . . Frame Relay, X.25
   T04L12/66: Arrangements for connecting between networks having differing types of switching systems, e.g. gateways
   T04L13/00: Details of the apparatus or circuits covered by groups H04L15/00 or H04L17/00
   T04L13/02: Details not particular to receiver or transmitter
   T04L13/04: . . Driving mechanisms; Clutches
   T04L13/06: . . Tape or page guiding or feeding devices
   T04L13/08: . . Intermediate storage means
   T04L13/10: . . Distributors
   T04L13/12: . . . Non-mechanical distributors, e.g. relay distributors
   T04L13/14: . . . . Electronic distributors
   T04L13/16: of transmitters, e.g. code-bars, code-discs
   T04L13/18: of receivers
   T04L13/18A: . . Printing mechanisms
   T04L13/18A1: . . . Photographic printing and recording
   T04L13/18B: . . Page printing; tabulating
   T04L13/18C: . . Projection of the printed matter
   T04L15/00: Apparatus or local circuits for transmitting or receiving dot-and-dash codes, e.g. Morse code
   T04L15/03: Keys structurally combined with sound generators
   T04L15/04: Apparatus or circuits at the transmitting end
   T04L15/06: . . with a restricted number of keys, e.g. separate key for each type of code element
   T04L15/08: . . . with a single key which transmits dots in one position and dashes in a second position
   T04L15/10: . . . combined with perforating apparatus
   T04L15/12: . . with keyboard co-operating with code-bars
   T04L15/14: . . . combined with perforating apparatus
   T04L15/16: . . with keyboard co-operating with code discs
   T04L15/18: . . Automatic transmitters, e.g. controlled by perforated tape
   T04L15/20: . . . with optical sensing means
   T04L15/22: . . Apparatus or circuits for sending one or a restricted number of signals, e.g. distress signals
   T04L15/24: Apparatus or circuits at the receiving end
   T04L15/26: . . Operating only on reception of predetermined code signals, e.g. distress signals, party-line call signals
   T04L15/28: . . Code reproducing apparatus
   T04L15/28A: . . . Telegraph sounders; Apparatus for acoustic reception
   T04L15/30: . . . Writing recorders
   T04L15/32: . . . Perforating recorders
   T04L15/34: . . Apparatus for recording received coded signals after translation, e.g. as type-characters
   T04L17/00: Apparatus or local circuits for transmitting or receiving codes wherein each character is represented by the same number of equal-length code elements, e.g. Baudot code
   T04L17/02: Apparatus or circuits at the transmitting end
   T04L17/04: . . with keyboard co-operating with code-bars
   T04L17/06: . . . Contact operating means
   T04L17/08: . . . combined with perforating apparatus
   T04L17/10: . . with keyboard co-operating with code-discs
   T04L17/12: . . Automatic transmitters, e.g. controlled by perforated tape
   T04L17/14: . . . with optical sensing means
   T04L17/16: Apparatus or circuits at the receiving end
   T04L17/18: . . Code selection mechanisms
   T04L17/20: . . using perforating recorders
   T04L17/22: . . using mechanical translation and type-bar printing
   T04L17/24: . . using mechanical translation and type-head printing, e.g. type-wheel, type-cylinder
   T04L17/26: . . using aggregate motion translation
   T04L17/28: . . using pneumatic or hydraulic translation
   T04L17/30: . . using electric or electronic translation
   T04L19/00: Apparatus or local circuits for step-by-step systems
   T04L21/00: Apparatus or local circuits for mosaic printer telegraph systems
   T04L21/02: at the transmitting end
   T04L21/04: at the receiving end
   T04L23/00: Apparatus or local circuits for systems other than those covered by groups H04L15/00 to H04L21/00
   T04L23/02: adapted for orthogonal signalling
   T04L25/00: Direct-current systems
   T04L25/02: Details
   T04L25/02C: . . Channel estimation
   T04L25/02C1: . . . of multiple channels
   T04L25/02C11: . . . channel estimation algorithms
   T04L25/02C11A: . . . . using matrix methods
   T04L25/02C11A1: . . . . . with inversion
   T04L25/02C11A3: . . . . . with factorisation
   T04L25/02C11A5: . . . . . Eigen-space methods
   T04L25/02C11C: . . . . using least-mean-square (LMS) method
   T04L25/02C11E: . . . . using third or higher order statistics
   T04L25/02C11G: . . . . using neural network algorithms
   T04L25/02C11K: . . . . [N: Channel estimation using minimum mean square error criteria]
   T04L25/02C11M: . . . . [N: Channel estimation using zero-forcing criteria]
   T04L25/02C1A: . . . . of each channel individually
   T04L25/02C1C: . . . . of the composite channel
   T04L25/02C2: . . . [N: Estimation of channel covariance]
   T04L25/02C3: . . . of impulse response
   T04L25/02C3A: . . . . of a single coefficient
   T04L25/02C3C: . . . . with estimation of channel length
   T04L25/02C3E: . . . . with detection of nulls
   T04L25/02C5: . . . of frequency response
   T04L25/02C6: . . . [N: Estimation of channel variability, e.g. coherence bandwidth, coherence time, fading frequency]
   T04L25/02C7: . . . using sounding signals
   T04L25/02C7A: . . . . sounding signals per se
   T04L25/02C7C: . . . . with direct estimation from sounding signals
   T04L25/02C7C1: . . . . . with extension to other symbols
   T04L25/02C7C1A: . . . . . . by interpolation between sounding signals
   T04L25/02C7C1A1: . . . . . . . by non-linear interpolation
   T04L25/02C7C1C: . . . . . . using estimation of the other symbols
   T04L25/02C9: . . . using blind estimation
   T04L25/02G: . . Arrangements for coupling transmitters, receivers or transceivers to transmission lines; Line drivers duplexing arrangements H04L5/14
   T04L25/02J: . . Arrangements for detecting the data rate of an incoming signal
   T04L25/02K: . . Arrangements for coupling to transmission lines ; line equalisers, line build-out devices H04L25/03L
   T04L25/02K1: . . . Arrangements for providing galvanic isolation, e.g. by means of magnetic or capacitive coupling
   T04L25/02K11: . . . Arrangement for terminating transmission lines
   T04L25/02K1A: . . . . with modulation and subsequent demodulation
   T04L25/02K1C: . . . . specifically for telegraph signals induction coil interrupters H01H51/34 dynamo-electric generators H02K
   T04L25/02K3: . . . Arrangements for coupling to multiple lines, e.g. for differential transmission
   T04L25/02K3A: . . . . Arrangements for ensuring balanced coupling
   T04L25/02K3C: . . . . Arrangements for coupling common mode signals
   T04L25/02K5: . . . Arrangements for impedance matching
   T04L25/02K7: . . . Arrangements specific to the transmitter end
   T04L25/02K7A: . . . . Provision for current-mode coupling
   T04L25/02K7C: . . . . Arrangements to ensure DC-balance
   T04L25/02K7E: . . . . Provision of wave shaping within the driver
   T04L25/02K7E1: . . . . . the shape being matched to the transmission line
   T04L25/02K7G: . . . . Provision of high-impedance states
   T04L25/02K9: . . . Arrangements specific to the receiver end
   T04L25/02K9A: . . . . Provision for current-mode coupling
   T04L25/02K9C: . . . . Arrangements to ensure DC-balance
   T04L25/03: . . Shaping networks in transmitter or receiver, e.g. adaptive shaping networks
   T04L25/03B: . . . Arrangements for removing intersymbol interference
   T04L25/03B1: . . . . operating in the time domain
   T04L25/03B11: . . . . characterised by the type of transmission
   T04L25/03B11A: . . . . . Baseband transmission
   T04L25/03B11A1: . . . . . . Multilevel
   T04L25/03B11A3: . . . . . . Partial response
   T04L25/03B11C: . . . . . Passband transmission
   T04L25/03B11C1: . . . . . . Single of vestigal sideband
   T04L25/03B11C11: . . . . . . QAM
   T04L25/03B11C3: . . . . . . ASK
   T04L25/03B11C5: . . . . . . FSK
   T04L25/03B11C7: . . . . . . PSK
   T04L25/03B11C7A: . . . . . . . Continuous phase
   T04L25/03B11C9: . . . . . . Multicarrier
   T04L25/03B11M: . . . . . transmission using multiple-input and multiple-output channels
   T04L25/03B13: . . . . characterised by equaliser structure
   T04L25/03B13F: . . . . . Fixed structures
   T04L25/03B13F1: . . . . . . Time domain
   T04L25/03B13F1A: . . . . . . . Systolic arrays
   T04L25/03B13F1L: . . . . . . . Lattice
   T04L25/03B13F1N: . . . . . . . Neural networks
   T04L25/03B13F1T: . . . . . . . Tapped delay lines (T04L25/0B13F1N takes precedence)
   T04L25/03B13F1T1: . . . . . . . . not time-recursive
   T04L25/03B13F1T3: . . . . . . . . time-recursive
   T04L25/03B13F1T3F: . . . . . . . . . as a feedback filter
   T04L25/03B13F1T3P: . . . . . . . . . as a prediction filter
   T04L25/03B13F1T3Q: . . . . . . . . . as a combination of feedback and prediction filters
   T04L25/03B13F1T5: . . . . . . . . fractionally spaced
   T04L25/03B13F1T7: . . . . . . . . irregularly spaced
   T04L25/03B13F3: . . . . . . Frequency domain
   T04L25/03B13F5: . . . . . . Other transform domain
   T04L25/03B13V: . . . . . Variable structures
   T04L25/03B13V1: . . . . . . Switching between domains, e.g. between time and frequency
   T04L25/03B13V3: . . . . . . Switching between time domain structures
   T04L25/03B13V3A: . . . . . . . between neural networks and tapped delay lines
   T04L25/03B13V3C: . . . . . . . Switching the time direction of equalisation
   T04L25/03B13V3E: . . . . . . . between different tapped delay line structures
   T04L25/03B13V3E1: . . . . . . . . between recursive and non-recursive
   T04L25/03B13V3E3: . . . . . . . . Modifying the tap spacing
   T04L25/03B13V3E5: . . . . . . . . Modifying the length
   T04L25/03B15: . . . . Adaptation methods
   T04L25/03B15A: . . . . . Algorithms
   T04L25/03B15A1: . . . . . . Block algorithms
   T04L25/03B15A10: . . . . . . Super-exponential
   T04L25/03B15A3: . . . . . . Iterative algorithms
   T04L25/03B15A3A: . . . . . . . Time recursive algorithms
   T04L25/03B15A3A1: . . . . . . . . Zero-forcing
   T04L25/03B15A3A3: . . . . . . . . Feature restoration, e.g. constant modulus
   T04L25/03B15A3B: . . . . . . . Algorithms using least mean square [LMS]
   T04L25/03B15A3C: . . . . . . . Order recursive
   T04L25/03B15A3R: . . . . . . . Algorithms using recursive least square [RLS]
   T04L25/03B15A3T: . . . . . . . Initialisation
   T04L25/03B15A3T1: . . . . . . . . to a fixed value
   T04L25/03B15A3T3: . . . . . . . . to the value at the end of a previous adaptation period
   T04L25/03B15A5: . . . . . . Blind algorithms using gradient methods
   T04L25/03B15A7: . . . . . . Control of adaptation
   T04L25/03B15A7A: . . . . . . . of step size
   T04L25/03B15A7A1: . . . . . . . . Stop and go
   T04L25/03B15A7C: . . . . . . . Detection of convergence state
   T04L25/03B15A7E: . . . . . . . Detection or avoidance of local extrema
   T04L25/03B15A9: . . . . . . Subspace algorithms
   T04L25/03B15C: . . . . . Switching between algorithms
   T04L25/03B15C1: . . . . . . according to the convergence state
   T04L25/03B15M: . . . . . Manual adaptation
   T04L25/03B15T: . . . . . Timing of adaptation
   T04L25/03B15T1: . . . . . . only once, at installation
   T04L25/03B15T3: . . . . . . only on the request of a user
   T04L25/03B15T5: . . . . . . only during predefined intervals
   T04L25/03B15T5A: . . . . . . . during the reception of training signals
   T04L25/03B17: . . . . characterised by the signalling
   T04L25/03B17A: . . . . . Details of reference signals
   T04L25/03B17A1: . . . . . . Codes therefore
   T04L25/03B17A3: . . . . . . Location of reference signals
   T04L25/03B17C: . . . . . Signalling on the reverse channel
   T04L25/03B17C1: . . . . . . Transmission of equaliser coefficients
   T04L25/03B17C3: . . . . . . Transmission of a training request
   T04L25/03B1A: . . . . . adaptive, i.e. capable of adjustment during data reception
   T04L25/03B1A1: . . . . . . using a two-tap delay line
   T04L25/03B1A3: . . . . . . using only passive components
   T04L25/03B1A5: . . . . . . with a non-recursive structure
   T04L25/03B1A5A: . . . . . . . using fractionally spaced delay lines or combinations of fractionally integrally spaced taps
   T04L25/03B1A5C: . . . . . . . using blind adaptation
   T04L25/03B1A7: . . . . . . with a recursive structure
   T04L25/03B1A7A: . . . . . . . using fractionally spaced delay lines or combinations of fractionally and integrally spaced taps
   T04L25/03B1A7C: . . . . . . . using blind adaptation
   T04L25/03B1A7E: . . . . . . . not using decision feedback
   T04L25/03B1A9: . . . . . . Theoretical aspects of adaptive time domain methods
   T04L25/03B1A9A: . . . . . . . [N: Theory of blind algorithms, recursive or not]
   T04L25/03B1A9B: . . . . . . . [N: Theory of fractional equalisers, recursive or not]
   T04L25/03B1A9C: . . . . . . . [N: Theory of the Kalman algorithm]
   T04L25/03B1A9R: . . . . . . . [N: Theory of recursive equalisers, other than Kalman]
   T04L25/03B1N: . . . . . non-adaptive, i.e. not adjustable, manually adjustable, or adjustable only during the reception of special signals
   T04L25/03B1N1: . . . . . . using a two-tap delay line
   T04L25/03B1N3: . . . . . . using only passive components
   T04L25/03B1N5: . . . . . . with a non-recursive structure
   T04L25/03B1N5A: . . . . . . . using fractionally spaced delay lines or combinations of fractionally integrally spaced taps
   T04L25/03B1N7: . . . . . . with a recursive structure
   T04L25/03B1N9: . . . . . . Theoretical aspects of non-adaptive time domain methods
   T04L25/03B20: . . . . [N: Inter-carrier interference cancellation [ICI]]
   T04L25/03B3: . . . . operating in the frequency domain
   T04L25/03B5: . . . . using neural networks
   T04L25/03B6: . . . . Arrangements involving maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) detection
   T04L25/03B7: . . . . Arrangements involving sequence estimation techniques
   T04L25/03B7A: . . . . . Details concerning the metric
   T04L25/03B7A1: . . . . . . in which the receiver makes a selection between different metrics
   T04L25/03B7A3: . . . . . . methods of calculation involving metrics
   T04L25/03B7C: . . . . . Trellis search techniques
   T04L25/03B7C1: . . . . . . Sorting arrangements therefor
   T04L25/03B7C11: . . . . . . Methods involving sphere decoding
   T04L25/03B7C3: . . . . . . using the M-algorithm
   T04L25/03B7C5: . . . . . . using the T-algorithm
   T04L25/03B7C7: . . . . . . with state-reduction using grouping of states
   T04L25/03B7C9: . . . . . . with state-reduction using feedback filtering
   T04L25/03B7E: . . . . . Arrangements for operating in conjunction with other apparatus
   T04L25/03B7E1: . . . . . . Operation with other circuitry for removing intersymbol interference
   T04L25/03B7E11: . . . . . . with noise-whitening circuitry
   T04L25/03B7E1A: . . . . . . . with impulse-response shortening filters
   T04L25/03B7E1C: . . . . . . . with decision feedback equalisers
   T04L25/03B7E3: . . . . . . with carrier recovery circuitry
   T04L25/03B7E5: . . . . . . with interference cancellation circuitry
   T04L25/03B7E7: . . . . . . with channel-decoding circuitry
   T04L25/03B7E9: . . . . . . with channel estimation circuitry
   T04L25/03B7G: . . . . . Joint sequence estimation and interference removal
   T04L25/03B7K: . . . . . Arrangements specific to the provision of output signals
   T04L25/03B7K1: . . . . . . Provision of soft decisions
   T04L25/03B7K3: . . . . . . Provision of tentative decisions
   T04L25/03B7M: . . . . . Arrangements for the joint estimation of multiple sequences
   T04L25/03B7P: . . . . . Arrangements involving per-survivor processing
   T04L25/03B9: . . . . Arrangements at the transmitter end
   T04L25/03E: . . . Arrangements for spectral shaping; Arrangements for providing signals with specified spectral properties
   T04L25/03E1: . . . . using pulse shaping
   T04L25/03E1A: . . . . . [N: Design of pulse shapes (pulse shape for impulse radio H04B1/717A)]
   T04L25/03E1B: . . . . . [N: Shaping by selective switching of amplifying elements]
   T04L25/03E1C: . . . . . [N: Shaping by digital methods other than look up tables or up/down converters]
   T04L25/03E1F: . . . . . [N: shaping using look up tables for partial waveforms]
   T04L25/03E3: . . . . using scrambling
   T04L25/03E3B: . . . . . [N: Parallel scrambling or descrambling]
   T04L25/03L: . . . Line equalisers; line build-out devices
   T04L25/03L1: . . . . adaptive
   T04L25/03M: . . . Spatial equalizers
   T04L25/03M1: . . . . codebook-based design
   T04L25/03M1C: . . . . . cooperative design, e.g. exchanging of codebook information between base stations
   T04L25/03M1D: . . . . . construction details of matrices
   T04L25/03M1D1: . . . . . . according to the size of the codebook
   T04L25/03M1D2: . . . . . . according to the rank
   T04L25/03M1L: . . . . . with layer mapping, e.g. codeword-to layer design
   T04L25/03M1M: . . . . . multi-resolution codebooks
   T04L25/03M1S: . . . . . switching between different codebooks
   T04L25/03M2: . . . . equalizer selection or adaptation based on feedback
   T04L25/03M2C: . . . . . in combination with downlink estimations, e.g. downlink path losses
   T04L25/03M3: . . . . design criteria
   T04L25/03M3A: . . . . . mean-square error [MSE]
   T04L25/03M3C: . . . . . throughput maximization
   T04L25/03R: . . . Restoration of channel reciprocity
   T04L25/03S: . . . Equalisation for sparse channels
   T04L25/03T: . . . Noise whitening
   T04L25/05: . . Electric or magnetic storage of signals before transmitting or retransmitting for changing the transmission rate
   T04L25/06: . . Dc level restoring means; Bias distortion correction decision circuits providing symbol by symbol detection detection of unique words or other known elements H04L7/00, H04J3/06A
   T04L25/06A: . . . providing hard decisions only; arrangements for tracking or suppressing unwanted low frequency components, e.g. removal of dc offset removal of dc offset in coupling arrangements H04L25/02K7G, H04L25/02K9G
   T04L25/06A1: . . . . Setting decision thresholds using feedforward techniques only
   T04L25/06A3: . . . . Setting decision thresholds using feedback techniques only
   T04L25/06A3A: . . . . . [N: Subtraction of the threshold from the signal, which is then compared to a supplementary fixed threshold]
   T04L25/06A5: . . . . [N: Binary decisions]
   T04L25/06A7: . . . . [N: Multilevel decisions, not including self-organising maps]
   T04L25/06C: . . . providing soft decisions, i.e. decisions together with an estimate of reliability H04L25/06E and H04L25/06G take precedence; sequence estimation techniques H04L25/03B7
   T04L25/06E: . . . by sampling faster than the nominal bit rate
   T04L25/06G: . . . by detecting edges or zero crossings
   T04L25/08: . . Modifications for reducing interference; Modifications for reducing effects due to line faults Receiver end arrangements for detecting or overcoming line faults
   T04L25/08A: . . . Arrangements for reducing interference in line transmission systems, e.g. by differential transmission
   T04L25/10: . . Compensating for variations in line balance balancing during the coupling of signals H04L25/02K7A
   T04L25/12: . . Compensating for variations in line impedance impedance matching in coupling arrangements H04L25/02K5
   T04L25/14: . . Channel dividing arrangements in which a single bit stream is divided between several baseband channels and reassembled at the receiver
   T04L25/20: . . Repeater circuits; Relay circuits
   T04L25/20A: . . . using mechanical devices H04L25/20C takes precedence
   T04L25/20C: . . . using tuning forks or vibrating reeds
   T04L25/20E: . . . using electromagnetic switches
   T04L25/22: . . . Repeaters for converting two wires to four wires ; Repeaters for converting single current to double current
   T04L25/24: . . . Relay circuits using discharge tubes or semiconductor devices H04L25/22 takes precedence
   T04L25/24A: . . . . with retiming
   T04L25/24A1: . . . . . for start-stop signals detection of start or stop bits H04J3/06A
   T04L25/24A3: . . . . . for synchronous signals
   T04L25/26: . . . Circuits with optical sensing means, i.e. using opto-couplers for isolation
   T04L25/38: Synchronous or start-stop systems, e.g. for Baudot code
   T04L25/40: . . Transmitting circuits; Receiving circuits
   T04L25/42: . . . using mechanical distributors
   T04L25/44: . . . using relay distributors
   T04L25/45: . . . using electronic distributors
   T04L25/46: . . . using tuning forks or vibrating reeds
   T04L25/49: . . . using code conversion at the transmitter; using predistortion; using insertion of idle bits for obtaining a desired frequency spectrum; using three or more amplitude levels; Baseband coding techniques specific to data transmission systems spectral shaping H04L25/03E
   T04L25/493: . . . . by transition coding, i.e. the time-position or direction of a transition being encoded before transmission
   T04L25/497: . . . . by correlative coding, e.g. partial response coding or echo modulation coding transmitters and receivers for partial response systems (transversal equalizersH04L25/03; partial response continuous phase modulation systemsH04L27/18)
   T04L25/497A: . . . . . [N: Correlative coding using Tomlinson precoding, Harashima precoding , Trellis precoding or GPRS]
   T04L25/49A: . . . . Pulse width modulation; Pulse position modulation
   T04L25/49C: . . . . using self-synchronising codes, e.g. split-phase codes
   T04L25/49L: . . . . using binary codes
   T04L25/49L1: . . . . . using mBnB codes
   T04L25/49L1B: . . . . . . using 1B2B codes
   T04L25/49L1B1: . . . . . . . using CMI or 2-HDB-3 code
   T04L25/49L2: . . . . . using pattern inversion or substitution H04L25/49L1 takes precedence
   T04L25/49M: . . . . using multilevel codes
   T04L25/49M1: . . . . . using balanced multilevel codes H04L25/49M5 takes precedence
   T04L25/49M1Q: . . . . . . using quadrature encoding, e.g. carrierless amplitude-phase coding
   T04L25/49M3: . . . . . using ternary codes H04L25/49M5 takes precedence
   T04L25/49M3B: . . . . . . using balanced bipolar ternary codes
   T04L25/49M5: . . . . . using levels matched to the quantisation levels of the channel
   T04L27/00: Modulated-carrier systems
   T04L27/00A: analog front ends; means for connecting modulators, demodulators or transceivers to a transmission line duplex arrangements H04L5/14P
   T04L27/00B: using wavelets
   T04L27/00D: Assessment of spectral gaps suitable for allocating digitally modulated signals, e.g. for carrier allocation in cognitive radio
   T04L27/00F: arrangements for allowing a transmitter or receiver to use more than one type of modulation negotiating modulation type for two-way transmission paths H04L5/14R3
   T04L27/00K: using chaotic signals for secret or secure communication H04L9/00C
   T04L27/00M: arrangements for identifying the type of modulation
   T04L27/00R: Carrier regulation
   T04L27/00R1: . . Stabilisation of local oscillators
   T04L27/00R3: . . Arrangements at the transmitter end
   T04L27/00R3A: . . . using feedback from a remote receiver
   T04L27/00R3C: . . . using the carrier of the associated receiver of a transceiver
   T04L27/00R5: . . at the receiver end
   T04L27/00R5A: . . . Correction of carrier offset
   T04L27/00R5A1: . . . . at passband only
   T04L27/00R5A11: . . . . using an equaliser
   T04L27/00R5A11A: . . . . . the equaliser providing control signals
   T04L27/00R5A11C: . . . . . the equaliser providing the offset correction per se
   T04L27/00R5A3: . . . . at baseband only
   T04L27/00R5A5: . . . . at baseband and passband
   T04L27/00R5A7: . . . . using hypothesis testing
   T04L27/00R5A9: . . . . using a recovered symbol clock
   T04L27/00R7: . . Control loops for carrier regulation
   T04L27/00R7A: . . . Open loops
   T04L27/00R7A1: . . . . Frequency multiplication
   T04L27/00R7A3: . . . . Harmonic tracking
   T04L27/00R7C: . . . Closed loops
   T04L27/00R7C1: . . . . single phase
   T04L27/00R7C3: . . . . quadrature phase
   T04L27/00R7C5: . . . . more than two phases
   T04L27/00R7C7: . . . . remodulation
   T04L27/00R7E: . . . Elements of loops
   T04L27/00R7E1: . . . . Frequency error detectors
   T04L27/00R7E3: . . . . Phase error detectors
   T04L27/00R7E5: . . . . Loop filters
   T04L27/00R7G: . . . Control of loops
   T04L27/00R7G1: . . . . Detection of synchronisation state
   T04L27/00R7G3: . . . . Error weighting
   T04L27/00R7G3A: . . . . . stop and go
   T04L27/00R7G5: . . . . Switching between loops
   T04L27/00R7G5A: . . . . . between loops of different bandwidths
   T04L27/00R9: . . Signalling arrangements
   T04L27/00R9A: . . . with no special signals for synchronisation
   T04L27/00R9C: . . . Out-of-band signals, (e.g. pilots)
   T04L27/00R9E: . . . In-band signals
   T04L27/00R9E1: . . . . Continuous signals
   T04L27/00R9E3: . . . . Intermittant signals
   T04L27/00R9E3A: . . . . . in a preamble or similar structure
   T04L27/00R9G: . . . Adaptive synchronisation signals
   T04L27/01: Equalisers baseband equalisers H04L25/03; control of amplification H03G; in analogue transmission systems H04B3/04, H04B7/005
   T04L27/02: Amplitude-modulated carrier systems, e.g. using on-off keying; Single sideband or vestigial sideband modulation
   T04L27/04: . . Modulator circuits ; Transmitter circuits
   T04L27/06: . . Demodulator circuits ; Receiver circuits
   T04L27/06B: . . . Superheterodyne receivers
   T04L27/06C: . . . Carrier recovery circuits H04L27/227A takes precedence
   T04L27/08: . . Amplitude regulation arrangements
   T04L27/10: Frequency-modulated carrier systems, i.e. using frequency-shift keying
   T04L27/10A: . . [N: Chirp modulation (for spread spectrum techniques H04B1/69; for spread spectrum using chirp T04B1/69K)]
   T04L27/10B: . . [N: M-ary FSK]
   T04L27/12: . . Modulator circuits ; Transmitter circuits continuous phase modulation H04L27/20
   T04L27/12B: . . . using digital generation of carrier signals digital function generators G06F1/02, H04L17/10; generating pulses having stepped portions using digital techniques H03K4/02D
   T04L27/12C: . . . [N: using a controlled oscillator in an open loop]
   T04L27/12F: . . . [N: using a controlled oscillator in a feedback loop]
   T04L27/14: . . Demodulator circuits ; Receiver circuits for continuous phase modulation systems H04L27/22
   T04L27/144: . . . with demodulation using spectral properties of the received signal, e.g. by using frequency selective- or frequency sensitive elements
   T04L27/148: . . . . using filters, including PLL-type filters
   T04L27/14B: . . . Compensating direct current components occurring during the demodulation and which are caused by mistuning
   T04L27/152: . . . . using controlled oscillators, e.g. PLL arrangements
   T04L27/152Q: . . . . . using quadrature demodulation
   T04L27/156: . . . with demodulation using temporal properties of the received signal, e.g. detecting pulse width
   T04L27/156A: . . . . using transition or level detection
   T04L27/156D: . . . . using synchronous sampling
   T04L27/16: . . Frequency regulation arrangements
   T04L27/18: Phase-modulated carrier systems, i.e. using phase-shift keying includes continuous phase systems
   T04L27/18M: . . Multiresolution systems
   T04L27/18P: . . in which the information is carried by both the individual signal points and the subset to which the individual signal points belong, e.g. coset coding or related schemes
   T04L27/20: . . Modulator circuits ; Transmitter circuits
   T04L27/20C: . . . for continuous phase modulation frequency shift keying H04L27/10
   T04L27/20C1: . . . . in which the phase change within each symbol period is constrained coset coding H04L27/18P
   T04L27/20C1H: . . . . . in which the allowed phase changes vary with time, e.g. multi-h modulation
   T04L27/20C1L: . . . . . in which the phase changes in a piecewise linear manner during each symbol period, e.g. minimum shift keying, fast frequency shift keying H04L27/20C1H takes precedence
   T04L27/20C1N: . . . . . in which the phase changes are non-linear, e.g. generalized and Gaussian minimum shift keying, tamed frequency modulation H04L27/20C1H takes precedence
   T04L27/20C2: . . . . in which the phase change per symbol period is not constrained
   T04L27/20C2L: . . . . . in which the phase changes in a piecewise linear manner within each symbol period
   T04L27/20C2N: . . . . . in which the phase changes are non-linear
   T04L27/20D: . . . for discrete phase modulation, e.g. in which the phase of the carrier is modulated in a nominally instantaneous manner
   T04L27/20D1: . . . . using a single or unspecified number of carriers
   T04L27/20D1A: . . . . . using microwave technology
   T04L27/20D1B: . . . . . with more than two phase states
   T04L27/20D1B1: . . . . . . in which the data are represented by carrier phase
   T04L27/20D1B2: . . . . . . in which the data are represented by the change in phase of the carrier
   T04L27/20D2: . . . . using more than one carrier, e.g. carriers with different phases
   T04L27/20D2A: . . . . . with a separate carrier for each phase state
   T04L27/20D2B: . . . . . using a pair of orthogonal carriers, e.g. quadrature carriers
   T04L27/20D2B1: . . . . . . using microwave technology
   T04L27/20D2B2: . . . . . . [N: with more than two phase states ]
   T04L27/20D2B2A: . . . . . . . in which the data are represented by the carrier phase, e.g. systems with differential coding
   T04L27/20D2B2B: . . . . . . . in which the data are represented by the change in carrier phase
   T04L27/20D2B2C: . . . . . . . in which the phase change per symbol period is constrained coset coding H04L27/18P
   T04L27/20D2B2C1: . . . . . . . . for offset or staggered quadrature phase shift keying
   T04L27/20D2B2D: . . . . . . . with more than one phase shift per symbol period
   T04L27/20D2B2E: . . . . . . . with unbalanced quadrature channels
   T04L27/20D4: . . . . with digital generation of the modulated carrier (does not include the modulation of a digitally generated carrier)
   T04L27/20P: . . . Arrangements for directly or externally modulating an optical carrier see provisionally also H04B10/145D
   T04L27/22: . . Demodulator circuits ; Receiver circuits
   T04L27/227: . . . using coherent demodulation
   T04L27/227A: . . . . wherein the carrier recovery circuit uses only the demodulated signals
   T04L27/227A1: . . . . . using phase locked loops H04L27/227A3 takes precedence
   T04L27/227A3: . . . . . associated with quadrature demodulation, e.g. Costas loop
   T04L27/227C: . . . . wherein the carrier recovery circuit uses the received modulated signals
   T04L27/227C1: . . . . . using frequency multiplication or harmonic tracking
   T04L27/227C3: . . . . . using remodulation
   T04L27/227C5: . . . . . using correlation techniques, e.g. for spread spectrum signals
   T04L27/22P: . . . Demodulation in the optical domain see provisionally also H04B10/148H
   T04L27/233: . . . using non-coherent demodulation
   T04L27/233A: . . . . wherein the received signal is demodulated using one or more delayed versions of itself
   T04L27/233C: . . . . using a non-coherent carrier
   T04L27/233E: . . . . using filters
   T04L27/233G: . . . . using temporal properties of the received signal
   T04L27/233G1: . . . . . using digital techniques to measure the time between zero-crossings
   T04L27/233J: . . . . using sampling H04L27/233A to H04L27/233G take precedence
   T04L27/24: . . Half-wave signalling systems
   T04L27/26: Systems using multi-frequency codes
   T04L27/26M: . . Multicarrier modulation systems
   T04L27/26M1: . . . Signal structure
   T04L27/26M1E: . . . . Multiresolution systems
   T04L27/26M1G: . . . . Symbol extensions
   T04L27/26M1G1: . . . . . Cyclic extensions
   T04L27/26M1P: . . . . Allocation of payload
   T04L27/26M1R: . . . . Details of reference signals
   T04L27/26M1R1: . . . . . Distribution thereof
   T04L27/26M1R3: . . . . . Structure of the reference signals per se
   T04L27/26M2: . . . Peak power aspects
   T04L27/26M2A: . . . . Reduction thereof using coding
   T04L27/26M2A1: . . . . . using block codes
   T04L27/26M2C: . . . . Reduction thereof using auxiliary subcarriers
   T04L27/26M2E: . . . . Reduction thereof by selection of pilot symbols
   T04L27/26M2G: . . . . Reduction thereof using phase offsets between subcarriers
   T04L27/26M2K: . . . . Reduction thereof by clipping
   T04L27/26M2K1: . . . . . by soft clipping
   T04L27/26M3: . . . Arrangements specific to the transmitter
   T04L27/26M3A: . . . . Modulators
   T04L27/26M3A1: . . . . . Fourier transform modulators
   T04L27/26M3A11: . . . . . Wavelet transform modulators wavelets in general H04L27/00B; wavelet-division H04L5/00A2A1W
   T04L27/26M3A13: . . . . . using symbol repetition, e.g. time domain realization of distributed FDMA
   T04L27/26M3A15: . . . . . with oversampling
   T04L27/26M3A1M: . . . . . . modification of IFFT/IDFT modulator for performance improvement
   T04L27/26M3A1P: . . . . . . with polyphase implementation
   T04L27/26M3A1S: . . . . . . using partial FFTs
   T04L27/26M3A3: . . . . . IFFT/IDFT in combination with other circuits for modulation DFT or FFT computation methods or devices in general G06F17/14F
   T04L27/26M3A3F: . . . . . . with FFT/DFT, e.g. standard SC-FDMA transmitter or DFT-SOFDM
   T04L27/26M3A5: . . . . . with direct modulation of individual subcarriers
   T04L27/26M3A7: . . . . . Discrete cosine transform modulators
   T04L27/26M3A9: . . . . . Filterbank multicarrier (FBMC)
   T04L27/26M3C: . . . . using feedback from receiver for adjusting OFDM transmission parameters, e.g. transmission timing or guard interval length
   T04L27/26M5: . . . Arrangements specific to the receiver
   T04L27/26M5A: . . . . Demodulators
   T04L27/26M5A1: . . . . . Fourier transform demodulators
   T04L27/26M5A1P: . . . . . . with polyphase implementation
   T04L27/26M5A5: . . . . . with direct demodulation of individual subcarriers
   T04L27/26M5C: . . . . Synchronisation arrangements
   T04L27/26M5C1: . . . . . Frame synchronisation
   T04L27/26M5C11: . . . . . Link with other circuits, i.e. special connections between synchronisation arrangements and other circuits for achieving synchronisation
   T04L27/26M5C11A: . . . . . . involving interference determination or cancellation interference mitigation or coordination in orthogonal multiplex systems in general H04J11/00F
   T04L27/26M5C11B: . . . . . . with preamble design, i.e. with negotiation of the synchronisation sequence with transmitter or sequence linked to the algorithm used at the receiver
   T04L27/26M5C11B1: . . . . . . . adaptive design
   T04L27/26M5C11C: . . . . . . with channel estimation, e.g. determination of delay spread, derivative or peak tracking channel estimation per se H04L25/02C
   T04L27/26M5C3: . . . . . Carrier synchronisation
   T04L27/26M5C3A: . . . . . . Coarse or integer frequency offset determination and synchronisation
   T04L27/26M5C3B: . . . . . . Fine or fractional frequency offset determination and synchronisation
   T04L27/26M5C5: . . . . . Symbol synchronisation
   T04L27/26M5C5A: . . . . . . Coarse synchronisation, e.g. by correlation
   T04L27/26M5C5B: . . . . . . Fine synchronisation, e.g. by positioning the FFT window
   T04L27/26M5C7: . . . . . Acquisition of further OFDM parameters, e.g. bandwidth, subcarrier spacing, or guard interval length
   T04L27/26M5C9: . . . . . Details of algorithms
   T04L27/26M5C9A: . . . . . . characterised by the domain of operation
   T04L27/26M5C9A1: . . . . . . . Time domain
   T04L27/26M5C9A2: . . . . . . . Frequency domain
   T04L27/26M5C9B: . . . . . . characterised by synchronisation parameters
   T04L27/26M5C9B1: . . . . . . . Pilot or known symbols structure of pilot symbols H04L27/26M1R3; cell search in orthogonal multiplex systems H04J11/00J; allocation of pilot signals H04L5/00C5
   T04L27/26M5C9B2: . . . . . . . Blind, i.e. without using known symbols
   T04L27/26M5C9B2A: . . . . . . . . using cyclostationarities, e.g. cyclic prefix or postfix
   T04L27/26M5C9B2B: . . . . . . . . Decision-aided
   T04L27/26M5C9C: . . . . . . characterised by constraints
   T04L27/26M5C9C1: . . . . . . . Precision
   T04L27/26M5C9C2: . . . . . . . Complexity
   T04L27/26M5C9C3: . . . . . . . Speed of convergence
   T04L27/26M5C9C4: . . . . . . . Range of frequencies or delays tested
   T04L27/26M5C9C5: . . . . . . . Resistance to perturbation, e.g. noise, interference or fading
   T04L27/26M7: . . . in combination with other modulation techniques
   T04L27/26M7M: . . . . double density OFDM/OQAM system, e.g. OFDM/OQAM-IOTA system
   T04L27/28: . . with simultaneous transmission of different frequencies each representing one code element
   T04L27/30: . . wherein each code element is represented by a combination of frequencies
   T04L27/32: Carrier systems characterised by combinations of two or more of the types covered by groups H04L27/02 , H04L27/10 , H04L27/18 or H04L27/26
   T04L27/34: . . Amplitude- and phase-modulated carrier systems, e.g. quadrature-amplitude modulated carrier systems
   T04L27/34C: . . . Modifications of the signal space to increase the efficiency of transmission, e.g. reduction of the bit error rate, bandwidth, or average power
   T04L27/34C1: . . . . reducing the peak to average power ratio or the mean power of the constellation; Arrangements for increasing the shape gain of a signal set
   T04L27/34C3: . . . . in which the information is carried by both the individual signal points and the subset to which the individual points belong, e.g. using coset coding, lattice coding, or related schemes
   T04L27/34C3A: . . . . . in which the constellation is not the n - fold Cartesian product of a single underlying two-dimensional constellation
   T04L27/34C3C: . . . . . in which the constellation is the n - fold Cartesian product of a single underlying two-dimensional constellation
   T04L27/34C3C1: . . . . . . using an underlying square constellation
   T04L27/34C3C3: . . . . . . using an underlying generalised cross constellation
   T04L27/34C5: . . . . [N: by applying a certain rotation to regular constellations]
   T04L27/34E: . . . Modifications of the signal space to allow the transmission of additional information
   T04L27/34E1: . . . . in order to facilitate carrier recovery at the receiver end, e.g. by transmitting a pilot or by using additional signal points to allow the detection of rotations
   T04L27/34E3: . . . . in order to transmit a subchannel
   T04L27/34E3A: . . . . . by providing an alternative to one signal point
   T04L27/34E3C: . . . . . by switching between alternative constellations
   T04L27/34E3E: . . . . . by using the outer points of the constellation or of the constituent two-dimensional constellations
   T04L27/34E3S: . . . . . using a modulation of the constellation points
   T04L27/34M: . . . Multiresolution systems
   T04L27/34N: . . . using non - square modulating pulses, e.g. using raised cosine pulses; Partial response QAM, i.e. with partial response pulse shaping QAM over partial response channels H04L25/497
   T04L27/36: . . . Modulator circuits; Transmitter circuits
   T04L27/36A: . . . . Modulation using a single or unspecified number of carriers, e.g. with separate stages of phase and amplitude modulation
   T04L27/36B: . . . . Modulation using more than one carrier, e.g. with quadrature carriers, separately amplitude modulated H04L27/36G takes precedence
   T04L27/36B1: . . . . . using non - square modulating pulses, modulators specifically designed for this transmission of non - square QAM H04L27/34N
   T04L27/36B3: . . . . . Arrangements for overcoming imperfections in the modulator, e.g. quadrature error or unbalanced I and Q levels
   T04L27/36D: . . . . Modulation using digital generation of the modulated carrier (not including modulation of a digitally generated carrier)
   T04L27/36G: . . . . Arrangements for compensating undesirable properties of the transmission path between the modulator and the demodulator
   T04L27/36G1: . . . . . using predistortion
   T04L27/36G1A: . . . . . . adaptive predistortion
   T04L27/38: . . . Demodulator circuits; Receiver circuits
   T04L27/38A: . . . . Amplitude regulation arrangements
   T04L27/38C: . . . . using coherent demodulation, i.e. using one or more nominally phase synchronous carriers H04L27/227 and H04L27/38S take precedence
   T04L27/38C1: . . . . . in which the carrier is recovered using only the demodulated baseband signals
   T04L27/38C2: . . . . . in which the carrier is recovered using the received modulated signal or the received IF signal, e.g. by detecting a pilot or by frequency multiplication
   T04L27/38N: . . . . using non - coherent demodulation, i.e. not using a phase synchronous carrier
   T04L27/38N2: . . . . . using a non - coherent carrier, including systems with baseband correction for phase or frequency offset
   T04L27/38N2A: . . . . . . Compensation for quadrature error in the received signal
   T04L27/38N2B: . . . . . . Compensation for phase rotation in the demodulated signal
   T04L27/38N5: . . . . . using sampling and digital processing, not including digital systems which imitate heterodyne or homodyne demodulation
   T04L27/38S: . . . . with separate demodulation for the phase and amplitude components
   T04L29/00: Arrangements, apparatus, circuits or systems, not covered by a single one of groups 1:00 to 27:00 (not used)
   T04L29/12A4C: . . . . for version compatibility, e.g. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) to Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)
   T04L29/12A9E: . . . . Transport address specific
   T04L29/02: Communication control; Communication processing (not used)
   T04L29/04: . . for plural communication lines contains provisionally no documents
   T04L29/06: . . characterised by a protocol
   T04L29/06A: . . . Protocol performance
   T04L29/06B: . . . Protocol definition or specification
   T04L29/06C: . . . Protocols characterised by their application
   T04L29/06C2: . . . . Protocols for multimedia communication
   T04L29/06C4: . . . . Protocols for telewriting; Protocols for networked simulations, virtual reality or games
   T04L29/06C5: . . . . Protocols for data compression compression in general H03M7/30
   T04L29/06C6: . . . . Protocols or architecture for network security
   T04L29/06C6B: . . . . . Separating internal and external traffic according to information in the packet header other than application
   T04L29/06C6C: . . . . . Separating internal and external traffic per application, e.g. Proxies
   T04L29/06C6D: . . . . . Cryptography
   T04L29/06C6D2: . . . . . . Symmetric cryptography
   T04L29/06C6D4: . . . . . . Asymmetric cryptography
   T04L29/06C6D4A: . . . . . . . Digital signatures; Certificates
   T04L29/06C6D6: . . . . . . Keys distribution
   T04L29/06C6D6A: . . . . . . . Hierarchical distribution
   T04L29/06C6E: . . . . . List of authorised users, e.g. access control lists (ACL)
   T04L29/06C6F: . . . . . Kerberos
   T04L29/06C6G: . . . . . Smartcards; PIN
   T04L29/06C6H: . . . . . Permissions; Attributes
   T04L29/06C6J: . . . . . Passwords
   T04L29/06C6K: . . . . . Security using high level applications, e.g. Java
   T04L29/06C6L: . . . . . Multiple levels of security; Security according to groups of users
   T04L29/06C6M: . . . . . Profiles; Policing
   T04L29/06C6N: . . . . . Electronic transactions, e.g. e-commerce
   T04L29/06C6R: . . . . . Virtual private networks (VPN)
   T04L29/06C8: . . . . Protocols for client-server architecture
   T04L29/06C8A: . . . . . Access to distributed or replicated servers, e.g. using brokers
   T04L29/06D: . . . Notations for structuring of protocol data, e.g. Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN 1)
   T04L29/06E: . . . Protocols for interworking or protocol conversion
   T04L29/06F: . . . Streamlined, light-weight or high-speed protocols, e.g. express transfer protocol (XTP), byte stream
   T04L29/06G: . . . Protocol engines, e.g. VLSIs, transputer
   T04L29/06H: . . . Multichannel or multilink protocols
   T04L29/06J: . . . Special adaptations or provisions of the transmission control protocol/internet protocol [TCP/IP or the user datagram protocol [UDP]
   T04L29/06J1: . . . . Provisions for terminal portability in the internet, e.g. mobile IP
   T04L29/06J11: . . . . involving combined use or selection criteria between TCP and UDP protocols
   T04L29/06J13: . . . . IP fragmentation or TCP segmentation aspects
   T04L29/06J15: . . . . Transitional provisions between IPv4 and IPv6
   T04L29/06J17: . . . . Special adaptations of TCP, UDP or IP to match specific link layer protocols, e.g. ATM, SONET or PPP
   T04L29/06J19: . . . . Special adaptations of TCP, UDP or IP for interworking of IP based networks with other networks
   T04L29/06J3: . . . . Implementation details of TCP/IP or UDP/IP stack architecture; specification of modified or new header fields
   T04L29/06J3S: . . . . . involving adaptations of sockets based mechanisms
   T04L29/06J7: . . . . Adaptation of TCP data exchange control procedures
   T04L29/06J9: . . . . Adaptation or special uses of UDP protocol
   T04L29/06K: . . . Multi-protocol handler, e.g. single device capable of handling multiple protocols
   T04L29/06L: . . . Protocols for remote procedure call
   T04L29/06M: . . . Arrangements for real-time multimedia communications
   T04L29/06M2: . . . . Signalling, control or architecture
   T04L29/06M2H: . . . . . Signalling or session protocols
   T04L29/06M2H2: . . . . . . SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
   T04L29/06M2H4: . . . . . . H.323
   T04L29/06M2N: . . . . . Network architectures, gateways, control or user entities
   T04L29/06M2N1: . . . . . . IMS (IP multimedia subsystem) (wireless communication networks H04W)
   T04L29/06M2N2: . . . . . . Gateways
   T04L29/06M2N2M: . . . . . . . Media gateways
   T04L29/06M2N2M2: . . . . . . . . at the edge
   T04L29/06M2N2M4: . . . . . . . . in the network
   T04L29/06M2N2S: . . . . . . . Signalling gateways
   T04L29/06M2N2S2: . . . . . . . . at the edge
   T04L29/06M2N2S4: . . . . . . . . in the network
   T04L29/06M2N3: . . . . . . MGC
   T04L29/06M2N4: . . . . . . Call controllers; Call servers
   T04L29/06M2N5: . . . . . . Proxies, e.g. SIP proxies
   T04L29/06M2N6: . . . . . . Arrangements providing PBX functionality, e.g. IP PBX
   T04L29/06M2N6M: . . . . . . . for multi-site
   T04L29/06M2N7: . . . . . . End-user terminal functionality
   T04L29/06M2N8: . . . . . . Application servers
   T04L29/06M2S: . . . . . Session control
   T04L29/06M2S1: . . . . . . Setup
   T04L29/06M2S2: . . . . . . Registration
   T04L29/06M2S3: . . . . . . Screening
   T04L29/06M2S3S: . . . . . . . of unsolicited session attempts, e.g. SPIT
   T04L29/06M2S4: . . . . . . In-session procedures
   T04L29/06M2S4M: . . . . . . . session scope modification
   T04L29/06M2S4M2: . . . . . . . . by adding or removing media
   T04L29/06M2S4M4: . . . . . . . . by adding or removing participants
   T04L29/06M2S5: . . . . . . Features, e.g. call-forwarding or call hold
   T04L29/06M4: . . . . Services or applications
   T04L29/06M4A: . . . . . Services involving a main real time session and one or more additional parallel sessions
   T04L29/06M4A2: . . . . . . where at least one of the additional parallel sessions is real time or time sensitive, e.g. white board sharing, collaboration, spawning of a subconference
   T04L29/06M4A4: . . . . . . where none of the additional parallel sessions is real time or time sensitive, e.g. downloading a file in a parallel FTP session, initiating an email, combinational services
   T04L29/06M4C: . . . . . Arrangements for multiparty communication e.g. conference
   T04L29/06M4C2: . . . . . . with central floor control
   T04L29/06M4C4: . . . . . . with distributed floor control
   T04L29/06M4C6: . . . . . . without floor control
   T04L29/06M4P: . . . . . "Push-to-X" services
   T04L29/06M4S: . . . . . Services related to one way streaming
   T04L29/06M4S2: . . . . . . Multicast or broadcast
   T04L29/06M4S4: . . . . . . Content on demand
   T04L29/06M4S6: . . . . . . Control of source by destination, e.g. user controlling streaming rate of server
   T04L29/06M6: . . . . Media handling, encoding, streaming or conversion
   T04L29/06M6C: . . . . . Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion
   T04L29/06M6C2: . . . . . . at the source
   T04L29/06M6C4: . . . . . . at the destination
   T04L29/06M6C6: . . . . . . intermediate
   T04L29/06M6E: . . . . . Stream encoding details
   T04L29/06M6P: . . . . . Streaming protocols, e.g. RTP, RTCP
   T04L29/06M8: . . . . Quality of Service
   T04L29/06N: . . . Header parsing and analysis
   T04L29/06P: . . . Negotiation of communication capabilities
   T04L29/06R: . . . Special purpose or proprietary protocols or architectures
   T04L29/06S: . . . Arrangements for Network Security
   T04L29/06S10: . . . . Access control
   T04L29/06S10A: . . . . . Access control lists (ACL)
   T04L29/06S10B: . . . . . User profiles
   T04L29/06S10C: . . . . . Grouping of users
   T04L29/06S10D: . . . . . Multiple levels of security
   T04L29/06S12: . . . . Verifying the information received
   T04L29/06S12A: . . . . . Checking the content, e.g. message integrity
   T04L29/06S12B: . . . . . Checking the source, e.g. non-repudiation
   T04L29/06S14: . . . . Detection of malicious traffic; protection against malicious traffic
   T04L29/06S14A: . . . . . Monitoring network traffic
   T04L29/06S14A1: . . . . . . Event detection
   T04L29/06S14A2: . . . . . . Traffic logging
   T04L29/06S14C: . . . . . Vulnerability analysis
   T04L29/06S14D: . . . . . Countermeasures against attacks
   T04L29/06S14D1: . . . . . . Viruses; Trojans; Worms
   T04L29/06S14D2: . . . . . . Denial of Service
   T04L29/06S14D4: . . . . . . Session hijacking, e.g. TCP sequence number attacks
   T04L29/06S14D6: . . . . . . Session spying, e.g. eavesdropping
   T04L29/06S16: . . . . Security features implemented at a particular protocol layer
   T04L29/06S16A: . . . . . at the data link layer, e.g. SILS, EAP
   T04L29/06S16C: . . . . . at the network layer, e.g. IPSec AH, ESP
   T04L29/06S16E: . . . . . at the transport layer, e.g. SSL, TLS
   T04L29/06S16G: . . . . . above the transport layer, e.g. https, JAVA
   T04L29/06S18: . . . . using a different network or path for securing the traffic
   T04L29/06S2: . . . . Separating internal and external traffic, e.g. firewalls
   T04L29/06S20: . . . . Security management; Security policies in general
   T04L29/06S2A: . . . . . Architectural arrangements, e.g. perimeter networks, demilitarized zones
   T04L29/06S2A1: . . . . . . Distributed architectures
   T04L29/06S2B: . . . . . Filtering policies
   T04L29/06S2B1: . . . . . . Filtering by address, protocol, port number or service, e.g. IP-address, URL
   T04L29/06S2B2: . . . . . . Filtering by information in the payload
   T04L29/06S2B4: . . . . . . Stateful filtering
   T04L29/06S2B6: . . . . . . Rule management
   T04L29/06S2C: . . . . . Virtual private networks
   T04L29/06S2D: . . . . . Proxies
   T04L29/06S2E: . . . . . Firewall traversal, e.g. tunnelling, creating pinholes
   T04L29/06S4: . . . . Protecting information from access by third parties
   T04L29/06S4A: . . . . . Protecting a party's identity, e.g. anonymous communication
   T04L29/06S4A2: . . . . . . during transmission, i.e. identity only known to the other party or parties involved in the communication
   T04L29/06S4A4: . . . . . . Anonymous communication, i.e. identity not known to any party at all
   T04L29/06S4B: . . . . . Protecting the content, e.g. encryption
   T04L29/06S4B1: . . . . . . using symmetric encryption, i.e. same key used for encryption and decryption
   T04L29/06S4B2: . . . . . . using asymmetric encryption, i.e. different keys for encryption and decryption
   T04L29/06S4B4: . . . . . . using hybrid encryption, i.e. combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption
   T04L29/06S4B6: . . . . . . using dynamic encryption, e.g. stream encryption
   T04L29/06S4B8: . . . . . . Re-encryption
   T04L29/06S4B9: . . . . . . Hardware and software architectures for enhanced packet encryption processing
   T04L29/06S6: . . . . Key management
   T04L29/06S6A: . . . . . Key exchange, e.g. in peer-to-peer networks
   T04L29/06S6B: . . . . . Key distribution, e.g. centrally by trusted party
   T04L29/06S6B1: . . . . . . Hierarchical key distribution, e.g. by multi-tier trusted parties
   T04L29/06S6C: . . . . . for group communications
   T04L29/06S6D: . . . . . One-time keys
   T04L29/06S6E: . . . . . Time-dependent keys, e.g. periodically changing keys
   T04L29/06S8: . . . . Authentication mechanisms
   T04L29/06S8A: . . . . . Tickets, e.g. Kerberos
   T04L29/06S8B: . . . . . Single-sign-on
   T04L29/06S8C: . . . . . Certificates
   T04L29/06S8D: . . . . . Passwords
   T04L29/06S8D1: . . . . . . One-time-passwords
   T04L29/06S8D2: . . . . . . Time-dependent-passwords, e.g. periodically changing passwords
   T04L29/06S8E: . . . . . using an additional device, e.g. smartcard, SIM
   T04L29/06S8F: . . . . . using biometrical features, e.g. fingerprint, retina-scan
   T04L29/06S8G: . . . . . Mutual authentication
   T04L29/06T: . . . Timer mechanisms used in protocols
   T04L29/08: . . . Transmission control procedure, e.g. data link level control procedure
   T04L29/08A: . . . . Open systems interconnection (OSI) architecture, e.g. layering, entities, standards; Interface between layers; Software aspects
   T04L29/08A1: . . . . . Physical layer, i.e. layer one
   T04L29/08A2: . . . . . Data link layer, i.e. layer two, e.g. HDLC
   T04L29/08A3: . . . . . Network layer, i.e. layer three, e.g. X.25
   T04L29/08A4: . . . . . Transport layer, i.e. layer four
   T04L29/08A5: . . . . . Session layer, i.e. layer five
   T04L29/08A6: . . . . . Presentation layer, i.e. layer six
   T04L29/08A7: . . . . . Application layer, i.e. layer seven
   T04L29/08N: . . . . Protocols for network applications
   T04L29/08N1: . . . . . involving the use of web-based technology, e.g. Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
   T04L29/08N11: . . . . . adapted for proprietary or special purpose networking environments, e.g. medical networks, sensor networks, networks in a car
   T04L29/08N11M: . . . . . . involving the management of devices over a network
   T04L29/08N13: . . . . . Arrangements for session management
   T04L29/08N13A: . . . . . . provided for setup of an application session
   T04L29/08N13B: . . . . . . provided for managing session state for stateless protocols, e.g. HTTP; Signalling a session state; State transitions; Keeping-state mechanisms
   T04L29/08N13C: . . . . . . provided for session termination, e.g., event controlled end of session
   T04L29/08N13C1: . . . . . . . provided for avoiding end of session (e.g. keep-alive, heartbeats, resumption message, wake-up for inactive or interrupted session)
   T04L29/08N13J: . . . . . . markers provided for unambiguous identification of a particular session, e.g. session identifier, session cookie or URL-encoding
   T04L29/08N13M: . . . . . . provided for signalling methods or particular messages providing extensions to IETF, ITU, ETSI or 3GPP protocols, e.g. additional proprietary messages, standard messages enhanced by additional header fields or standard messages being used for purposes other than originally intended
   T04L29/08N13T: . . . . . . provided for migration or transfer of sessions
   T04L29/08N15: . . . . . Arrangements for service discovery, e.g. Service Location Protocol
   T04L29/08N17: . . . . . in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal
   T04L29/08N19: . . . . . involving third party service providers
   T04L29/08N1A: . . . . . . for remote control or remote monitoring
   T04L29/08N21: . . . . . Arrangements for tracking the activity of the application user
   T04L29/08N23: . . . . . Arrangements for presence management
   T04L29/08N25: . . . . . Arrangements for push based network services
   T04L29/08N27: . . . . . involving intermediate processing or storage in the network, e.g. proxy
   T04L29/08N27A: . . . . . . Arrangements for adding application control or application functional data, e.g. adding metadata
   T04L29/08N27B: . . . . . . Arrangements for brokering
   T04L29/08N27C: . . . . . . Arrangements for intermediate storage, e.g. caching
   T04L29/08N27D: . . . . . . Arrangements for data redirection
   T04L29/08N27E: . . . . . . Arrangements for evaluation of intercepted application data aiming at enhancement of application control
   T04L29/08N27F: . . . . . . Arrangements for conversion or adaptation of application content or format
   T04L29/08N27G: . . . . . . Arrangements for grouping or aggregating service requests, e.g. for unified processing of service requests
   T04L29/08N27I: . . . . . . Arrangements for integrating service provisioning from a plurality of service providers
   T04L29/08N27L: . . . . . . Arrangements for reducing the amount or size of exchanged application data
   T04L29/08N27R: . . . . . . Arrangements for data reduction and/or adaptation
   T04L29/08N27S: . . . . . . Arrangements for storing temporarily data at an intermediate stage, e.g. caching
   T04L29/08N27S2: . . . . . . . involving pre-fetching or pre-delivering data
   T04L29/08N27S4: . . . . . . . involving policies or rules for updating, deleting or replacing the stored data
   T04L29/08N27S6: . . . . . . . involving storage of data provided by user terminals, i.e. reverse caching
   T04L29/08N27U: . . . . . . Arrangements for providing operational support to end devices when they are unavailable, e.g. being off-line; off-loading of end devices
   T04L29/08N27V: . . . . . . Arrangements to globally emulate or virtualize the functionalities of an end device
   T04L29/08N27X: . . . . . . Architectural aspects
   T04L29/08N27X1: . . . . . . . Implementation details of a single intermediate entity
   T04L29/08N27X2: . . . . . . . Pairs of interprocessing entities at each side of the network, e.g. split proxies
   T04L29/08N27X4: . . . . . . . Distributed intermediate devices, i.e. intermediate device interaction with other intermediate devices on the same level
   T04L29/08N27X6: . . . . . . . Hierarchically arranged intermediate devices, e.g. hierarchical caching
   T04L29/08N27X8: . . . . . . . where the intermediate processing is functionally located closer to the data consumer application, e.g. in same machine, in same home or in same subnetwork
   T04L29/08N27X9: . . . . . . . where the intermediate processing is functionally located closer to the data provider application, e.g. reverse proxies; in same machine, in same cluster or subnetwork
   T04L29/08N29: . . . . . involving profiles
   T04L29/08N29T: . . . . . . Terminal profiles
   T04L29/08N29U: . . . . . . User profiles
   T04L29/08N3: . . . . . adapted for terminals and/or networks with limited resources and for terminal portability, e.g. Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
   T04L29/08N31: . . . . . Arrangements for scheduling and organising the servicing of requests, e.g. requests for data transmissions involving the analysis and optimisation of the required network resources
   T04L29/08N31Q: . . . . . . whereby quality of service and priority requirements are taken into account
   T04L29/08N31T: . . . . . . whereby a time schedule is established for servicing the requests
   T04L29/08N31Y: . . . . . . whereby the routing of a service request to a node providing the service depends on the content and context of the request, e.g. profile, connectivity status
   T04L29/08N33: . . . . . involving the movement of software and/or configuration parameters, e.g. applets
   T04L29/08N35: . . . . . involving the display to the application user of network conditions affecting the network application
   T04L29/08N5: . . . . . adapted for file transfer, e.g. File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
   T04L29/08N7: . . . . . adapted for terminal emulation, e.g. telnet
   T04L29/08N9: . . . . . in which application tasks are distributed across nodes in the network
   T04L29/08N9A: . . . . . . Network arrangements or communication protocol arrangements for accessing one among a plurality of replicated servers, e.g. load balancing [M1111]
   T04L29/08N9A1: . . . . . . . Server selection in load balancing
   T04L29/08N9A11: . . . . . . . Reaction to server failures by a load balancer
   T04L29/08N9A13: . . . . . . . Load balancing of requests to servers for services different from user content provisioning, e.g. load balancing to DNS servers or firewalls
   T04L29/08N9A15: . . . . . . . Load balancing arrangements to avoid a single path through a load balancer
   T04L29/08N9A1A: . . . . . . . . with static server selection, e.g. the same server being selected for a specific client
   T04L29/08N9A1B: . . . . . . . . based on parameters of servers, e.g. available memory or workload
   T04L29/08N9A1C: . . . . . . . . based on network conditions
   T04L29/08N9A1D: . . . . . . . . based on compliance of requirements or conditions with available server resources
   T04L29/08N9A1E: . . . . . . . . based on the content of a request
   T04L29/08N9A1F: . . . . . . . . based on round robin mechanisms
   T04L29/08N9A1G: . . . . . . . . based on random server selection
   T04L29/08N9A1H: . . . . . . . . based on locations of client and servers
   T04L29/08N9A1J: . . . . . . . . based on other criteria, e.g., hash applied to IP address, specific algorithms or cost
   T04L29/08N9A3: . . . . . . . Dynamic adaptation of server selection criteria for load balancing
   T04L29/08N9A5: . . . . . . . Persistence of sessions during load balancing
   T04L29/08N9A7: . . . . . . . Collection and organization of data related to the state of servers by a load balancer
   T04L29/08N9A9: . . . . . . . Controlling of the operation of servers by a load balancer, e.g. adding or removing servers that serve requests
   T04L29/08N9P: . . . . . . Arrangements for peer-to-peer networking [P2P; functionalities, architectural details or applications of P2P networks ]
   T04L29/08N9P1: . . . . . . . involving topology management mechanisms
   T04L29/08N9P1A: . . . . . . . . Group management mechanisms
   T04L29/08N9P1A1: . . . . . . . . . Joining mechanisms
   T04L29/08N9P1A2: . . . . . . . . . Departure and maintenance mechanisms
   T04L29/08N9P1A4: . . . . . . . . . Group master selection mechanisms
   T04L29/08N9P1A5: . . . . . . . . . with pre-configuration of logical or physical connections with a determined number of other peers
   T04L29/08N9P1A5L: involving connection limits
   T04L29/08N9P1A5T: involving pre-assessment of levels of reputation of peers
   T04L29/08N9P1B: . . . . . . . . Inter-group management mechanisms, e.g. splitting, merging or interconnection of groups
   T04L29/08N9P2: . . . . . . . involving resource based peer discovery mechanisms
   T04L29/08N9P2A: . . . . . . . . Discovery through centralizing entities
   T04L29/08N9P2B: . . . . . . . . Discovery involving distributed pre-established resource-based relationships among peers; e.g. based on DHTs
   T04L29/08N9P2C: . . . . . . . . Discovery involving direct consultation/announcement among potential requesting and potential source peers
   T04L29/08N9P2C1: . . . . . . . . . with limitation/expansion of the discovery scope
   T04L29/08N9P2D: . . . . . . . . Discovery involving ranked list compilation of candidate peers
   T04L29/08N9P3: . . . . . . . involving resource distribution mechanisms
   T04L29/08N9P3A: . . . . . . . . Resource dissemination mechanisms and resource keeping policies for optimal resource availability in the overlay network
   T04L29/08N9P3C: . . . . . . . . Resource delivery mechanisms
   T04L29/08N9P3C1: . . . . . . . . . characterized by resources being split in blocks or fragments
   T04L29/08N9P3C2: . . . . . . . . . involving incentive schemes
   T04L29/08N9P3C3: . . . . . . . . . involving dynamic management of active down/uploading connections
   T04L29/08N9P8: . . . . . . . involving cross functional aspects
   T04L29/08N9P8A: . . . . . . . . Hierarchical topologies
   T04L29/08N9P8B: . . . . . . . . Interfacing with client/server systems and between P2P systems
   T04L29/08N9P8C: . . . . . . . . Some peer nodes performing special functions
   T04L29/08N9R: . . . . . . Arrangements for replication or mirroring of data, e.g. data synchronisation between network nodes and/or user terminals
   T04L29/08N9S: . . . . . . Arrangements and networking functions for distributed storage of data in a network, e.g. Storage Area Networks (SAN), Network Attached Storage (NAS)
   T04L29/10: . . characterised by an interface, e.g. the interface between the data link level and the physical level
   T04L29/12: characterised by the data terminal
   T04L29/12A: . . Arrangements for addressing and naming in data networks
   T04L29/12A1: . . . Address resolution
   T04L29/12A1A: . . . . across network layers, e.g. resolution of network layer into physical layer addresses, Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)
   T04L29/12A1B: . . . . across networks, e.g. mapping telephone numbers to data network addresses]
   T04L29/12A2: . . . Directories; name-to-address mapping
   T04L29/12A2A: . . . . involving standard directories and standard directory access protocols
   T04L29/12A2A1: . . . . . using Domain Name System (DNS)
   T04L29/12A2A2: . . . . . using Open Systems Interconnection Directories, i.e. X.500
   T04L29/12A2A3: . . . . . using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
   T04L29/12A2A4: . . . . . using Voice over IP (VoIP) directories, e.g. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) registrar or H.323 gatekeeper
   T04L29/12A2B: . . . . using an address exchange platform which sets up a session between two nodes, e.g. Rendezvous server
   T04L29/12A2C: . . . . for service discovery
   T04L29/12A2D: . . . . for personal communications, i.e. using a personal identifier
   T04L29/12A2E: . . . . Mechanisms for table lookup, also between directories; Directory data structures; Synchronization of directories
   T04L29/12A2F: . . . . Object oriented directories, e.g. Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) name server
   T04L29/12A2G: . . . . Directories for electronic mail or instant messaging
   T04L29/12A2H: . . . . Directories for hybrid networks, e.g. including also telephone numbers
   T04L29/12A2I: . . . . Metadirectories, i.e. all encompassing global directory which interfaces to various underlying directories
   T04L29/12A2J: . . . . containing identifiers of data entities on a computer, e.g. file names
   T04L29/12A2K: . . . . containing mobile subscriber information, e.g. Home Subscriber Server (HSS)
   T04L29/12A2L: . . . . Address books, i.e. directories containing contact information about correspondents, e.g. on a user device
   T04L29/12A3: . . . Address allocation
   T04L29/12A3A: . . . . Internet Protocol (IP) addresses
   T04L29/12A3A1: . . . . . using the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) or variants
   T04L29/12A3A2: . . . . . using the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) or variants
   T04L29/12A3A3: . . . . . using an authentication, authorization and accounting [AAA protocol, e.g. remote authentication dial-in user service [RADIUS] or diameter ]
   T04L29/12A3B: . . . . for local use, e.g. on Local Area Networks (LAN) or on Universal Serial Bus (USB) networks
   T04L29/12A3C: . . . . involving the solving of address allocation conflicts; involving testing of addresses
   T04L29/12A3D: . . . . involving timing and renewal aspects
   T04L29/12A3E: . . . . involving aspects of pools of addresses, e.g. assignment of different pools of addresses to different Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers
   T04L29/12A3F: . . . . for group-, multicast- and broadcast-communication
   T04L29/12A3G: . . . . involving update or notification mechanisms, e.g. update of a Domain Name Server with Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigned addresses
   T04L29/12A3H: . . . . involving portability aspects
   T04L29/12A3I: . . . . by self assignment, e.g. pick address randomly and test if already in use
   T04L29/12A4: . . . Mapping of addresses of the same type; Address translation
   T04L29/12A4A: . . . . Internet Protocol (IP) address translation
   T04L29/12A4A1: . . . . . Translating between special types of IP addresses
   T04L29/12A4A1A: . . . . . . between different IP versions
   T04L29/12A4A1B: . . . . . . between local and global IP addresses
   T04L29/12A4A1C: . . . . . . involving port numbers
   T04L29/12A4A2: . . . . . Special translation architecture, different from a single Network Address Translation (NAT) server
   T04L29/12A4A2A: . . . . . . Translation at a client
   T04L29/12A4A2B: . . . . . . Translation at a proxy
   T04L29/12A4A2C: . . . . . . Clique of NAT servers
   T04L29/12A4A2D: . . . . . . Multiple local networks, e.g. resolving potential IP address conflicts
   T04L29/12A4A3: . . . . . for hiding addresses or keeping them anonymous
   T04L29/12A4A4: . . . . . involving dual-stack hosts
   T04L29/12A4A5: . . . . . Mechanisms for avoiding unnecessary translation
   T04L29/12A4A6: . . . . . Map-table maintenance and indexing
   T04L29/12A4A6A: . . . . . . Binding renewal aspects; Keep-alive messages
   T04L29/12A4A7: . . . . . Translation policies and rules
   T04L29/12A4A8: . . . . . NAT-Traversal
   T04L29/12A4A8A: . . . . . . for a higher-layer protocol, e.g. for SIP
   T04L29/12A4A8B: . . . . . . for reachability, e.g. inquiring the address of a correspondent behind a NAT server
   T04L29/12A4A8C: . . . . . . for identification, e.g. for authentication, for billing
   T04L29/12A4A8D: . . . . . . using address mapping retrieval, e.g. Simple Traversal of UDP through NATs (STUN)
   T04L29/12A4A8E: . . . . . . transparent to the NAT server
   T04L29/12A4A8F: . . . . . . through control of the NAT server, e.g. using Universal Plug and Play (UPnP)
   T04L29/12A4A8G: . . . . . . through Application Level Gateway (ALG)
   T04L29/12A4A8H: . . . . . . over a relay server, e.g. traversal using relay NAT [TURN]
   T04L29/12A4A9: . . . . . involving tunneling or encapsulation
   T04L29/12A4B: . . . . Non-IP address translation
   T04L29/12A5: . . . Arrangements for managing names, e.g. use of aliases or nicknames
   T04L29/12A5A: . . . . Mechanisms for avoiding name conflicts
   T04L29/12A5C: . . . . Name conversion
   T04L29/12A5R: . . . . Name registration, generation or assignment
   T04L29/12A5R1: . . . . . Administrative registration, e.g. for domain names at internet corporation for assigned names and numbers [ICANN ]
   T04L29/12A5R2: . . . . . Domain name generation or assignment
   T04L29/12A5S: . . . . Name structure
   T04L29/12A5S1: . . . . . containing non-Latin characters, e.g. Chinese domain names
   T04L29/12A5S2: . . . . . containing protocol addresses or telephone numbers
   T04L29/12A5S3: . . . . . containing wildcard characters
   T04L29/12A5S4: . . . . . containing special prefixes
   T04L29/12A5S5: . . . . . containing special suffixes
   T04L29/12A5T: . . . . Name types
   T04L29/12A5T1: . . . . . Application layer names, e.g. buddy name, unstructured name chosen by a user or home appliance name
   T04L29/12A5T2: . . . . . E-mail addresses
   T04L29/12A5T4: . . . . . Access point names [APN, i.e. name of a gateway GPRS support node [GGSN] connecting a mobile user to a packet data network [PDN]]
   T04L29/12A5T5: . . . . . Telephone URI
   T04L29/12A5T6: . . . . . Session initiation protocol [SIP URI]
   T04L29/12A5T7: . . . . . Globally routable user-agent URI [GRUU for SIP]
   T04L29/12A5T8: . . . . . IP multimedia private identity [IMPI or IP multimedia public identity [IMPU]]
   T04L29/12A6: . . . involving non-standard use of addresses for implementing network functionalities, e.g. coding subscription information within the address, functional addressing, i.e. assigning an address to a function
   T04L29/12A9: . . . Details
   T04L29/12A9A: . . . . about the structures and formats of addresses]
   T04L29/12A9B: . . . . Caching of addresses
   T04L29/12A9C: . . . . Proxying of addresses
   T04L29/12A9D: . . . . about address types
   T04L29/12A9D11: . . . . . Layer 2 addresses, e.g. Medium Access Control (MAC) addresses
   T04L29/12A9D12: . . . . . Control Area Network
   T04L29/12A9D13: . . . . . Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) addresses
   T04L29/12A9D14: . . . . . IEEE1394 (FireWire) identification numbers
   T04L29/12A9D15: . . . . . Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) addresses
   T04L29/12A9D16: . . . . . Fibre channel identifiers
   T04L29/12A9D30: . . . . . Telephone numbers
   T04L29/12A9D40: . . . . . International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) numbers
   T04L29/12A9D50: . . . . . Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) addresses
   T04L29/12A9D60: . . . . . Transport layer addresses, e.g. aspects of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports
   T04L29/12A9F: . . . . IP addresses subnets
   T04L29/12A9G: . . . . Short addresses
   T04L29/12A9H: . . . . Multiple interfaces, e.g. multihomed nodes
   T04L29/12A9I: . . . . involving addresses for wireless personal area networks and wireless sensor networks, e.g. Zigbee addresses
   T04L29/12A9J: . . . . involving dual-stack hosts, e.g. in IPv4/IPv6 networks
   T04L29/12A9K: . . . . involving geographic information, e.g. room number
   T04L29/12A9L: . . . . involving masks or ranges of addresses
   T04L29/14: counter-measures to a fault
   T04L41/00: Arrangements for maintenance or administration or management of packet switching networks WARNINGGroups H04L41/00 - H04L41/50M5 do not correspond to former or current IPC groups.Concordance ECLA : IPC for these groups is as follows:- H04L41/00 - H04L41/50M5 : H04L12/24
   T04L41/02: involving integration or standardization
   T04L41/02A: . . using standardized network management architectures, e.g. telecommunication management network [TMN or unified network management architecture [UNMA]]
   T04L41/02B: . . using standardized network management protocols, e.g. simple network management protocol [SNMP or common management interface protocol [CMIP] ]
   T04L41/02C: . . Multivendor or multistandard integration
   T04L41/02D: . . Mapping or translation of multiple network management protocols
   T04L41/02E: . . using object oriented techniques, e.g. common object request broker architecture [CORBA for representation of network management data]]
   T04L41/02F: . . using relational databases for representation of network management data, e.g. managing via structured query language [SQL ]
   T04L41/02G: . . exchanging or transporting network management information using Internet , e.g. aspects relating to embedding network management web servers in network elements, web service for network management purposes, aspects related to Internet applications or services or web-based protocols, simple object access protocol [SOAP ]
   T04L41/02G1: . . . involving a browser or web-pages for accessing management information
   T04L41/02G2: . . . involving e-messaging for transporting management information, e.g. email, instant messaging or chat
   T04L41/02G3: . . . involving management internet meta-data, objects or commands, e.g. by using mark-up language
   T04L41/02G4: . . . [N: involving the use of web services for network management, e.g. SOAP
   T04L41/02G4A: . . . . for synchronization between service call and response
   T04L41/02G4B: . . . . for search or classification or discovery of web services providing management functionalities
   T04L41/02G4C: . . . . for accessing web services by means of a binding identification of the management service or element
   T04L41/04: Architectural aspects of network management arrangements
   T04L41/04A: . . Arrangements involving multiple distributed management centers cooperatively managing the network
   T04L41/04B: . . Arrangements involving a hierarchical management structure
   T04L41/04C: . . Aspects of network management agents
   T04L41/04C1: . . . mobile agents
   T04L41/06: involving management of faults or events or alarms
   T04L41/06A: . . Alarm or event filtering, e.g. for reduction of information
   T04L41/06A1: . . . based on severity or priority
   T04L41/06A2: . . . based on the type or category of the network elements
   T04L41/06A3: . . . based on the physical or logical position
   T04L41/06A4: . . . based on time
   T04L41/06A5: . . . by acting on the notification or alarm source
   T04L41/06B: . . Alarm or event or notifications correlation; Root cause analysis
   T04L41/06B1: . . . based on a decision tree analysis
   T04L41/06B2: . . . involving time analysis
   T04L41/06B3: . . . by additionally acting on or stimulating the network after receiving notifications
   T04L41/06B4: . . . involving logical or physical relationship, e.g. grouping and hierarchies
   T04L41/06C: . . Network fault recovery
   T04L41/06C1: . . . by isolating the faulty entity
   T04L41/06C1A: . . . . involving offline failover planning
   T04L41/06C2: . . . selecting new candidate element
   T04L41/06C3: . . . by re-configuring the faulty entity
   T04L41/06D: . . localization of fault position
   T04L41/06E: . . involving configuration of triggering conditions
   T04L41/06F: . . involving notification enrichment
   T04L41/06G: . . involving storage or log of alarms or notifications or post-processing thereof
   T04L41/06H: . . involving fault of the network management or monitoring system
   T04L41/08: Configuration management of network or network elements
   T04L41/08A: . . Configuration setting of network or network elements
   T04L41/08A1: . . . for initial configuration or provisioning
   T04L41/08A1A: . . . . Plug-and-play configuration
   T04L41/08A2: . . . Changing of configuration
   T04L41/08A2A: . . . . due to adaptation, e.g. in response to network events
   T04L41/08A2B: . . . . due to updating or upgrading of network functionality, e.g. firmware
   T04L41/08A3: . . . Configuration optimization
   T04L41/08A3A: . . . . for network cost reduction
   T04L41/08A3B: . . . . for network speed increase
   T04L41/08A3C: . . . . to reduce network energy consumption
   T04L41/08A3D: . . . . to enhance reliability, e.g. reduce downtime
   T04L41/08A4: . . . Configuration by copying
   T04L41/08A4A: . . . . based on generic templates
   T04L41/08A4B: . . . . based on copy from other elements
   T04L41/08B: . . Keeping track of network configuration
   T04L41/08B1: . . . by actively collecting or retrieving configuration information
   T04L41/08B2: . . . by archiving or backing up configuration information
   T04L41/08B3: . . . by keeping history of different configuration generations or versions
   T04L41/08B4: . . . by rolling back to previous configuration versions
   T04L41/08C: . . Checking configuration
   T04L41/08C1: . . . by validating configuration within one network element
   T04L41/08C2: . . . by checking configuration conflicts with other network elements
   T04L41/08D: . . Aspects of the degree of configuration automation
   T04L41/08D1: . . . Manual configuration through operator
   T04L41/08D2: . . . Semiautomatic configuration, e.g. proposals from system
   T04L41/08D3: . . . Fully automatic configuration
   T04L41/08E: . . Techniques to speed-up the configuration process
   T04L41/08F: . . Assignment of logical groupings to network elements; Policy based network management or configuration
   T04L41/08G: . . Bandwidth or capacity management, i.e. automatically increasing or decreasing capacities, e.g. bandwidth on demand
   T04L41/12: network topology discovery or management
   T04L41/14: involving network analysis or design, e.g. simulation, network model or planning
   T04L41/14A: . . using statistical or mathematical methods
   T04L41/14B: . . involving simulating, designing, planning or modelling of a network
   T04L41/14C: . . for prediction of network behaviour
   T04L41/16: Network management using artificial intelligence
   T04L41/18: Arrangements involving CNM [Customer Network Management]
   T04L41/20: Network management software packages
   T04L41/22: using GUI [Graphical User Interface]
   T04L41/24: using dedicated network management hardware
   T04L41/26: using dedicated tools for LAN [Local Area Network management]
   T04L41/28: Security in network management, e.g. restricting network management access
   T04L41/30: Decision processes by autonomous network management units using voting and bidding
   T04L41/32: Specific management aspects for broadband networks
   T04L41/50: Network service management, i.e. ensuring proper service fulfillment according to an agreement or contract between two parties, e.g. between an IT-provider and a customer
   T04L41/50A: . . Managing service level agreement [SLA or interaction between SLA and quality of service [QoS] ]
   T04L41/50A1: . . . Defining or negotiating SLA contracts, guarantees or penalties
   T04L41/50A2: . . . Determining service level performance, e.g. measuring SLA quality parameters, determining contract or guarantee violations, response time or mean time between failure [MTBF ]
   T04L41/50A2A: . . . . determining service availability, e.g. which services are available at a certain point in time
   T04L41/50A2A1: . . . . . based on statistics of service availability, e.g. in percentage or over a given time
   T04L41/50B: . . Ensuring SLA
   T04L41/50B1: . . . by giving priorities, e.g. assigning classes of service
   T04L41/50B2: . . . by proactively reacting to service quality change, e.g. degradation or upgrade, by reconfiguration
   T04L41/50C: . . Service quality level based billing, e.g. dependent on measured service level customer is charged more or less
   T04L41/50D: . . Generating service level reports
   T04L41/50E: . . Measuring contribution of individual network components to actual service level
   T04L41/50F: . . Testing of service level quality, e.g. simulating service usage
   T04L41/50G: . . Service implementation
   T04L41/50G1: . . . Making service definitions prior to deployment
   T04L41/50G2: . . . Automatic or semi-automatic definitions, e.g. definition templates
   T04L41/50G3: . . . Service on demand, i.e. services are defined and provided in real time as requested by the user
   T04L41/50G4: . . . [N: Automatic provisioning of the service triggered by the service manager, e.g. concrete service implementation by automatic configuration of network components
   T04L41/50H: . . Service discovery by the service manager
   T04L41/50J: . . Customer care
   T04L41/50J1: . . . Customer relationship management
   T04L41/50J2: . . . Customer-centric quality of service [QoS measurement]
   T04L41/50J3: . . . Filtering out customers affected by service problems
   T04L41/50J4: . . . Handling of trouble tickets
   T04L41/50L: . . wherein the managed service relates to simple transport services, i.e. providing only network infrastructure
   T04L41/50M: . . based on type of value added network service under agreement
   T04L41/50M1: . . . wherein the managed service relates to web hosting
   T04L41/50M2: . . . wherein the managed service relates to voice services
   T04L41/50M3: . . . wherein the managed service relates to media content delivery, e.g. audio / video / TV
   T04L41/50M4: . . . wherein the managed service relates to messaging or chat services
   T04L41/50M5: . . . wherein the managed service relates to distributed or central networked applications
   T04L43/00: Arrangements for monitoring or testing packet switching networks WARNINGGroups H04L43/00 - H04L43/50 do not correspond to former or current IPC groups.Concordance ECLA : IPC for these groups is as follows:- H04L43/00 - H04L43/50 : H04L12/26
   T04L43/02: involving a reduction of monitoring data
   T04L43/02A: . . using sampling of monitoring data, i.e. storing only a selection of packets
   T04L43/02A1: . . . using adaptive sampling
   T04L43/02B: . . using flow generation
   T04L43/02C: . . using filtering
   T04L43/04: Processing of captured monitoring data
   T04L43/04A: . . for graphical visualization of monitoring data
   T04L43/06: Report generation
   T04L43/06A: . . for traffic related reporting
   T04L43/06B: . . for device related reporting
   T04L43/06C: . . for time frame related reporting
   T04L43/08: Monitoring based on specific metrics
   T04L43/08A: . . Availability
   T04L43/08C: . . . Connectivity
   T04L43/08D: . . . functioning
   T04L43/08E: . . Errors
   T04L43/08E1: . . . Packet loss
   T04L43/08E1A: . . . . One way packet loss
   T04L43/08E1B: . . . . Round trip packet loss
   T04L43/08E2: . . . Transmission error
   T04L43/08F: . . Delays
   T04L43/08F1: . . . One way delays
   T04L43/08F2: . . . Round trip delays
   T04L43/08F3: . . . Jitter
   T04L43/08G: . . Network utilization
   T04L43/08G1: . . . Utilization of link capacity
   T04L43/08G2: . . . Throughput
   T04L43/08G3: . . . Packet rate
   T04L43/10: using active monitoring, e.g. heartbeat protocols, polling, ping, trace-route
   T04L43/10A: . . with adaptive polling, i.e. dynamically adapting the polling rate
   T04L43/10B: . . by adding timestamps to packets
   T04L43/12: using dedicated network monitoring probes
   T04L43/14: using software, i.e. software packages
   T04L43/16: using threshold monitoring
   T04L43/18: using protocol analyzers
   T04L43/50: Testing arrangements
   T04L45/00: [N: Routing or path finding of packets in data switching networks (specially adapted for wireless routing H04W40/00)][N:WARNING Groups H04L45/00 - H04L45/74 do not correspond to former or current IPC groups. Concordance ECLA : IPC for this groups is as follows: - H04L45/00 - 45/74 : H04L12/56 ]
   T04L45/02: [N: Topology update or discovery (topology discovery for network management H04L41/12; LAN interconnection over a backbone network H04L12/46B; node-based peer discovery mechanisms in peer-to-peer networks H04L67/10P2) ]
   T04L45/02A: . . [N: Routing table update consistency, e.g. epoch number]
   T04L45/02B: . . [N: Delayed use of routing table update]
   T04L45/02C: . . [N: Updating only a limited number of routers, e.g. fish-eye update]
   T04L45/02D: . . [N: Details of "hello" or keep-alive messages]
   T04L45/02E: . . [N: Dynamic adaptation of the update interval, e.g. event-triggered update]
   T04L45/04: [N: Interdomain routing, e.g. hierarchical routing]
   T04L45/06: [N: Deflection routing, e.g. hot-potato routing]
   T04L45/08: [N: Learning-based routing, e.g. neural networks]
   T04L45/10: [N: Routing in connection-oriented networks, e.g. X.25, ATM]
   T04L45/12: [N: Shortest path evaluation]
   T04L45/121: . . [N: Minimizing delay
   T04L45/122: . . [N: Minimizing distance, e.g. ? number of hops]
   T04L45/123: . . [N: Evaluation of link metrics (techniques for monitoring network metrics H04L43/08)]
   T04L45/124: . . [N: using a combination of metrics]
   T04L45/125: . . [N: based on throughput or bandwidth]
   T04L45/126: . . [N: minimizing geographical or physical path length]
   T04L45/127: . . [N: based on intermediate node capabilities]
   T04L45/128: . . [N: for finding disjoint paths]
   T04L45/1283: . . . [N: with disjoint links]
   T04L45/1287: . . . [N: with disjoint nodes]
   T04L45/14: [N: Routing performance; Theoretical aspects]
   T04L45/16: [N: Multipoint routing (arrangements for multicast or broadcast in data networks H04L12/18)]
   T04L45/18: [N: Loop free]
   T04L45/20: [N: Hop count for routing purposes, e.g. TTL]
   T04L45/22: [N: Alternate routing]
   T04L45/24: [N: Multipath]
   T04L45/24A: . . [N: Link aggregation, e.g. trunking]
   T04L45/26: [N: Route discovery packet]
   T04L45/28: [N: Route fault recovery (network fault recoveryH04L41/06C)]
   T04L45/30: [N: Special provisions for routing multiclass traffic]
   T04L45/302: . . [N: Route determination based on requested QoS]
   T04L45/304: . . [N: Route determination for signaling traffic]
   T04L45/306: . . [N: Route determination based on the nature of the carried application (communications protocols whereby the routing of a service request to a node providing the service depends on the content or context of the request, e.g. profile, connectivity status H04L67/32Y)]
   T04L45/3065: . . . [N: for real time traffic]
   T04L45/308: . . [N: Route determination based on user''s profile, e.g. premium users]
   T04L45/32: [N: Flooding (denial of service attacks H04L63/14D2)]
   T04L45/34: [N: Source routing]
   T04L45/36: [N: Backward learning]
   T04L45/38: [N: Flow based routing]
   T04L45/40: [N: Wormhole routing]
   T04L45/42: [N: Centralized routing]
   T04L45/44: [N: Distributed routing]
   T04L45/46: [N: Cluster building]
   T04L45/48: [N: Routing tree calculation]
   T04L45/50: [N: using label swapping, e.g. multi-protocol label switch [MPLS] ]
   T04L45/50A: . . [N: Frame based]
   T04L45/50B: . . [N: Cell based]
   T04L45/50C: . . [N: Label distribution]
   T04L45/52: [N: Multiprotocol routers]
   T04L45/54: [N: Organization of routing tables]
   T04L45/56: [N: Routing software]
   T04L45/56A: . . [N: Software download or update (software deployment in general G06F8/60)]
   T04L45/56B: . . [N: Routing instructions carried by the data packet, e.g. active networks]
   T04L45/58: [N: Association of routers]
   T04L45/58A: . . [N: Stackable routers]
   T04L45/58B: . . [N: Virtual routers]
   T04L45/60: [N: Router architecture]
   T04L45/62: [N: Wavelength based (optical switching H04Q11/00P4 )]
   T04L45/64: [N: using an overlay routing layer (Peer-to-Peer networks H04L67/10P)]
   T04L45/66: [N: Layer 2 routing, e.g. in Ethernet based MAN`s]
   T04L45/68: [N: Pseudowire emulation, e.g. IETF WG PWE3]
   T04L45/70: [N: Routing based on monitoring results (techniques for monitoring network metrics H04L43/08]
   T04L45/72: [N: Routing based on the source address]
   T04L45/74: [N: Address processing for routing]
   T04L45/742: . . [N: Route cache and its operation]
   T04L45/745: . . [N: Address table lookup or address filtering]
   T04L45/7453: . . . [N: using hashing]
   T04L45/7457: . . . [N: using content-addressable memories (CAM)]
   T04L45/748: . . . [N: Longest matching prefix]
   T04L45/74C: . . [N: Routing in networks with a plurality of addressing schemes, e.g. IPv4 and IPv6]
   T04L47/00: Traffic regulation in packet switching networks arrangements for detecting or correcting errors in the information received H04L1/00
   T04L47/10: [N: Flow control or congestion control]
   T04L47/11: . . [N: Congestion identification]
   T04L47/11A: . . . [N: using a dedicated packet]
   T04L47/12: . . [N: Congestion avoidance or recovery]
   T04L47/12A: . . . [N: Diverting traffic away from congested spots]
   T04L47/12B: . . . [N: Load balancing, e.g. traffic engineering (load balancing among servers H04L67/10A)]
   T04L47/12C: . . . [N: Congestion prediction]
   T04L47/13: . . [N: in a LAN segment, e.g. ring or bus]
   T04L47/13A: . . . [N: by jamming the transmission media]
   T04L47/14: . . [N: in wireless networks]
   T04L47/15: . . [N: in relation to multipoint traffic (arrangements for broadcast or multicast in data networks H04L12/18)]
   T04L47/16: . . [N: in connection oriented networks, e.g. frame relay]
   T04L47/17: . . [N: Hop by hop]
   T04L47/18: . . [N: End to end]
   T04L47/19: . . [N: at layers above network layer (general aspects of TCP H04L69/16; network arrangements for networked applications for scheduling or organising the servicing of application requests H04L67/32)]
   T04L47/19A: . . . [N: at transport layer, e.g. TCP related]
   T04L47/19B: . . . [N: Integration of transport layer protocols, e.g. TCP and UDP]
   T04L47/20: . . [N: Policing]
   T04L47/21: . . [N: using leaky bucket]
   T04L47/21A: . . . [N: Token bucket]
   T04L47/22: . . [N: Traffic shaping]
   T04L47/22A: . . . [N: Determination of shaping rate, e.g. using a moving window]
   T04L47/23: . . [N: Bit dropping]
   T04L47/24: . . [N: depending on the type of traffic, e.g. priority or quality of service [QoS] (Network arrangements for networked applications for scheduling or organising the servicing of application requests whereby quality of service or priority requirements are taken into account H04L67/32Q)]
   T04L47/24A: . . . [N: Different services, e.g. type of service [ToS] ]
   T04L47/24B: . . . [N: Real time traffic (arrangements for real-time multimedia communications H04L65/00)]
   T04L47/24C: . . . [N: Service specification, e.g. SLA (general aspects of SLA management H04L12/24C3)]
   T04L47/24C1: . . . . [N: Allocation of priorities to traffic types]
   T04L47/24D: . . . [N: Flow classification]
   T04L47/24E: . . . [N: using preemption]
   T04L47/24F: . . . [N: Modification of priorities while in transit]
   T04L47/24G: . . . [N: Modification of handling priority for control packets, e.g. for ACK or signaling packets]
   T04L47/24H: . . . [N: Application aware]
   T04L47/24J: . . . [N: Flow identification]
   T04L47/24K: . . . [N: Mapping QoS requirements between different networks]
   T04L47/25: . . [N: Rate modification upon detection by the source of changing network conditions]
   T04L47/26: . . [N: Explicit feedback to the source, e.g. choke packet]
   T04L47/26A: . . . [N: Source rate modification after feedback]
   T04L47/26A1: . . . . [N: Stopping or restarting the source, e.g. X-on or X-off ]
   T04L47/27: . . [N: Window size evaluation or update, e.g. using information derived from ACK packets]
   T04L47/28: . . [N: using time considerations]
   T04L47/28A: . . . [N: Network and process delay, e.g. jitter or round trip time [RTT] ]
   T04L47/28B: . . . [N: Time to live]
   T04L47/29: . . [N: Using a combination of thresholds]
   T04L47/30: . . [N: using information about buffer occupancy at either end or transit nodes]
   T04L47/31: . . [N: Tagging of packets, e.g. discard eligibility [DE] bit ]
   T04L47/32: . . [N: Packet discarding or delaying]
   T04L47/32A: . . . [N: Discarding or blocking control packets, e.g. ACK packets]
   T04L47/32B: . . . [N: With random discard, e.g. random early discard [RED] ]
   T04L47/33: . . [N: Forward notification]
   T04L47/34: . . [N: Sequence integrity e.g. sequence numbers]
   T04L47/35: . . [N: Embedded flow control information in regular packets, e.g. Piggybacking]
   T04L47/36: . . [N: Evaluation of the packet size, e.g. maximum transfer unit [MTU] ]
   T04L47/36A: . . . [N: Dynamic adaptation of the packet size]
   T04L47/37: . . [N: Slow start]
   T04L47/38: . . [N: Adapting coding or compression rate]
   T04L47/39: . . [N: Credit based]
   T04L47/40: . . [N: Using splitted connections, e.g. IP spoofing]
   T04L47/41: . . [N: Actions on aggregated flows or links]
   T04L47/50: [N: Queue scheduling]
   T04L47/52: . . [N: Bandwidth attribution to queues]
   T04L47/52A: . . . [N: Static queue service slot or fixed bandwidth allocation]
   T04L47/52B: . . . [N: Dynamic queue service slot or variable bandwidth allocation]
   T04L47/52B1: . . . . [N: Queue skipping]
   T04L47/52C: . . . [N: Redistribution of residual bandwidth]
   T04L47/52D: . . . [N: Quantum based scheduling, e.g. credit or deficit based scheduling or token bank]
   T04L47/52E: . . . [N: Minimum bandwidth guarantee]
   T04L47/54: . . [N: Loss aware scheduling]
   T04L47/56: . . [N: Delay aware scheduling]
   T04L47/56A: . . . [N: Attaching a time tag to queues]
   T04L47/56B: . . . [N: Attaching a deadline to packets, e.g. earliest due date first]
   T04L47/56B1: . . . . [N: Deadline varies as a function of time spent in the queue]
   T04L47/56C: . . . [N: Calendar queues or timing rings]
   T04L47/58: . . [N: Changing or combining different scheduling modes, e.g. multimode scheduling]
   T04L47/60: . . [N: Hierarchical scheduling]
   T04L47/62: . . [N: General aspects]
   T04L47/62A: . . . [N: Arrangements for avoiding head of line blocking]
   T04L47/62B: . . . [N: Individual queue per connection or flow, e.g. per VC]
   T04L47/62C: . . . [N: Individual queue per QOS, rate or priority]
   T04L47/62D: . . . [N: Queue service order]
   T04L47/62D1: . . . . [N: fixed service order, e.g. Round Robin]
   T04L47/62D2: . . . . [N: weighted service order (H04L47/201, H04L47/202, H04L47/203 take precedence) ]
   T04L47/62D3: . . . . [N: variable service order]
   T04L47/62E: . . . [N: Altering the ordering of packets in an individual queue]
   T04L47/62F: . . . [N: Modifications to standard FIFO or LIFO]
   T04L47/62G: . . . [N: Other criteria for service slot or service order]
   T04L47/62G1: . . . . [N: queue load conditions, e.g. longest queue first]
   T04L47/62G2: . . . . [N: channel conditions]
   T04L47/62G3: . . . . [N: past bandwidth allocation]
   T04L47/62G4: . . . . [N: policing]
   T04L47/62G5: . . . . [N: priority]
   T04L47/62G6: . . . . [N: packet size, e.g. shortest packet first]
   T04L47/62H: . . . [N: Provisions for avoiding starvation of low priority queues]
   T04L47/62J: . . . [N: Fair share of resources, e.g. WFQ]
   T04L47/62M: . . . [N: Multiple queues per individual QOS, connection, flow or priority]
   T04L47/70: [N: Admission control or resource allocation (medium access in wavelength-division multiplex systems H04J14/02M)]
   T04L47/72: . . [N: Reservation actions]
   T04L47/72A: . . . [N: at the end terminals, e.g. buffer space]
   T04L47/72B: . . . [N: involving intermediate nodes, e.g. RSVP]
   T04L47/72C: . . . [N: over a plurality of alternate paths, e.g. for load balancing]
   T04L47/72C1: . . . . [N: for backup paths]
   T04L47/74: . . [N: Reactions to resource unavailability]
   T04L47/74A: . . . [N: Holding a request until resources become available]
   T04L47/74B: . . . [N: Reaction at the end points]
   T04L47/74C: . . . [N: Reaction in network]
   T04L47/74D: . . . [N: Reaction triggered by a failure]
   T04L47/74E: . . . [N: Negotiation of resources, e.g. modification of a request]
   T04L47/76: . . [N: Reallocation of resources, renegotiation of resources, e.g. in-call]
   T04L47/76A: . . . [N: triggered by the network]
   T04L47/76B: . . . [N: triggered by the end-points]
   T04L47/76B1: . . . . [N: after changing the attachment point, e.g. after hand-off]
   T04L47/78: . . [N: Resource allocation architecture]
   T04L47/78A: . . . [N: Centralized allocation of resource]
   T04L47/78B: . . . [N: Hierarchical allocation of resource, e.g. involving a hierarchy of local and centralized entities]
   T04L47/78C: . . . [N: Distributed allocation of resources, e.g. bandwidth brokers]
   T04L47/78C1: . . . . [N: Involving several network domains, e.g. multilateral agreements]
   T04L47/78C1A: . . . . . [N: Mapping reservation between domains]
   T04L47/78C2: . . . . [N: Bandwidth trade among domains]
   T04L47/78D: . . . [N: Autonomous allocation of resources]
   T04L47/80: . . [N: Actions related to the nature of the flow or the user]
   T04L47/80A: . . . [N: Real time traffic]
   T04L47/80B: . . . [N: Application aware]
   T04L47/80C: . . . [N: QOS or priority aware]
   T04L47/80D: . . . [N: Broadcast or multicast traffic]
   T04L47/80E: . . . [N: User-type aware]
   T04L47/82: . . [N: Miscellaneous aspects]
   T04L47/82A: . . . [N: Prioritising resource allocation or reservation requests]
   T04L47/82B: . . . [N: Collecting or measuring resource availability data]
   T04L47/82C: . . . [N: Prediction of resource usage]
   T04L47/82D: . . . [N: Applicable to portable or mobile terminals]
   T04L47/82E: . . . [N: Involving tunnels, e.g. MPLS]
   T04L47/82F: . . . [N: Involving periods of time]
   T04L47/82G: . . . [N: Aggregation of resource allocation or reservation requests]
   T04L47/82H: . . . [N: Allocation of resources per group of connections, e.g. per group of users]
   T04L47/82J: . . . [N: Topology based]
   T04L49/00: Packet switching elements
   T04L49/10: Switching fabric construction
   T04L49/10A: . . Crossbar or matrix
   T04L49/10C: . . using shared medium, e.g. bus or ring)
   T04L49/10E: . . using shared central buffer, shared memory, e.g. time switching
   T04L49/10F: . . ATM switching fabrics
   T04L49/10F1: . . . ATM switching elements
   T04L49/10F1A: . . . . using space switching , e.g. crossbar or matrix
   T04L49/10F1C: . . . . using shared medium
   T04L49/10F1D: . . . . using shared central buffer
   T04L49/10H: . . integrated on microchip, e.g. switch-on-chip
   T04L49/15: Interconnection of switching modules
   T04L49/15A: . . Distribute and route fabrics, e.g. sorting-routing or Batcher-Banyan
   T04L49/15C: . . Non-blocking multistage, e.g. Clos
   T04L49/15C1: . . . Parallel switch fabric planes
   T04L49/15C1A: . . . . ATM switching fabrics having parallel switch planes
   T04L49/15C1A1: . . . . . Cell slicing
   T04L49/15C3: . . . Pipelined operation
   T04L49/15E: . . Interconnection of ATM switching modules, e.g. ATM switching fabrics
   T04L49/15E1: . . . Distribute and route fabrics, e.g. Batcher-Banyan
   T04L49/15E3: . . . Clos switching fabrics
   T04L49/15E5: . . . Crossbar or matrix
   T04L49/15E7: . . . Full Mesh, e.g. knockout
   T04L49/15E9: . . . Perfect Shuffle
   T04L49/20: Support for services or operations
   T04L49/20A: . . Multicast or broadcast
   T04L49/20A1: . . . ATM switching fabrics with multicast or broadcast capabilities
   T04L49/20C: . . Quality of Service based
   T04L49/20C1: . . . Real Time traffic
   T04L49/20E: . . Port mirroring
   T04L49/25: Routing or path finding through a switch fabric
   T04L49/25A: . . Cut-through or wormhole routing
   T04L49/25C: . . Store and forward routing
   T04L49/25E: . . Connections establishment or release between ports
   T04L49/25E1: . . . Centralized controller, i.e. arbitration or scheduling
   T04L49/25E3: . . . Control mechanisms for ATM switching fabrics
   T04L49/25F: . . Routing or path finding in ATM switching fabrics
   T04L49/25F1: . . . Cut-through or wormhole routing
   T04L49/25F3: . . . Grouping
   T04L49/30: Peripheral units, e.g. input or output ports
   T04L49/30A: . . Header conversion, routing tables or routing tags
   T04L49/30B: . . Input queuing
   T04L49/30C: . . Output queuing
   T04L49/30D: . . Shared queuing
   T04L49/30E: . . Virtual queuing
   T04L49/30F: . . Auto-negotiation, e.g. access control between switch gigabit interface connector [GBIC and link ]
   T04L49/30G: . . Pipelined operation
   T04L49/30H: . . Packet splitting
   T04L49/30J: . . ATM peripheral units, e.g. policing, insertion or extraction
   T04L49/30J1: . . . Header conversion, routing tables or routing tags
   T04L49/35: Application specific switches
   T04L49/35A: . . LAN switches, e.g. ethernet switches
   T04L49/35A1: . . . Gigabit ethernet switching [GBPS ]
   T04L49/35C: . . Support for fire wire switches, i.e. according to IEEE 1394
   T04L49/35D: . . Support for virtual LAN, VLAN tagging or multiple registration e.g. according to IEEE 802.1q
   T04L49/35F: . . Application aware switches, e.g. HTTP
   T04L49/35H: . . Storage area network switches
   T04L49/35H2: . . . Fibre channel switches
   T04L49/35H4: . . . Infiniband Switches
   T04L49/40: Physical details, e.g. power supply, mechanical construction or backplane
   T04L49/40A: . . Physical details, e.g. power supply, mechanical construction or backplane of ATM switches
   T04L49/45: Provisions for supporting expansion
   T04L49/45A: . . Provisions for supporting expansion in ATM switches
   T04L49/50: Overload detection; Overload protection
   T04L49/50A: . . Overload detection
   T04L49/50A1: . . . Policing
   T04L49/50C: . . Corrective Measures, e.g. backpressure
   T04L49/50C2: . . . Backpressure
   T04L49/50C4: . . . Head of Line Blocking Avoidance
   T04L49/55: Error prevention, detection or correction
   T04L49/55A: . . Error prevention, e.g. sequence integrity of packets redundant connections through the switch fabric
   T04L49/55C: . . Error detection
   T04L49/55E: . . Error correction, e.g. fault recovery or fault tolerance
   T04L49/60: Hybrid or multiprotocol packet, ATM or frame switches
   T04L49/60A: . . Multilayer or multiprotocol switching, e.g. IP switching
   T04L49/60C: . . Hybrid IP/Ethernet switches
   T04L49/60E: . . Hybrid ATM switches, e.g. ATM&STM, ATM&Frame Relay or ATM&IP
   T04L49/60G: . . ATM switches adapted to switch variable length packets, e.g. IP packets
   T04L49/65: Fast packet switch re-configuration
   T04L49/70: Virtual switches
   T04L49/90: Queuing arrangements
   T04L49/90A: . . Dynamic buffer space allocation
   T04L49/90C: . . Storage descriptor, e.g. read or write pointers
   T04L49/90C1: . . . for supporting a linked list
   T04L49/90E: . . Plurality of buffers per packet
   T04L49/90G: . . Single buffer per packet
   T04L49/90H: . . Wraparound memory, e.g. overrun or underrun detection
   T04L49/90J: . . Common buffer combined with individual queues
   T04L49/90K: . . Separate storage for different parts of the packet, e.g. header and payload
   T04L49/90M: . . Buffer pool
   T04L49/90M1: . . . with buffers of different sizes
   T04L49/90P: . . Arrangements for supporting packet reassembly or resequencing
   T04L49/90Q: . . Intermediate storage in different physical parts of a node or terminal
   T04L49/90Q1: . . . in the network interface card
   T04L49/90Q1A: . . . . Early interruption upon arrival of a fraction of a packet
   T04L49/90Q3: . . . using an external memory or storage device
   T04L49/90R: . . Reactions to storage capacity overflow
   T04L49/90R1: . . . replacing packets in a storage arrangement, e.g. pushout
   T04L49/90S: . . Arrangements for simultaneous transmit and receive, e.g. simultaneous reading/writing from/to the storage element
   T04L51/00: Arrangements for user-to-user messaging in packet-switching networks, e.g. e-mail or instant messages
   T04L51/02: [N: with automatic reactions or user delegation, e.g. automatic replies or chatbot ]
   T04L51/04: [N: Real-time or near real-time messaging, e.g. instant messaging [IM] (network arrangements or protocols for real-time communications H04L65/00) ]
   T04L51/04A: . . [N: use or manipulation of presence information in messaging (presence management H04L67/24 )
   T04L51/04B: . . [N: interacting with other applications or services ]
   T04L51/06: [N: Message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities (networked arrangements for intermediate processing of conversion or adaptation of application content or format H04L67/28F)]
   T04L51/06A: . . [N: with adaptation of content ]
   T04L51/06B: . . [N: with adaptation of format ]
   T04L51/08: [N: Messages including annexed information, e.g. attachments ]
   T04L51/10: [N: Messages including multimedia information (network arrangements or protocols for real-time communication H04L65/00; voice messaging in telephonic communication using automatic or semi-automatic exchanges with non-audio components H04M3/53M) ]
   T04L51/12: [N: with filtering and selective blocking capabilities]
   T04L51/14: [N: with selective forwarding]
   T04L51/16: [N: including conversation history, e.g. threads]
   T04L51/18: [N: Messages including commands or codes to be executed either at an intermediate node or at the recipient to perform message-related actions (computer aided management of electronic mail G06Q10/10; networked applications for remote control or remote monitoring of the application H04L67/02A; networked applications involving the movement of software or configuration parameters H04L67/34]
   T04L51/20: [N: Messaging using geographical location information (protocols for adapting network applications to user terminal location H04L67/18; services specially adapted for wireless communication networks making use of the location of users or terminals H04W4/02 )
   T04L51/22: [N: Mailbox-related details (computer aided management of electronic mail G06Q10/10)]
   T04L51/24: [N: with notification on incoming messages ]
   T04L51/26: [N: Prioritized messaging (networked applications for intermediate processing whereby quality of service or priority requirements are taken into account H04L67/32Q)]
   T04L51/28: [N: Details regarding addressing issues (arrangements and protocols for addressing and naming H04L61/00)]
   T04L51/30: [N: with reliability check, e.g. acknowledgments or fault reporting]
   T04L51/32: [N: Messaging within social networks]
   T04L51/34: [N: with provisions for tracking the progress of a message]
   T04L51/36: [N: Unified messaging, e.g. interactions between instant messaging, e-mail or other types of messages such as converged IP messaging [CPM]
   T04L51/38: [N: in combination with wireless systems (mobile application service signalling using messaging, e.g. SMS, H04W4/12 )]
   T04L61/00: Network arrangements or network protocols for addressing or naming
   T04L61/10: Mapping of addresses of different types; Address resolution
   T04L61/10A: . . across network layers, e.g. resolution of network layer into physical layer addresses or address resolution protocol [ARP]
   T04L61/10B: . . across networks, e.g. mapping telephone numbers to data network addresses
   T04L61/15: Directories; Name-to-address mapping
   T04L61/15A: . . involving standard directories or standard directory access protocols
   T04L61/15A1: . . . using domain name system [DNS]
   T04L61/15A2: . . . using open systems interconnection [OSI] directories, i.e. X.500
   T04L61/15A3: . . . using lightweight directory access protocol [LDAP]
   T04L61/15A4: . . . using voice over internet protocol [VoIP directories, e.g. session initiation protocol [SIP] registrar or H.323 gatekeeper ]
   T04L61/15B: . . using an address exchange platform which sets up a session between two nodes, e.g. "rendezvous" server ]
   T04L61/15C: . . for service discovery
   T04L61/15D: . . for personal communications, i.e. using a personal identifier
   T04L61/15E: . . Mechanisms for table lookup, e.g. between directories; Directory data structures; Synchronization of directories
   T04L61/15F: . . Object oriented directories, e.g. common object request broker architecture [CORBA name server]
   T04L61/15G: . . Directories for electronic mail or instant messaging
   T04L61/15H: . . Directories for hybrid networks, e.g. including telephone numbers
   T04L61/15I: . . Metadirectories, i.e. all encompassing global directory which interfaces to various underlying directories
   T04L61/15J: . . containing identifiers of data entities on a computer, e.g. file names
   T04L61/15K: . . containing mobile subscriber information, e.g. home subscriber server [HSS]
   T04L61/15L: . . Address books, i.e. directories containing contact information about correspondents, e.g. on a user device
   T04L61/20: Address allocation
   T04L61/20A: . . internet protocol [IP addresses]
   T04L61/20A1: . . . using the dynamic host configuration protocol [DHCP or variants]
   T04L61/20A2: . . . using the bootstrap protocol [BOOTP or variants]
   T04L61/20A3: . . . using an authentication, authorization and accounting [AAA protocol, e.g. remote authentication dial-in user service [RADIUS] or diameter ]
   T04L61/20B: . . for local use, e.g. on local area networks [LAN or on universal serial bus [USB] networks ]
   T04L61/20C: . . involving the solving of address allocation conflicts or involving testing of addresses
   T04L61/20D: . . involving timing or renewal aspects
   T04L61/20E: . . involving aspects of pools of addresses, e.g. assignment of different pools of addresses to different dynamic host configuration protocol [DHCP servers]
   T04L61/20F: . . for group-, multicast- and broadcast-communication
   T04L61/20G: . . involving update or notification mechanisms, e.g. update of a domain name server with dynamic host configuration protocol [DHCP assigned addresses]
   T04L61/20H: . . involving portability aspects
   T04L61/20I: . . by self assignment, e.g. pick address randomly and test if already in use
   T04L61/25: mapping of addresses of the same type; address translation
   T04L61/25A: . . Internet protocol [IP address translation]
   T04L61/25A1: . . . translating between special types of IP addresses
   T04L61/25A1A: . . . . between different IP versions
   T04L61/25A1B: . . . . between local and global IP addresses
   T04L61/25A1C: . . . . involving port numbers
   T04L61/25A2: . . . Special translation architecture, i.e. being different from a single network address translation [NAT server]
   T04L61/25A2A: . . . . Translation at a client
   T04L61/25A2B: . . . . Translation at a proxy
   T04L61/25A2C: . . . . Clique of NAT servers
   T04L61/25A2D: . . . . Multiple local networks, e.g. resolving potential IP address conflicts
   T04L61/25A3: . . . for hiding addresses or keeping them anonymous
   T04L61/25A4: . . . involving dual-stack hosts
   T04L61/25A5: . . . Mechanisms for avoiding unnecessary translation
   T04L61/25A6: . . . Map-table maintenance and indexing
   T04L61/25A6A: . . . . Binding renewal aspects; Keep-alive messages
   T04L61/25A7: . . . Translation policies and rules
   T04L61/25A8: . . . Network address translation [NAT traversal]
   T04L61/25A8A: . . . . for a higher-layer protocol, e.g. for session initiation protocol [SIP ]
   T04L61/25A8B: . . . . for reachability, e.g. inquiring the address of a correspondent behind a NAT server
   T04L61/25A8C: . . . . for identification, e.g. for authentication or billing
   T04L61/25A8D: . . . . using address mapping retrieval, e.g. simple traversal of user datagram protocol through NAT [STUN]
   T04L61/25A8E: . . . . transparent to the NAT server
   T04L61/25A8F: . . . . through control of the NAT server, e.g. using universal plug and play [UPnP]
   T04L61/25A8G: . . . . through application level gateway [ALG]
   T04L61/25A8H: . . . . over a relay server, e.g. traversal using relay NAT [TURN]
   T04L61/25A9: . . . . involving tunnelling or encapsulation
   T04L61/25B: . . Non - internet protocol [IP address translation]
   T04L61/30: Arrangements for managing names, e.g. use of aliases or nicknames ]
   T04L61/30A: . . Mechanisms for avoiding name conflicts
   T04L61/30C: . . Name conversion
   T04L61/30R: . . Name registration, generation or assignment
   T04L61/30R1: . . . Administrative registration, e.g. for domain names at internet corporation for assigned names and numbers [ICANN ]
   T04L61/30R2: . . . Domain name generation or assignment
   T04L61/30S: . . Name structure
   T04L61/30S1: . . . containing non-Latin characters, e.g. Chinese domain names
   T04L61/30S2: . . . containing protocol addresses or telephone numbers
   T04L61/30S3: . . . containing wildcard characters
   T04L61/30S4: . . . containing special prefixes
   T04L61/30S5: . . . containing special suffixes
   T04L61/30T: . . Name types
   T04L61/30T1: . . . Application layer names, e.g. buddy name, unstructured name chosen by a user or home appliance name
   T04L61/30T2: . . . E-mail addresses
   T04L61/30T4: . . . Access point names [APN, i.e. name of a gateway general packet radio service support node [GGSN] connecting a mobile user to a packet data network [PDN]]
   T04L61/30T5: . . . Telephone uniform resource identifier [URI]
   T04L61/30T6: . . . Session initiation protocol [SIP uniform resource identifier [URI]]
   T04L61/30T7: . . . Globally routable user-agent [GRUU uniform resource identifier [URI] for the session initiation protocol [SIP]]
   T04L61/30T8: . . . Internet protocol multimedia private identity [IMPI or internet protocol multimedia public identity [IMPU]]
   T04L61/35: involving non-standard use of addresses for implementing network functionalities, e.g. coding subscription information within the address or functional addressing, i.e. assigning an address to a function
   T04L61/60: Details
   T04L61/60A: . . Structures or formats of addresses
   T04L61/60B: . . Caching of addresses
   T04L61/60C: . . Proxying of addresses
   T04L61/60D: . . Address types
   T04L61/60D11: . . . Layer 2 addresses, e.g. medium access control [MAC addresses]
   T04L61/60D12: . . . Control area network [CAN identifiers ]
   T04L61/60D13: . . . Small computer system interface [SCSI addresses]
   T04L61/60D14: . . . IEEE1394 identification numbers
   T04L61/60D15: . . . Asynchronous transfer mode [ATM addresses]
   T04L61/60D16: . . . Fibre channel identifiers
   T04L61/60D30: . . . Telephone numbers
   T04L61/60D40: . . . International mobile subscriber identity [IMSI numbers]
   T04L61/60D50: . . . Internet protocol version 6 [IPv6 addresses]
   T04L61/60D60: . . . Transport layer addresses, e.g. aspects of transmission control protocol [TCP or user datagram protocol [UDP] ports ]
   T04L61/60F: . . Internet protocol [IP addresses subnets]
   T04L61/60G: . . Short addresses
   T04L61/60H: . . Multiple interfaces, e.g. multihomed nodes
   T04L61/60I: . . involving addresses for wireless personal area networks and wireless sensor networks, e.g. Zigbee addresses
   T04L61/60J: . . involving dual-stack hosts, e.g. in internet protocol version 4 [IPv4/ internet protocol version 6 [IPv6] networks ]
   T04L61/60K: . . involving geographic information, e.g. room number
   T04L61/60L: . . involving masks or ranges of addresses
   T04L63/00: Network architectures or network communication protocols for network security
   T04L63/02: for separating internal from external traffic, e.g. firewalls
   T04L63/02A: . . Architectural arrangements, e.g. perimeter networks or demilitarized zones
   T04L63/02A1: . . . Distributed architectures, e.g. distributed firewalls
   T04L63/02B: . . Filtering policies
   T04L63/02B1: . . . Filtering by address, protocol, port number or service, e.g. IP-address or URL
   T04L63/02B2: . . . Filtering by information in the payload
   T04L63/02B4: . . . Stateful filtering
   T04L63/02B6: . . . Rule management
   T04L63/02C: . . Virtual private networks
   T04L63/02D: . . Proxies
   T04L63/02E: . . Firewall traversal, e.g. tunnelling or, creating pinholes
   T04L63/04: for providing a confidential data exchange among entities communicating through data packet networks
   T04L63/04A: . . wherein the identity of one or more communicating identities is hidden
   T04L63/04A2: . . . during transmission, i.e. party's identity is protected against eavesdropping, e.g. by using temporary identifiers, but is known to the other party or parties involved in the communication
   T04L63/04A4: . . . Anonymous communication, i.e. the party's identifiers are hidden from the other party or parties, e.g. using an anonymizer
   T04L63/04B: . . wherein the data content is protected e.g. by encrypting or encapsulating the payload
   T04L63/04B1: . . . wherein the sending and receiving network entities apply symmetric encryption, i.e. same key used for encryption and decryption
   T04L63/04B10: . . . applying encryption by an intermediary, e.g. receiving clear information at the intermediary and encrypting the received information at the intermediary before forwarding
   T04L63/04B12: . . . applying multiple layers of encryption, e.g. nested tunnels or encrypting the content with a first key and then with at least a second key
   T04L63/04B14: . . . Networking architectures for enhanced packet encryption processing, e.g. offloading of IPsec packet processing or efficient security association look-up
   T04L63/04B16: . . . by using a location-limited connection, e.g. near-field communication or limited proximity of entities
   T04L63/04B2: . . . wherein the sending and receiving network entities apply asymmetric encryption, i.e. different keys for encryption and decryption
   T04L63/04B4: . . . wherein the sending and receiving network entities apply hybrid encryption, i.e. combination of symmetric and asymmetric encryption (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements using a plurality of keys or algorithms H0L9/14)
   T04L63/04B6: . . . wherein the sending and receiving network entities apply dynamic encryption, e.g. stream encryption
   T04L63/04B8: . . . using hop-by-hop encryption, i.e. wherein an intermediate entity decrypts the information and re-encrypts it before forwarding it
   T04L63/06: for supporting key management in a packet data network
   T04L63/06A: . . for key exchange, e.g. in peer-to-peer networks
   T04L63/06B: . . for key distribution, e.g. centrally by trusted party
   T04L63/06B1: . . . Hierarchical key distribution, e.g. by multi-tier trusted parties
   T04L63/06C: . . for group communications
   T04L63/06D: . . using one-time keys
   T04L63/06E: . . using time-dependent keys, e.g. periodically changing keys
   T04L63/08: for supporting authentication of entities communicating through a packet data network
   T04L63/08A: . . using tickets, e.g. Kerberos
   T04L63/08B: . . providing single-sign-on or federations
   T04L63/08C: . . using certificates
   T04L63/08D: . . using passwords
   T04L63/08D1: . . . using one-time-passwords
   T04L63/08D2: . . . using time-dependent-passwords, e.g. periodically changing passwords
   T04L63/08E: . . using an additional device, e.g. smartcard, SIM or a different communication terminal
   T04L63/08F: . . using biometrical features, e.g. fingerprint, retina-scan
   T04L63/08G: . . for achieving mutual authentication
   T04L63/08H: . . based on the identity of the terminal or configuration, e.g. MAC address, hardware or software configuration or device fingerprint
   T04L63/08J: . . by delegation of authentication, e.g. a proxy authenticates an entity to be authenticated on behalf of this entity vis--vis an authentication entity
   T04L63/08K: . . by using authentication-authorization-accounting [AAA servers or protocols]
   T04L63/10: for controlling access to network resources
   T04L63/10A: . . Access control lists (ACL)
   T04L63/10B: . . Entity profiles
   T04L63/10C: . . Grouping of entities
   T04L63/10D: . . Multiple levels of security
   T04L63/10E: . . wherein the security policies are location-dependent, e.g. entities privileges depend on current location or allowing specific operations only from locally connected terminals
   T04L63/10F: . . when the policy decisions are valid for a limited amount of time
   T04L63/12: Applying verification of the received information
   T04L63/12A: . . received data contents, e.g. message integrity
   T04L63/12B: . . the source of the received data
   T04L63/14: for detecting or protecting against malicious traffic
   T04L63/14A: . . by monitoring network traffic (monitoring network traffic per se H04L12/26M
   T04L63/14A1: . . . Event detection, e.g. attack signature detection
   T04L63/14A2: . . . Traffic logging, e.g. anomaly detection
   T04L63/14C: . . Vulnerability analysis
   T04L63/14D: . . Countermeasures against malicious traffic
   T04L63/14D1: . . . the attack involving the propagation of malware through the network, e.g. viruses, trojans or worms
   T04L63/14D10: . . . using deception as countermeasure, e.g. honeypots, honeynets, decoys or entrapment
   T04L63/14D2: . . . Denial of Service
   T04L63/14D4: . . . Active attacks involving interception, injection, modification, spoofing of data unit addresses, e.g. hijacking, packet injection or TCP sequence number attacks
   T04L63/14D6: . . . Passive attacks, e.g. eavesdropping or listening without modification of the traffic monitored
   T04L63/14D8: . . . service impersonation, e.g. phishing, pharming or web spoofing
   T04L63/16: Implementing security features at a particular protocol layer
   T04L63/16B: . . at the data link layer
   T04L63/16C: . . at the network layer
   T04L63/16D: . . at the transport layer
   T04L63/16G: . . above the transport layer
   T04L63/18: using different networks or paths for security, e.g. using out of band channels
   T04L63/20: for managing network security; network security policies in general
   T04L63/20A: . . involving negotiation or determination of the one or more network security mechanisms to be used, e.g. by negotiation between the client and the server or between peers or by selection according to the capabilities of the entities involved
   T04L63/30: for supporting lawful interception, monitoring or retaining of communications or communication related information
   T04L63/30A: . . gathering intelligence information for situation awareness or reconnaissance
   T04L63/30B: . . intercepting circuit switched data communications
   T04L63/30C: . . intercepting packet switched data communications, e.g. Web, Internet or IMS communications
   T04L63/30D: . . retaining data, e.g. retaining successful, unsuccessful communication attempts, internet access, or e-mail, internet telephony, intercept related information or call content
   T04L65/00: Network arrangements or protocols for real-time communications
   T04L65/10: Signalling, control or architecture
   T04L65/10H: . . Signalling or session protocols
   T04L65/10H2: . . . SIP
   T04L65/10H4: . . . H.323
   T04L65/10N: . . Network architectures, gateways, control or user entities
   T04L65/10N1: . . . IMS (wireless communication networks H04W)
   T04L65/10N2: . . . Gateways
   T04L65/10N2M: . . . . Media gateways
   T04L65/10N2M2: . . . . . at the edge
   T04L65/10N2M4: . . . . . in the network
   T04L65/10N2S: . . . . Signalling gateways
   T04L65/10N2S2: . . . . . at the edge
   T04L65/10N2S4: . . . . . at the edge
   T04L65/10N3: . . . MGC, MGCP or Megaco
   T04L65/10N4: . . . Call controllers; Call servers
   T04L65/10N5: . . . Proxies, e.g. SIP proxies
   T04L65/10N6: . . . Arrangements providing PBX functionality, e.g. IP PBX
   T04L65/10N6M: . . . . for multi-site
   T04L65/10N7: . . . End-user terminal functionality
   T04L65/10N8: . . . Application servers
   T04L65/10S: . . Session control
   T04L65/10S1: . . . Setup
   T04L65/10S2: . . . Registration
   T04L65/10S3: . . . Screening
   T04L65/10S3S: . . . . of unsolicited session attempts, e.g. SPIT
   T04L65/10S4: . . . In-session procedures
   T04L65/10S4M: . . . . session scope modification
   T04L65/10S4M2: . . . . . by adding or removing media
   T04L65/10S4M4: . . . . . by adding or removing participants
   T04L65/10S5: . . . Features, e.g. call-forwarding or call hold
   T04L65/40: Services or applications
   T04L65/40A: . . Services involving a main real-time session and one or more additional parallel sessions
   T04L65/40A2: . . . where at least one of the additional parallel sessions is real time or time sensitive, e.g. white board sharing, collaboration or spawning of a subconference
   T04L65/40A4: . . . where none of the additional parallel sessions is real time or time sensitive, e.g. downloading a file in a parallel FTP session, initiating an email or combinational services
   T04L65/40C: . . Arrangements for multiparty communication, e.g. conference
   T04L65/40C2: . . . with central floor control
   T04L65/40C4: . . . with distributed floor control
   T04L65/40C6: . . . without floor control
   T04L65/40P: . . "Push-to-X" services
   T04L65/40S: . . Services related to one way streaming
   T04L65/40S2: . . . Multicast or broadcast
   T04L65/40S4: . . . Content on demand
   T04L65/40S6: . . . Control of source by destination, e.g. user controlling streaming rate of server
   T04L65/60: Media handling, encoding, streaming or conversion
   T04L65/60C: . . Media manipulation, adaptation or conversion
   T04L65/60C2: . . . at the source (reformatting of video signals in video distribution servers H04N21/2343 ; reformatting of additional data in video distribution servers H04N21/235R
   T04L65/60C4: . . . at the destination (reformatting of video signals in video clients H04N21/4402 ; reformatting of additional data in video clients H04N21/435R
   T04L65/60C6: . . . intermediate
   T04L65/60E: . . Stream encoding details
   T04L65/60P: . . Streaming protocols, e.g. RTP or RTCP
   T04L65/80: QoS aspects
   T04L67/00: Network-specific arrangements or communication protocols supporting networked applications message switching systems H04L51/00; network management protocols H04L41/00; routing or path finding of packets in data switching networks H04L45/00; protocols for real-time multimedia communication H04L65/00; information retrieval G06F17/30; services or facilities specially adapted for wireless communication networks H04W4/00; network structures or processes for video distribution between server and client or between remote clients H04N21/00; exchange systems providing special services or facilities to subscribers involving telephonic communications H04M3/42; distributed information systems G06F9/00, G06F17/00; lower layer network functionalities which support application layer provisions H04L12/00
   T04L67/02: [N: involving the use of web-based technology, e.g. hyper text transfer protocol [HTTP] (information retrieval from the Internet G06F17/30W)]
   T04L67/02A: . . [N: for remote control or remote monitoring of the application (management of end-device applications over a special purpose or proprietor network H04L67/12M; network management using Internet technology H04L12/24A7; network monitoring H04L12/26M)]
   T04L67/04: [N: adapted for terminals or networks with limited resources or for terminal portability, e.g. wireless application protocol [WAP] (services or facilities specially adapted for wireless communication networks H04W4)]
   T04L67/06: [N: adapted for file transfer, e.g. file transfer protocol [FTP]]
   T04L67/08: [N: adapted for terminal emulation, e.g. telnet (protocols for telewriting or protocols for networked simulations, virtual reality or games H04L67/38; emulation or software simulation G06F9/455)]
   T04L67/10: [N: in which an application is distributed across nodes in the network (multiprogramming arrangements G06F9/46)]
   T04L67/10A: . . [N: for accessing one among a plurality of replicated servers, e.g. load balancing (arrangements or protocols for peer-to-peer networking H04L67/10P; protocols for client-server architectures H04L67/42; allocation of processing resources to service requests in a distributed system G06F9/50A6; rebalancing the processing load in a distributed system G06F9/50L; wireless network traffic load balancing H04W28/08; network load balancing, traffic engineering H04L12/56D2B; video servers using load balancing strategies H04N21/231B; error detection or correction of the data by redundancy in hardware G06F11/16)
   T04L67/10A1: . . . [N: Server selection in load balancing]
   T04L67/10A11: . . . [N: Reaction to server failures by a load balancer (techniques for recovering from a failure of a protocol instance or entity H04L69/40; departure or maintenance mechanisms in Peer-to-Peer networks H04L67/10P1A2; intermediate processing providing operational support to end devices by emulation or by off-loading in the network H04L67/28U; network fault restoration H04L12/24D3; error detection or correction of the data by redundancy in hardware G06F11/16; failing over workload from one server to another one G06F11/20P)]
   T04L67/10A13: . . . [N: Load balancing of requests to servers for services different from user content provisioning, e.g. load balancing to DNS servers or firewalls (internet service provider selection H04L12/56F)]
   T04L67/10A15: . . . [N: Load balancing arrangements to avoid a single path through a load balancer]
   T04L67/10A1A: . . . . [N: with static server selection, e.g. the same server being selected for a specific client (allocation of processing resources considering data affinity G06F9/50A6A)]
   T04L67/10A1B: . . . . [N: based on parameters of servers, e.g. available memory or workload (allocation of processing resources to a machine considering the load G06F9/50A6L)]
   T04L67/10A1C: . . . . [N: based on network conditions]
   T04L67/10A1D: . . . . [N: based on compliance of requirements or conditions with available server resources]
   T04L67/10A1E: . . . . [N: based on the content of a request]
   T04L67/10A1F: . . . . [N: based on a round robin mechanism]
   T04L67/10A1G: . . . . [N: based on random server selection]
   T04L67/10A1H: . . . . [N: based on client or server locations]
   T04L67/10A1J: . . . . [N: based on other criteria, e.g. hash applied to IP address, specific algorithms or cost]
   T04L67/10A3: . . . [N: dynamic adaptation of the criteria on which the server selection is based]
   T04L67/10A5: . . . [N: Persistence of sessions during load balancing]
   T04L67/10A7: . . . [N: using data related to the state of servers by a load balancer (server selection based on server parameters H04L67/10A1B; performance measurement for load balancing G06F11/34C6; information retrieval in structured data stores G06F17/30S)]
   T04L67/10A9: . . . [N: Controlling of the operation of servers by a load balancer, e.g. adding or removing servers that serve requests]
   T04L67/10P: . . [N: for peer-to-peer [P2P] networking; Functionalities or architectural details of P2P networks (file transfer, upload, download H04L67/06; accessing replicated servers H04L67/10A; presence management H04L67/24; scheduling provisions H04L67/32; real-time communications H04L65/00; information retrieval using distributed database systems G06F17/30N; small scale hierarchical wireless network topologies H04W84/10; wireless interfaces between terminal devices H04W92/18; P2P connections between video clients H04N21/63P; P2P connections between video game machines A63F13/12)]
   T04L67/10P1: . . . [N: involving topology management mechanisms]
   T04L67/10P1A: . . . . [N: Group management mechanisms (user group management in wireless communication networks H04W4/08; management of multicast group membership H04L12/18M; reconfiguring of node membership in a computing system to eliminate errors G06F11/14A8C4)]
   T04L67/10P1A1: . . . . . [N: Joining mechanisms]
   T04L67/10P1A2: . . . . . [N: Departure or maintenance mechanisms (methods for recovering from a failure of a protocol instance or entity H04L69/40; intermediate processing providing operational support to end devices by emulation or by off-loading in the network H04L67/28U; reactions to server failures by a load balancer H04L67/10A11; error detection or correction of the data by redundancy in operation G06F11/14)]
   T04L67/10P1A4: . . . . . [N: Group master selection mechanisms]
   T04L67/10P1A5: . . . . . [N: with pre-configuration of logical or physical connections with a determined number of other peers]
   T04L67/10P1A5L: . . . . . . [N: involving connection limits (involving dynamic management of active down- or uploading connections H04L67/10P3C3)]
   T04L67/10P1A5T: . . . . . . [N: involving pre-assessment of levels of reputation of peers]
   T04L67/10P1B: . . . . [N: Inter-group management mechanisms, e.g. splitting, merging or interconnection of groups]
   T04L67/10P2: . . . [N: involving node-based peer discovery mechanisms (access to replicated servers H04L67/10A; service discovery H04L67/16; topology discovery for routing H04L45/02; information retrieval in distributed file systems G06F17/30F; information retrieval in structured data stores, indexing, querying G06F17/30S)]
   T04L67/10P2A: . . . . [N: Discovery through centralizing entities]
   T04L67/10P2B: . . . . [N: Discovery involving distributed pre-established resource-based relationships among peers, e.g. based on distributed hash tables [DHT] (pre-configuration of logical or physical connections H04L67/10P1A5)]
   T04L67/10P2C: . . . . [N: Discovery involving direct consultation or announcement among potential requesting and potential source peers]
   T04L67/10P2C1: . . . . . [N: with limitation or expansion of the discovery scope ]
   T04L67/10P2D: . . . . [N: Discovery involving ranked list compilation of candidate peers]
   T04L67/10P3: . . . [N: for supporting resource transmission mechanisms (routing over an overlay routing layer H04L45/64; file transfer H04L67/06)]
   T04L67/10P3A: . . . . [N: Resource dissemination mechanisms or network resource keeping policies for optimal resource availability in the overlay network]
   T04L67/10P3C: . . . . [N: Resource delivery mechanisms]
   T04L67/10P3C1: . . . . . [N: characterized by resources being split in blocks or fragments]
   T04L67/10P3C2: . . . . . [N: involving incentive schemes]
   T04L67/10P3C3: . . . . . [N: involving dynamic management of active down- or uploading connections]
   T04L67/10P8: . . . [N: involving cross functional networking aspects]
   T04L67/10P8A: . . . . [N: Hierarchical topologies]
   T04L67/10P8B: . . . . [N: Interfacing with client-server systems or between P2P systems]
   T04L67/10P8C: . . . . [N: Some peer nodes performing special functions]
   T04L67/10R: . . [N: for supporting replication or mirroring of data, e.g. scheduling or transport for data synchronisation between network nodes or user terminals or syncML (synchronisation in information retrieval in file systems G06F17/30F; synchronisation in structured data stores G07F17/30S; mass storage redundancy by mirroring for error detection or correction of data G06F11/20S2)]
   T04L67/10S: . . [N: for distributed storage of data in a network, e.g. network file system [NFS], transport mechanisms for storage area networks [SAN] or network attached storage [NAS] (temporary storage of data at an intermediate stage H04L67/28S; dedicated interfaces to storage systems G06F3/06A)]
   T04L67/12: [N: adapted for proprietary or special purpose networking environments, e.g. medical networks, sensor networks, networks in a car or remote metering networks (digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific applications in healthcare or life sciences G06F19/00; home automation networks H04L12/28H; total factory control characterised by the network communication G05B19/418N; games involving transmission systems A63F13/12)]
   T04L67/12M: . . [N: involving the control of end-device applications over a network (end-device control or monitoring using web-based technology H04L67/02A; network management of network elements H04L12/24)]
   T04L67/14: [N: for session management (session control for real-time communications H04L65/10S; session initiation protocol H04L65/10H2; negotiation of communication capabilities H04L69/24; computer conference arrangements H04L12/18D; connection management in wireless networks H04W76/00; session management for telephonic communication and services H04M7/00; intertask communications in multiprogramming arrangements G06F9/54)]
   T04L67/14A: . . [N: provided for setup of an application session (session setup for real-time communications H04L65/10S1)]
   T04L67/14B: . . [N: provided for managing session state for stateless protocols; Signalling a session state; State transitions; Keeping-state mechanisms]
   T04L67/14C: . . [N: provided for session termination, e.g., event controlled end of session]
   T04L67/14C1: . . . [N: provided for avoiding end of session, e.g. keep-alive, heartbeats, resumption message, wake-up for inactive or interrupted session]
   T04L67/14J: . . [N: Markers provided for unambiguous identification of a particular session, e.g. session identifier, session cookie or URL-encoding (IP multimedia subsystem H04L65/10N1; cryptographic mechanisms for verifying the identity or authority of a user or a system, ID based authentication H04L9/32; cryptographic mechanisms for ID based key exchange H04L9/08)]
   T04L67/14M: . . [N: provided for signalling methods or particular messages providing extensions to IETF, ITU, ETSI or 3GPP protocols, e.g., additional proprietary messages, standard messages enhanced by additional header fields or standard messages being used for purposes other than originally intended]
   T04L67/14T: . . [N: provided for migration or transfer of sessions (in-session procedures in real-time communications H04L65/10S4; control or signalling for completing the hand-off in wireless networks H04W36/00P)]
   T04L67/16: [N: Service discovery or service management, e.g. service location protocol [SLP] or Web services (address allocation to terminals or nodes connected to a network H04L61/30; mobile application services specially adapted for wireless communication networks H04W4/00; network service management for ensuring proper service fulfilment according to an agreement or contract between two parties H04L12/24S)]
   T04L67/18: [N: in which the network application is adapted for the location of the user terminal (wireless application services making use of the location of users or terminals H04W4/02 takes precedence; location based Web retrieval G06F17/30W1S)]
   T04L67/20: [N: involving third party service providers (e-commerce G06Q30/00)]
   T04L67/22: [N: Tracking the activity of the user (recording of computer activity G06F11/34; network monitoring arrangements H04L12/26M; e-commerce G06Q30/00)]
   T04L67/24: [N: Presence management (use and manipulation of presence information in instant messaging H04L12/58B1)]
   T04L67/26: [N: Push based network services (broadcast or multicast push services H04L12/18P)]
   T04L67/28: [N: for the provision of proxy services, e.g. intermediate processing or storage in the network (network management provisions H04L12/24; network monitoring provisions H04L12/26M; media manipulation, adaptation or conversion in real-time communications H04L65/60C; protocol conversion H04L69/08; proxies for network security H04L63/02D)]
   T04L67/28A: . . [N: for adding application control or application functional data, e.g. adding metadata]
   T04L67/28B: . . [N: for brokering (negotiation of communication capabilities H04L69/24; e-commerce G06Q30/00)]
   T04L67/28D: . . [N: for data redirection (load balancing of replicated servers H04L67/10A; access network selection H04L12/28P1A; routing or path finding of packets H04L45/00; content or context based routing H04L67/32Y; network addressing or naming provisions H04L61/00)]
   T04L67/28E: . . [N: Enhancement of application control based on intercepted application data]
   T04L67/28F: . . [N: for conversion or adaptation of application content or format (protocol conversion H04L69/08; media manipulation, adaptation or conversion in real-time communications H04L65/60C; message adaptation based on network or terminal capabilities H04L12/58C; optimising visualization of content for web browsing G06F17/30W9V)]
   T04L67/28F1: . . . [N: for reducing the amount or size of exchanged application data (protocols for data compression H04L69/04; digital video compression H04N7/26)]
   T04L67/28G: . . [N: for grouping or aggregating service requests, e.g. for unified processing of service requests (networking arrangements or communication protocols for scheduling or organising the servicing of application requests H04L67/32)]
   T04L67/28I: . . [N: for integrating service provisioning from a plurality of service providers (web site content organization and management G06F17/30W7)]
   T04L67/28S: . . [N: for storing data temporarily at an intermediate stage, e.g. caching (distributed storage of data in a network H04L67/10S; browsing optimization of access to content by caching G06F17/30W9C; addressing of a cache within a hierarchically structured memory system G06F12/08B; disk caching G06F12/08B12)]
   T04L67/28S2: . . . [N: involving pre-fetching or pre-delivering data based on network characteristics (cache prefetching within a hierarchical structured memory system G06F12/08B8)]
   T04L67/28S4: . . . [N: involving policies or rules for updating, deleting or replacing the stored data based on network characteristics (replacement control in memory systems G06F12/12)]
   T04L67/28S6: . . . [N: involving storage of data provided by user terminals, i.e. reverse caching]
   T04L67/28U: . . [N: for providing operational support to end devices by emulation, e.g. when they are unavailable, or by off-loading in the network (techniques for recovering from a failure of a protocol instance or entity H04L69/40; reactions to server failures by a load balancer H04L67/10A11; departure or maintenance mechanisms in peer-to-peer networks H04L67/10P1A2; terminal emulation H04L67/08; disconnected operation in file systems G06F17/30F; emulation or software simulation G06F9/455; input/output emulation function for peripheral devices G06F13/10E)]
   T04L67/28X: . . [N: Architectural aspects]
   T04L67/28X1: . . . [N: Implementation details of a single intermediate entity]
   T04L67/28X2: . . . [N: Pairs of interprocessing entities at each side of the network, e.g. split proxies]
   T04L67/28X4: . . . [N: Distributed intermediate devices, i.e. intermediate device interaction with other intermediate devices on the same level]
   T04L67/28X6: . . . [N: Hierarchically arranged intermediate devices, e.g. hierarchical caching]
   T04L67/28X8: . . . [N: where the intermediate processing is functionally located closer to the data consumer application, e.g. in same machine, in same home or in same subnetwork]
   T04L67/28X9: . . . [N: where the intermediate processing is functionally located closer to the data provider application, e.g. reverse proxies; in same machine, in same cluster or subnetwork]
   T04L67/30: [N: involving profiles]
   T04L67/30T: . . [N: Terminal profiles]
   T04L67/30U: . . [N: User profiles (configuring for programme initiating G06F9/445C; information retrieval by personalized querying G06F17/30W1F)]
   T04L67/32: [N: for scheduling or organising the servicing of application requests, e.g. requests for application data transmissions involving the analysis and optimisation of the required network resources (intermediate grouping or aggregating of service requests H04L67/28G; broadcast or conference with schedule organisation H04L12/18S; computer conference arrangements H04L12/18D; network service management, ensuring proper service fulfilment according to an agreement or contract between two parties H04L12/24S)]
   T04L67/32Q: . . [N: whereby quality of service [QoS] or priority requirements are taken into account (QoS aspects in real-time communications H04L65/80; monitoring of QoS metrics H04L12/26M3)]
   T04L67/32T: . . [N: whereby a time schedule is established for servicing the requests]
   T04L67/32Y: . . [N: whereby the routing of a service request to a node providing the service depends on the content or context of the request, e.g. profile, connectivity status, payload or application type]
   T04L67/34: [N: involving the movement of software or configuration parameters (programme loading or initiating G06F9/445; remote booting G06F9/445B8; configuration management of network or network elements H04L12/24E)]
   T04L67/36: [N: involving the display of network or application conditions affecting the network application to the application user (graphical user interfaces for network management H04L12/24F3)]
   T04L67/38: [N: Protocols for telewriting; Protocols for networked simulations, virtual reality or games (games using an electronically generated display A63F13/00; remote windowing or X-Windows G06F9/44W1)]
   T04L67/40: [N: Protocols for remote procedure calls [RPC] (remote procedure calls G06F9/54P)]
   T04L67/42: [N: Protocols for client-server architectures (access to replicated servers H04L67/10A)]
   T04L69/00: Application independent communication protocol aspects or techniques in packet data networks interconnection arrangements between CPUs, memories, or peripherals within a single computer G06F13/00; data switching networks H04L12; flow control H04L12/56D; routing of packets H04L12/56C; network management H04L12/24; network monitoring or testing H04L12/26; network topologies, i.e. networks characterized by the path configuration, media access control H04L12/28; intermediate storage or scheduling H04L12/56Q; packet switches and switching fabrics H04L12/56S; message switching systems, e.g. email, H04L12/58; broadcast or multicast H04L12/18; hybrid switching systems H04L12/64; gateways H04L12/66; networks specially adapted for wireless communication H04W; transmission systems H04B
   T04L69/02: [N: Protocol performance]
   T04L69/03: [N: Protocol definition or specification (protocol conformance testing H04L1/24C2; specification techniques G06F9/44G4S)]
   T04L69/04: [N: Protocols for data compression (compression in general H03M7/30; reduction of the amount or size of exchanged application data at an intermediate network processing stage H04L67/28F1; optimizing, e.g. header compression, information sizing in wireless communication networks H04W28/06)]
   T04L69/06: [N: Notations for structuring of protocol data, e.g. abstract syntax notation one [ASN.1]]
   T04L69/08: [N: Protocols for interworking or protocol conversion (arrangements for connecting between networks having differing types of switching systems, e.g. gateways, H04L12/66; network management protocols conversion H04L12/24A4)]
   T04L69/10: [N: Streamlined, light-weight or high-speed protocols, e.g. express transfer protocol [XTP] or byte stream]
   T04L69/12: [N: Protocol engines, e.g. VLSIs or transputers]
   T04L69/14: [N: Multichannel or multilink protocols]
   T04L69/16: [N: Transmission control protocol/internet protocol [TCP/IP] or user datagram protocol [UDP] (transport layer addressing aspects H04L61/60D60; network layer protocol adaptations for supporting mobility, e.g. mobile IP, H04W80/04; flow control or congestion control in data switching networks H04L12/56D; adapting video multiplex streams to a specific network H04N21/2381; special adaptations of TCP, UDP or IP for interworking of IP based networks with other networks H04L69/16P)]
   T04L69/16A: . . [N: Implementation details of TCP/IP or UDP/IP stack architecture; Specification of modified or new header fields (protocols engines in general H04L69/12; OSI stack based layering aspects H04L69/32; protocol header analysis in general H04L69/22; addressing aspects in multiple interfaces involving dual-stack hosts H04L61/60J)]
   T04L69/16A1: . . . [N: involving adaptations of sockets based mechanisms (secure socket layer H04L63/16G]
   T04L69/16C: . . [N: Adaptation of TCP data exchange control procedures (generic OSI layer 4 protocols, e.g. SCTP H04L69/32B4; TCP or UDP flow control procedures H04L12/56D10; error control procedures in general H04L1/18)]
   T04L69/16E: . . [N: Adaptation or special uses of UDP protocol]
   T04L69/16G: . . [N: involving combined use or selection criteria between TCP and UDP protocols (multi-protocol arrangements in general H04L69/18; multilink protocols in general H04L69/14)]
   T04L69/16J: . . [N: IP fragmentation or TCP segmentation aspects (evaluation of maximum transfer unit [MTU] H04L12/56D27; assembly or disassembly of packets in wireless networks H04W28/06D)]
   T04L69/16L: . . [N: Transitional provisions between IPv4 and IPv6 (address translation between IPv4 and IPv6 H04L61/25A1A; involvement of different protocol versions in wireless network layer protocols, e.g. MIPv4 and MIPv6 H04W80/04V)]
   T04L69/16N: . . [N: Special adaptations of TCP, UDP or IP to match specific link layer protocols, e.g. ATM, SONET or PPP (IP over ATM H04L12/56A18P1; special adaptation of TCP protocol for wireless media H04W80/06)]
   T04L69/16P: . . [N: Special adaptations of TCP, UDP or IP for interworking of IP based networks with other networks (protocols for interworking in general H04L69/08)]
   T04L69/18: [N: Multi-protocol handler, e.g. single device capable of handling multiple protocols (multilayer or multiprotocol switches H04L12/56S14E)]
   T04L69/22: [N: Header parsing or analysis (traffic monitoring by flow aggregation or filtering H04L12/26M1; flow identification in packet switching networks H04L12/56D15J)]
   T04L69/24: [N: Negotiation of communication capabilities]
   T04L69/26: [N: Special purpose or proprietary protocols or architectures (network applications for proprietary or special purpose networking environments H04L67/12)]
   T04L69/28: [N: Timer mechanisms used in protocols]
   T04L69/30: [N: Definitions, standards or architectural aspects of layered protocol stacks]
   T04L69/32: . . [N: High level architectural aspects of 7-layer open systems interconnection [OSI] type protocol stacks]
   T04L69/32A: . . . [N: Aspects of inter-layer communication protocols or service data unit [SDU] definitions; Interfaces between layers]
   T04L69/32B: . . . [N: Aspects of intra-layer communication protocols among peer entities or protocol data unit [PDU] definitions]
   T04L69/32B1: . . . . [N: in the physical layer, i.e. layer one (arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received H04L1/00; baseband systems H04L25/00; modulated-carrier systems H04L27/00)]
   T04L69/32B2: . . . . [N: in the data link layer, i.e. layer two, e.g. HDLC (arrangements for detecting or preventing errors in the information received H04L1/00; bus networks H04L12/40)]
   T04L69/32B3: . . . . [N: in the network layer, i.e. layer three, e.g. X.25 (packet switching systems, packet routing H04L12/56C; TCP/IP H04L69/16)]
   T04L69/32B4: . . . . [N: in the transport layer, i.e. layer four (TCP/IP H04L69/16; streaming protocols, e.g. RTP, H04L65/60P)]
   T04L69/32B5: . . . . [N: in the session layer, i.e. layer five (session initiation protocol H04L65/10H2; session control in real time communications H04L65/10S; arrangements for session management H04L67/14)]
   T04L69/32B6: . . . . [N: in the presentation layer, i.e. layer six (graphical user interfaces G06F3/048; terminal emulation, e.g. telnet, H04L67/08)]
   T04L69/32B7: . . . . [N: in the application layer, i.e. layer seven (network arrangements or network communication protocols for networked applications H04L67/00; digital computing or data processing equipment or methods, specially adapted for specific applications G06F19/00; data processing systems and methods specially adapted for administrative, commercial, financial or managerial purposes G06Q)]
   T04L69/40: [N: Techniques for recovering from a failure of a protocol instance or entity, e.g. failover routines, service redundancy protocols, protocol state redundancy or protocol service redirection in case of a failure or disaster recovery (reactions to failures of replicated servers by a load balancer H04L67/10A11; departure or maintenance mechanisms in peer-to-peer networks H04L67/10P1A2; intermediate processing of operational support to end devices when they are unavailable, H04L67/28U; network fault management H04L12/24D; route fault recovery in network routing H04L12/56C108; fault recovery in packet switches H04L12/56S12C) ]
   T04L201/00: Algorithms used for the adjustment of time-domain equalizers
   T04L201/02: minimizing an error signal, e.g. least squares, minimum square error
   T04L201/04: zero-forcing
   T04L201/06: using the output of a maximum likelihood decoder (Viterbi detector)
   T04L201/08: Algorithms not covered by groups T04L200:02 to T04L200:06
   T04L203/00: Characteristics of phase shift key signals
   T04L203/02: differential
   T04L203/04: continuous phase
   T04L209/00: [N: Additional information or applications relating to cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for secret or secure communication H04L9/00]
   T04L209/04: [N: Masking or blinding]
   T04L209/04A: . . [N: of tables, e.g. lookup, substitution or mapping]
   T04L209/04C: . . [N: of operations, operands or results of the operations]
   T04L209/08: [N: Randomization, e.g. dummy operations or using noise]
   T04L209/12: [N: Details relating to cryptographic hardware or logic circuitry]
   T04L209/12A: . . [N: Hardware reduction or efficient architectures]
   T04L209/12D: . . [N: Parallelization or pipelining, e.g. for accelerating processing of cryptographic operations]
   T04L209/12F: . . [N: Trusted platform modules [TPM]]
   T04L209/16: [N: Obfuscation or hiding, e.g. involving white box]
   T04L209/20: [N: Manipulating the length of blocks of bits, e.g. padding or block truncation]
   T04L209/24: [N: Key scheduling, i.e. generating round keys or sub-keys for block encryption]
   T04L209/26: [N: Testing cryptographic entity, e.g. testing integrity of encryption key or encryption algorithm]
   T04L209/30: [N: Compression, e.g. Merkle-Damgard construction]
   T04L209/34: [N: Encoding or coding, e.g. Huffman coding or error correction]
   T04L209/38: [N: Chaining, e.g. hash chain or certificate chain]
   T04L209/42: [N: Anonymization, e.g. involving pseudonyms]
   T04L209/46: [N: Secure multiparty computation, e.g. millionaire problem]
   T04L209/46A: . . [N: Electronic voting]
   T04L209/46D: . . [N: Electronic auction]
   T04L209/50: [N: Oblivious transfer]
   T04L209/56: [N: Financial cryptography, e.g. electronic payment or e-cash]
   T04L209/60: [N: Digital content management, e.g. content distribution]
   T04L209/60A: . . [N: Broadcast encryption]
   T04L209/60C: . . [N: Digital right managament (DRM)]
   T04L209/60F: . . [N: Copy protection]
   T04L209/60K: . . [N: Traitor tracing]
   T04L209/60M: . . [N: Watermarking]
   T04L209/64: [N: Self-signed certificates]
   T04L209/68: [N: Special signature format, e.g. XML format]
   T04L209/72: [N: Signcrypting, i.e. digital signing and encrypting simultaneously]
   T04L209/76: [N: Proxy, i.e. using intermediary entity to perform cryptographic operations (network architectures or network communication protocols using hop-by-hop encryption H04L63/04B8)]
   T04L209/80: [N: Wireless (network architectures or network communication protocols for wireless network security H04W12/00)]
   T04L209/80A: . . [N: Lightweight hardware, e.g. radio-frequency identification [RFID] or sensor]
   T04L209/84: [N: Vehicles]
   T04L209/88: [N: Medical equipments]
   T04L212/00:
   T04L212/002:
   T04L212/002E: . . Encapsulation of packets
   T04L212/002L: . . Address lookup; Address filtering
   T04L212/002L1: . . . using hashing
   T04L212/002L2: . . . using content-addressable memory (CAM)
   T04L212/002L3: . . . Longest matching prefix
   T04L463/00: Additional details relating to network architectures or network communication protocols for network security covered by H04L63/00
   T04L463/041: using an encryption or decryption engine integrated in transmitted data
   T04L463/061: applying further key derivation, e.g. deriving traffic keys from a pair-wise master key (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for generation of secret information including derivation or calculation of cryptographic keys or passwords H04L9/08H)
   T04L463/062: applying encryption of the keys (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for key distribution using key encryption key H04L9/08F2B)
   T04L463/081: applying self-generating credentials, e.g. instead of receiving credentials from an authority or from another peer, the credentials are generated at the entity itself (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements for generation of secret information including derivation or calculation of cryptographic keys or passwords H04L9/08H)
   T04L463/082: applying multi-factor authentication (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements including means for verifying the identity or authority of a user of the system or for message authentication H04L9/32)
   T04L463/101: applying security measures for digital rights management (data processing systems or methods, specially adapted for commerce, e.g. marketing, shopping, billing, auctions or e-commerce G06Q30/00)
   T04L463/102: applying security measure for e-commerce (data processing systems or methods, specially adapted for e-commerce G06Q30/00)
   T04L463/103: applying security measure for protecting copy right (protecting software against unauthorised usage in a vending or licensing environment, e.g. protection the software providers copyright G06F21/00N7; data processing systems or methods, specially adapted for payment schemes, architectures or protocols G06Q20/00; secrecy systems or subscription systems H04N7/16)
   T04L463/121: Timestamp (cryptographic mechanisms or cryptographic arrangements involving time stamps H04L9/32V)
   T04L463/141: Denial of service attacks against endpoints in a network
   T04L463/142: Denial of service attacks against network infrastructure
   T04L463/143: Denial of service attacks involving systematic or selective dropping of packets
   T04L463/144: Detection or countermeasures against botnets
   T04L463/145: Detection or countermeasures against cache poisoning
   T04L463/146: Tracing the source of attacks