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A:HUMAN NECESSITIES  
 A61: HEALTH; AMUSEMENT; MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE  
  A61B: DIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION (analysing biological material G01N, e.g. G01N33/48; obtaining records using waves other than optical waves, in general G03B42/00)  
   A61B5/00: Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnostic purposes (radiation diagnosis A61B6/00; diagnosis by ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves A61B8/00); Identification of persons  
   A61B5/0002: Remote monitoring of patients using telemetry, e.g. transmission of vital signals via a communication network (A61B5/07 takes precedence; transmission systems for measured values G08C; transmission H04B; transmission of digital information H04L; wireless communication networks H04W)  
   A61B5/0004: . . characterised by the type of physiological signal transmitted  
   A61B5/0006: . . . ECG or EEG signals  
   A61B5/0008: . . . Temperature signals  
   A61B5/0011: . . . Foetal or obstetric data  
   A61B5/0013: . . . Medical image data (A61B1/00011, A61B6/56, A61B8/56 take precedence)  
   A61B5/0015: . . characterised by features of the telemetry system  
   A61B5/0017: . . . transmitting optical signals (transmission by light H04B10/00)  
   A61B5/002: . . . Monitoring the patient using a local or closed circuit, e.g. in a room or building (A61B5/0017 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/0022: . . . Monitoring a patient using a global network, e.g. telephone networks, internet  
   A61B5/0024: . . . for multiple sensor units attached to the patient, e.g. using a body or personal area network  
   A61B5/0026: . . characterised by the transmission medium  
   A61B5/0028: . . . Body tissue as transmission medium, i.e. transmission systems where the medium is the human body  
   A61B5/0031: . . Implanted circuitry  
   A61B5/0033: Features or image-related aspects of imaging apparatus classified in A61B5/00, e.g. for MRI, optical tomography or impedance tomography apparatus; arrangements of imaging apparatus in a room (image data processing or generation G06T)  
   A61B5/0035: . . adapted for acquisition of images from more than one imaging mode, e.g. combining MRI and optical tomography  
   A61B5/0036: . . including treatment, e.g., using an implantable medical device, ablating, ventilating  
   A61B5/0037: . . Performing a preliminary scan, e.g. a prescan for identifying a region of interest  
   A61B5/004: . . adapted for image acquisition of a particular organ or body part (A61B5/0082 takes precedence; arrangements for optical scanning A61B5/0062)  
   A61B5/0042: . . . for the brain  
   A61B5/0044: . . . for the heart  
   A61B5/0046: . . Arrangements of imaging apparatus in a room, e.g. room provided with shielding or for improved access to apparatus  
   A61B5/0048: Detecting, measuring or recording by applying mechanical forces or stimuli (A61B5/021, A61B5/4884 and A61B9/00 take precedence)  
   A61B5/0051: . . by applying vibrations  
   A61B5/0053: . . by applying pressure, e.g. compression, indentation, palpation, grasping, gauging  
   A61B5/0055: . . by applying suction  
   A61B5/0057: . . by applying motion other than vibrations, e.g. rolling, rubbing, applying a torque, tribometry  
   A61B5/0059: using light, e.g. diagnosis by transillumination, diascopy, fluorescence (A61B5/0093, A61B5/1455, A61B5/02416 and A61B5/0261 take precedence)  
   A61B5/0062: . . Arrangements for scanning  
   A61B5/0064: . . . Body surface scanning  
   A61B5/0066: . . . Optical coherence imaging  
   A61B5/0068: . . . Confocal scanning  
   A61B5/0071: . . by measuring fluorescence emission  
   A61B5/0073: . . by tomography, i.e. reconstruction of 3D images from 2D projections (A61B5/0066 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/0075: . . by spectroscopy, i.e. measuring spectra, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, infrared absorption spectroscopy (A61B5/0071 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/0077: . . Devices for viewing the surface of the body, e.g. camera, magnifying lens  
   A61B5/0079: . . . using mirrors, i.e. for self-examination  
   A61B5/0082: . . adapted for particular medical purposes  
   A61B5/0084: . . . for introduction into the body, e.g. by catheters (A61B5/1459 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/0086: . . . . using infra-red radiation  
   A61B5/0088: . . . for oral or dental tissue  
   A61B5/0091: . . . for mammography  
   A61B5/0093: Detecting, measuring or recording by applying one single type of energy and measuring its conversion into another type of energy  
   A61B5/0095: . . by applying light and detecting acoustic waves, i.e. photoacoustic measurements  
   A61B5/0097: . . by applying acoustic waves and detecting light, i.e. acoustooptic measurements  
   A61B5/01: Measuring temperature of body parts; {Diagnostic temperature sensing, e.g. for malignant or inflamed tissue}(clinical thermometers G01K5/22; thermometers for special purposes G01K13/00)  
   A61B5/015: . . By temperature mapping of body part  
   A61B5/02: Detecting, measuring or recording pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography or electroauscultation; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure  
   A61B5/02007: . . Evaluating blood vessel condition, e.g. elasticity, compliance  
   A61B5/02014: . . . Determining aneurysm  
   A61B5/02021: . . . Determining capillary fragility  
   A61B5/02028: . . Determining haemodynamic parameters not otherwise provided for, e.g. cardiac contractility or left ventricular ejection fraction  
   A61B5/02035: . . . Determining blood viscosity  
   A61B5/02042: . . Determining blood loss or bleeding, e.g. during a surgical procedure  
   A61B5/0205: . . Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions, e.g. heart and respiratory condition  
   A61B5/02055: . . . Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular condition and temperature  
   A61B5/021: . . Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels (A61B5/0205 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/02108: . . . from analysis of pulse wave characteristics  
   A61B5/02116: . . . . of pulse wave amplitude (A61B5/02225 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/02125: . . . . of pulse wave propagation time  
   A61B5/02133: . . . by using induced vibration of the blood vessel  
   A61B5/02141: . . . Details of apparatus construction, e.g. pump units or housings therefor, cuff pressurising systems, arrangements of fluid conduits or circuits (A61B5/02233, A61B5/0235 take precedence)  
   A61B5/0215: . . . by means inserted into the body (catheters A61M25/00)  
   A61B5/02152: . . . . specially adapted for venous pressure  
   A61B5/02154: . . . . by optical transmission  
   A61B5/02156: . . . . Calibration means  
   A61B5/02158: . . . . provided with two or more sensor elements  
   A61B5/022: . . . by applying pressure to close blood vessels, e.g. against the skin; Ophthalmodynamometers  
   A61B5/02208: . . . . using the Korotkoff method  
   A61B5/02216: . . . . Ophthalmodynamometers  
   A61B5/02225: . . . . using the oscillometric method  
   A61B5/02233: . . . . Occluders specially adapted therefor (tourniquets A61B17/132)  
   A61B5/02241: . . . . . of small dimensions, e.g. adapted to fingers  
   A61B5/0225: . . . . the pressure being controlled by electric signals, e.g. derived from Korotkoff sounds  
   A61B5/02255: . . . . . the pressure being controlled by plethysmographic signals, e.g. derived from optical sensors  
   A61B5/023: . . . . the pressure transducers comprising a liquid column  
   A61B5/0235: . . . . Valves specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/024: . . Detecting, measuring or recording pulse rate or heart rate (A61B5/0205, A61B5/021 take precedence)  
   A61B5/02405: . . . Determining heart rate variability  
   A61B5/02411: . . . of foetuses  
   A61B5/02416: . . . using photoplethysmograph signals, e.g. generated by infra-red radiation (A61B5/14552 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/02422: . . . . within occluders  
   A61B5/02427: . . . . Details of sensor  
   A61B5/02433: . . . . . for infra-red radiation  
   A61B5/02438: . . . with portable devices, e.g. worn by the patient  
   A61B5/02444: . . . Details of sensor (A61B5/02427 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/0245: . . . by using sensing means generating electric signals, {i.e. ECG signals}  
   A61B5/02455: . . . . provided with high/low alarm devices  
   A61B5/025: . . . . within occluders, e.g. responsive to Korotkoff sounds (electric stethoscopes A61B7/04)  
   A61B5/0255: . . . Recording instruments specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/026: . . Measuring blood flow {A61B3/1233, A61B3/1241 take precedence}  
   A61B5/0261: . . . using optical means, e.g. infra-red light  
   A61B5/0263: . . . using NMR  
   A61B5/0265: . . . using electromagnetic means, e.g. electromagnetic flowmeter  
   A61B5/027: . . . . using catheters  
   A61B5/0275: . . . using tracers, e.g. dye dilution  
   A61B5/02755: . . . . Radioactive tracers  
   A61B5/028: . . . . by thermo-dilution  
   A61B5/0285: . . . Measuring or recording phase velocity of blood waves  
   A61B5/029: . . . Measuring or recording blood output from the heart, e.g. minute volume {A61B8/065 takes precedence}  
   A61B5/0295: . . . using plethysmography, i.e. measuring the variations in the volume of a body part as modified by the circulation of blood therethrough, e.g. impedance plethysmography  
   A61B5/03: Detecting, measuring or recording fluid pressure within the body other than blood pressure, e.g. cerebral pressure; {Measuring pressure in body tissues or organs (A61B5/205 takes precedence)}  
   A61B5/031: . . Intracranial pressure  
   A61B5/032: . . Spinal fluid pressure  
   A61B5/033: . . Uterine pressure  
   A61B5/035: . . . Intra-uterine probes therefor  
   A61B5/036: . . by means introduced into body tracts (A61B5/032 and A61B5/035 take precedence)  
   A61B5/037: . . . Measuring oesophageal pressure  
   A61B5/038: . . . Measuring oral pressure  
   A61B5/04: Detecting, measuring or recording bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof  
   A61B5/04001: . . adapted to neuroelectric signals, e.g. nerve impulses  
   A61B5/04002: . . Measuring direct current (D.C.) or slowly varying biopotentials  
   A61B5/04004: . . Input circuits for EEG-, or EMG-signals  
   A61B5/04005: . . Detecting magnetic fields produced by bio-electric currents (measuring magnetic variables in general G01R33/00)  
   A61B5/04007: . . . specially adapted for magnetocardiographic signals  
   A61B5/04008: . . . specially adapted for magneto-encephalographic signals  
   A61B5/04009: . . . . using evoked response  
   A61B5/04011: . . Vector-cardiography  
   A61B5/04012: . . Analysis of electro-cardiograms, electro-encephalograms, electro-myograms  
   A61B5/04014: . . . by measuring frequency distribution using a set of filters (arrangements for analysing frequency spectra in general G01R23/00)  
   A61B5/04015: . . . . provided with alarm devices  
   A61B5/04017: . . . by using digital filtering  
   A61B5/04018: . . . . provided with alarm devices  
   A61B5/0402: . . Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG  
   A61B5/04021: . . . ECG simulator circuits  
   A61B5/04023: . . . Physical templates or devices for measuring ECG waveforms, e.g. an electrocardiograph ruler or caliper (A61B5/04525 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/04025: . . . Preparing electrode site, e.g. by abrasion  
   A61B5/04026: . . . Means for providing electrolyte, e.g. syringes  
   A61B5/04028: . . . Generation of artificial ECG signals based on measured signals, e.g. to compensate for missing leads  
   A61B5/0404: . . . Hand-held devices  
   A61B5/0408: . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor (for foetal cardiography A61B5/0448; for electroencephalograph signals A61B5/0478; for electromyography A61B5/0492)  
   A61B5/04082: . . . . attached by means of suction  
   A61B5/04085: . . . . Multiple electrode holders (A61B5/04286, A61B5/0422 take precedence)  
   A61B5/04087: . . . . using conductive adhesive means  
   A61B5/0416: . . . . connected by means of snap fasteners  
   A61B5/042: . . . . for introducing into the body  
   A61B5/0421: . . . . . Endotracheal, oesophageal or gastric probes  
   A61B5/0422: . . . . . Multiple electrode holders  
   A61B5/0424: . . . . Protection against electrode failure  
   A61B5/0428: . . . Input circuits specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/04282: . . . . using insulating or floating elements, e.g. transformers, opto-couplers (transformers for specific applications H01F38/00; amplifiers H03F; optocouplers H04B10/80)  
   A61B5/04284: . . . . Capacitive or ionised electrodes, e.g. MOSFET  
   A61B5/04286: . . . . Patient cord assembly, e.g. cable harness  
   A61B5/04288: . . . . Switching circuits  
   A61B5/0432: . . . Recording apparatus specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/04325: . . . . using integrated circuit memory devices  
   A61B5/0436: . . . . Magnetic recording apparatus  
   A61B5/04365: . . . . . Playback at speeds other than the recording speed  
   A61B5/044: . . . Displays specially adapted therefor {arrangements for displaying electric variables or waveforms, e.g. cathode-ray oscilloscopes, G01R13/00}  
   A61B5/0444: . . . Foetal cardiography  
   A61B5/0448: . . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor, e.g. scalp electrodes  
   A61B5/04485: . . . . . attached by means of suction  
   A61B5/0452: . . . Detecting specific parameters of the electrocardiograph cycle  
   A61B5/04525: . . . . by template matching  
   A61B5/0456: . . . . Detecting R peaks, e.g. for synchronising diagnostic apparatus {physiological signal analysis for synchronising or triggering a measurement or image acquisition A61B5/7285}  
   A61B5/046: . . . . Detecting fibrillation  
   A61B5/0464: . . . . Detecting tachycardy or brachycardy  
   A61B5/0468: . . . . Detecting abnormal ECG interval {, e.g. extrasystoles, ectopic heartbeats}  
   A61B5/0472: . . . . Detecting abnormal QRS complex {, e.g. widening}  
   A61B5/0476: . . Electroencephalography {devices for psychotechnics A61B5/16}  
   A61B5/0478: . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/048: . . . Detecting the frequency distribution of signals {analysing frequency spectra in general G01R23/00}  
   A61B5/0482: . . . using biofeedback {biofeedback per seA61B5/486}  
   A61B5/0484: . . . using evoked response  
   A61B5/04842: . . . . visually  
   A61B5/04845: . . . . acoustically or auditory  
   A61B5/04847: . . . . olfactory or gustatory  
   A61B5/0488: . . Electromyography  
   A61B5/04882: . . . of genito-urinary organs  
   A61B5/04884: . . . Detecting gastro-intestinal contractions  
   A61B5/04886: . . . specially adapted for electroglottography or electropalatography  
   A61B5/04888: . . . Control of prosthetics  
   A61B5/0492: . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor, e.g. needle electrodes  
   A61B5/0496: . . Electro-oculography, e.g. detecting nystagmus {measuring or inducing nystagmus A61B5/4863}  
   A61B5/05: Detecting, measuring or recording for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields; {Measuring using microwaves or radiowaves}(A61B5/02, A61B5/04, A61B5/11 take precedence)  
   A61B5/0507: . . using microwaves or terahertz waves  
   A61B5/0515: . . Magnetic particle imaging  
   A61B5/0522: . . Magnetic induction tomography  
   A61B5/053: . . Measuring electrical impedance or conductance of a portion of the body  
   A61B5/0531: . . . Measuring skin impedance  
   A61B5/0532: . . . . specially adapted for acupuncture  
   A61B5/0533: . . . . Measuring galvanic skin response, e.g. by lie detector  
   A61B5/0534: . . . Testing vitality of teeth  
   A61B5/0535: . . . impedance plethysmography  
   A61B5/0536: . . . Impedance imaging, e.g. by tomography  
   A61B5/0537: . . . Measuring body composition by impedance, e.g. tissue hydration or fat content  
   A61B5/0538: . . . invasively, e.g. using a catheter  
   A61B5/055: . . involving electronic [EMR] or nuclear [NMR] magnetic resonance, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging  
   A61B5/0555: . . . Means for positioning of patients (for radiation diagnosis or therapy A61B6/04)  
   A61B5/06: Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies (for removing same A61B17/50){; determining position of probes within or on the body of the patient}  
   A61B5/061: . . Determining position of a probe within the body employing means separate from the probe, e.g. sensing internal probe position employing impedance electrodes on the surface of the body (A61B1/00158 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/062: . . . using magnetic field  
   A61B5/063: . . . using impedance measurements  
   A61B5/064: . . . using markers (A61B5/062 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/065: . . Determining position of the probe employing exclusively positioning means located on or in the probe, e.g. using position sensors arranged on the probe  
   A61B5/066: . . . Superposing sensor position on an image of the patient, e.g. obtained by ultrasound or x-ray imaging  
   A61B5/067: . . . using accelerometers or gyroscopes  
   A61B5/068: . . . using impedance sensors  
   A61B5/07: Endoradiosondes  
   A61B5/073: . . Intestinal transmitters  
   A61B5/076: . . Permanent implantations (telemetry using implanted circuitry A61B5/0031; implanted stimulators for therapy A61N1/3605, A61N1/362, A61N1/372)  
   A61B5/08: Detecting, measuring or recording devices for evaluating the respiratory organs (A61B5/0205 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/0803: . . Recording apparatus specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/0806: . . by whole-body plethysmography (measuring blood flow using plethysmography A61B5/0295; impedance plethysmography A61B5/053; measuring volume of the body or parts thereof A61B5/1073)  
   A61B5/0809: . . by impedance pneumography  
   A61B5/0813: . . Measurement of pulmonary parameters by tracers, e.g. radioactive tracers  
   A61B5/0816: . . Measuring devices for examining respiratory frequency (measuring frequency of electric signals G01R23/00)  
   A61B5/082: . . Evaluation by breath analysis, e.g. determination of the chemical composition of exhaled breath (A61B5/083, A61B5/091 take precedence)  
   A61B5/0823: . . Detecting or evaluating cough events  
   A61B5/0826: . . Detecting or evaluating apnoea events (A61B5/4818 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/083: . . Measuring rate of metabolism by using breath test, e.g. measuring rate of oxygen consumption  
   A61B5/0833: . . . Measuring rate of oxygen consumption  
   A61B5/0836: . . . Measuring rate of CO2 production  
   A61B5/085: . . Measuring impedance of respiratory organs or lung elasticity  
   A61B5/087: . . Measuring breath flow  
   A61B5/0871: . . . Peak expiratory flowmeters  
   A61B5/0873: . . . using optical means  
   A61B5/0875: . . . using means carried by the fluid stream, e.g. free floating balls  
   A61B5/0876: . . . using means deflected by the fluid stream, e.g. flaps  
   A61B5/0878: . . . using temperature sensing means  
   A61B5/09: . . . using an element rotated by the flow {toys actuated by air current A63H33/40}  
   A61B5/091: . . Measuring volume of inspired or expired gases, e.g. to determine lung capacity  
   A61B5/093: . . . the gases being exhaled into, or inhaled from, an expansible chamber, e.g. bellows or expansible bag  
   A61B5/0935: . . . . Recording apparatus specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/095: . . . . within a rigid container, e.g. the boundary being formed by a liquid surface  
   A61B5/097: . . Devices for facilitating collection of breath or for directing breath into or through measuring devices  
   A61B5/103: Detecting, measuring or recording devices for testing the shape, pattern, {colour,}; size or movement of the body or parts thereof, for diagnostic purposes (A61B5/08 takes precedence; measuring aids for tailors A41H1/00; measuring instruments specially adapted for dentistry A61C19/04)  
   A61B5/1032: . . Determining colour for diagnostic purposes (measuring colour in general G01J3/46)  
   A61B5/1034: . . . by means of colour cards  
   A61B5/1036: . . Measuring load distribution, e.g. podologic studies  
   A61B5/1038: . . . Measuring plantar pressure during gait  
   A61B5/107: . . Measuring physical dimensions, e.g. size of the entire body or parts thereof  
   A61B5/1071: . . . measuring angles, e.g. using goniometers (A61B5/1123 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/1072: . . . measuring distances on the body, e.g. measuring length, height or thickness (A61B5/1076 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/1073: . . . Measuring volume, e.g. of limbs  
   A61B5/1074: . . . Foot measuring devices  
   A61B5/1075: . . . for measuring dimensions by non-invasive methods, e.g. for determining thickness of tissue layer (A61B8/0858 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/1076: . . . for measuring dimensions inside body cavities, e.g. using catheters (A61B3/1005 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/1077: . . . Measuring of profiles  
   A61B5/1078: . . . . by moulding  
   A61B5/1079: . . . using optical or photographic means  
   A61B5/11: . . Measuring movement of the entire body or parts thereof, e.g. head or hand tremor, mobility of a limb (for measuring pulse A61B5/02{;A61B5/1038 takes precedence; motion detection to correct for motion artifacts in physiological signals A61B5/721})  
   A61B5/1101: . . . Detecting tremor  
   A61B5/1102: . . . Ballistocardiography  
   A61B5/1103: . . . Detecting eye twinkling  
   A61B5/1104: . . . induced by stimuli or drugs; (A61B5/1102 takes precedence; investigating medicinal preparations G01N33/15)  
   A61B5/1105: . . . . of laboratory animals, e.g. activity  
   A61B5/1106: . . . . to assess neuromuscular blockade, e.g. to estimate depth of anaesthesia  
   A61B5/1107: . . . Measuring contraction of parts of the body, e.g. organ, muscle (apparatus for measuring work or force in general G01L)  
   A61B5/1108: . . . . of excised organs, e.g. muscle preparations  
   A61B5/1109: . . . . of wounds, e.g. at the operation site  
   A61B5/1111: . . . Detecting tooth mobility  
   A61B5/1112: . . . Global tracking of patients, e.g. by using GPS  
   A61B5/1113: . . . Local tracking of patients, e.g. in a hospital or private home  
   A61B5/1114: . . . . Tracking parts of the body  
   A61B5/1115: . . . . Monitoring leaving of a patient support, e.g. a bed or a wheelchair  
   A61B5/1116: . . . Determining posture transitions  
   A61B5/1117: . . . . Fall detection  
   A61B5/1118: . . . Determining activity level  
   A61B5/112: . . . Gait analysis  
   A61B5/1121: . . . Determining geometric values, e.g. centre of rotation or angular range of movement  
   A61B5/1122: . . . . of movement trajectories  
   A61B5/1123: . . . Discriminating type of movement, e.g. walking or running (A61B5/1116, A61B5/112 take precedence)  
   A61B5/1124: . . . Determining motor skills  
   A61B5/1125: . . . . Grasping motions of hands  
   A61B5/1126: . . . using a particular sensing technique  
   A61B5/1127: . . . . using markers  
   A61B5/1128: . . . . using image analysis (A61B5/1127 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/113: . . . occurring during breathing  
   A61B5/1135: . . . . by monitoring thoracic expansion  
   A61B5/117: Identification of persons (methods or arrangements for recognising patterns, e.g. fingerprints, G06K9/00; identification of persons by analysing their voice or speech G10L17/00)  
   A61B5/1171: . . based on the shapes or appearances of their bodies or parts thereof  
   A61B5/1172: . . . using fingerprinting  
   A61B5/1174: . . . using footprinting  
   A61B5/1176: . . . Recognition of faces  
   A61B5/1178: . . . using dental data  
   A61B5/12: Audiometering {Evaluation or the auditory system, not limited to hearing capacity (A61B5/04845, A61B5/4023 take precedence)}  
   A61B5/121: . . evaluating hearing capacity  
   A61B5/123: . . . subjective methods  
   A61B5/125: . . . objective methods  
   A61B5/126: . . . . measuring compliance or mechanical impedance of the tympanic membrane  
   A61B5/128: . . evaluating tinnitus  
   A61B5/14: Devices for taking samples of blood (hypodermic syringes A61M5/00); ; Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration within the blood, pH-value of blood (measuring of blood pressure A61B5/02; non-radiation detecting or locating of foreign bodies in blood A61B5/06)  
   A61B5/1405: . . Devices for taking blood samples (devices for taking samples of other body liquids A61B10/0045)  
   A61B5/1411: . . . by percutaneous method, e.g. by lancet  
   A61B5/1416: . . . by syringes containing more than one piston (medical syringes in general A61M5/178)  
   A61B5/1422: . . . provided with indicating means, e.g. for vein entry  
   A61B5/1427: . . . Multiple blood sampling, e.g. at periodic or pre-established intervals  
   A61B5/1433: . . . provided with locking means (details of syringes A61M5/315)  
   A61B5/1438: . . . using pre-evacuated means  
   A61B5/1444: . . . . Safety means, e.g. for locking cannula (removing or disposing of used needles or syringes A61M5/3205)  
   A61B5/145: Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH value; {Measuring characteristics of body fluids or tissues, e.g. interstitial fluid, cerebral tissue}(measuring of blood pressure or blood flow A61B5/02; non-radiation detecting or locating of foreign bodies in blood A61B5/06)  
   A61B5/14503: . . invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter or needle or using implanted sensors (A61B5/1459, A61B5/1464, A61B5/1473, A61B5/1482, A61B5/14865 take precedence)  
   A61B5/14507: . . specially adapted for measuring characteristics of body fluids other than blood (devices for taking samples of body liquids A61B10/0045)  
   A61B5/1451: . . . for interstitial fluid  
   A61B5/14514: . . . . using means for aiding extraction of interstitial fluid, e.g. microneedles or suction  
   A61B5/14517: . . . for sweat  
   A61B5/14521: . . . . using means for promoting sweat production, e.g. heating the skin (measuring sweat secretion A61B5/4266)  
   A61B5/14525: . . using microdialysis  
   A61B5/14528: . . . invasively  
   A61B5/14532: . . for measuring glucose, e.g. by tissue impedance measurement  
   A61B5/14535: . . for measuring haematocrit  
   A61B5/14539: . . for measuring pH  
   A61B5/14542: . . for measuring blood gases (A61B5/14551 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/14546: . . for measuring analytes not otherwise provided for, e.g. ions, cytochromes  
   A61B5/1455: . . using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters  
   A61B5/14551: . . . for measuring blood gases  
   A61B5/14552: . . . . Details of sensors specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/14553: . . . . specially adapted for cerebral tissue  
   A61B5/14555: . . . . specially adapted for the eye fundus  
   A61B5/14556: . . . . by fluorescence (A61B5/14555 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/14557: . . . . specially adapted to extracorporeal circuits  
   A61B5/14558: . . . by polarisation  
   A61B5/1459: . . . invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter {A61B5/1464 takes precedence}  
   A61B5/1464: . . . specially adapted for foetal tissue  
   A61B5/1468: . . using chemical or electrochemical methods, e.g. by polarographic means {A61B5/1486 takes precedence}  
   A61B5/1473: . . . invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter {A61B5/1482 takes precedence}  
   A61B5/14735: . . . . comprising an immobilised reagent  
   A61B5/1477: . . . non-invasive  
   A61B5/1482: . . . specially adapted for foetal tissue  
   A61B5/1486: . . using enzyme electrodes, e.g. with immobilised oxidase  
   A61B5/14865: . . . invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter or needle or using implanted sensors  
   A61B5/1491: . . Heated applicators  
   A61B5/1495: . . Calibrating or testing of in-vivo probes  
   A61B5/15: Devices for taking samples of blood (hypodermic syringes A61M5/178)  
   A61B5/150007: . . Details  
   A61B5/150015: . . . Source of blood  
   A61B5/150022: . . . . for capillary blood or interstitial fluid  
   A61B5/15003: . . . . for venous or arterial blood  
   A61B5/150038: . . . . for blood from umbilical cord  
   A61B5/150045: . . . . for blood from vagina, placenta, colon or mouth  
   A61B5/150053: . . . for enhanced collection of blood or interstitial fluid at the sample site, e.g. by applying compression, heat, vibration, ultrasound, suction or vacuum to tissue; for reduction of pain or discomfort; Skin piercing elements, e.g. blades, needles, lancets or canulas, with adjustable piercing speed  
   A61B5/150061: . . . . Means for enhancing collection  
   A61B5/150068: . . . . . by tissue compression, e.g. with specially designed surface of device contacting the skin area to be pierced  
   A61B5/150076: . . . . . by heating  
   A61B5/150083: . . . . . by vibration, e.g. ultrasound  
   A61B5/150091: . . . . . by electricity  
   A61B5/150099: . . . . . by negative pressure, other than vacuum extraction into a syringe by pulling on the piston rod or into pre-evacuated tubes  
   A61B5/150106: . . . . Means for reducing pain or discomfort applied before puncturing; desensitising the skin at the location where body is to be pierced  
   A61B5/150114: . . . . . by tissue compression, e.g. with specially designed surface of device contacting the skin area to be pierced  
   A61B5/150122: . . . . . by heating  
   A61B5/150129: . . . . . by cooling  
   A61B5/150137: . . . . . by vibration (enhancing collection by vibration A61B5/150175)  
   A61B5/150145: . . . . . by negative pressure, e.g. suction, vacuum  
   A61B5/150152: . . . . . by an adequate mechanical impact on the puncturing location  
   A61B5/15016: . . . . . by accessories for bringing the piercing element into the body, e.g. through rotation of the piercing element  
   A61B5/150167: . . . . Adjustable piercing speed of skin piercing element, e.g. blade, needle, lancet or canula, for example with varying spring force or pneumatic drive  
   A61B5/150175: . . . Adjustment of penetration depth  
   A61B5/150183: . . . . Depth adjustment mechanism using end caps mounted at the distal end of the sampling device, i.e. the end-caps are adjustably positioned relative to the piercing device housing for example by rotating or screwing  
   A61B5/15019: . . . . Depth adjustment mechanism using movable stops located inside the piercing device housing and limiting the travel of the drive mechanism (mechanisms using distal end caps A61B5/150183, mechanisms at the piercing element carrier proximal end A61B5/150198)  
   A61B5/150198: . . . . Depth adjustment mechanism at the proximal end of the carrier of the piercing element  
   A61B5/150206: . . . Construction or design features not otherwise provided for; manufacturing or production; packages; sterilisation of piercing element, piercing device or sampling device  
   A61B5/150213: . . . . Venting means  
   A61B5/150221: . . . . Valves  
   A61B5/150229: . . . . Pumps for assisting the blood sampling  
   A61B5/150236: . . . . Pistons, i.e. cylindrical bodies that sit inside the syringe barrel, typically with an air tight seal, and slide in the barrel to create a vacuum or to expel blood  
   A61B5/150244: . . . . Rods for actuating or driving the piston, i.e. the cylindrical body that sits inside the syringe barrel, typically with an air tight seal, and slides in the barrel to create a vacuum or to expel blood  
   A61B5/150251: . . . . Collection chamber divided into at least two compartments, e.g. for division of samples (injection syringes having more than one chamber A61M5/19; syringes for injection of two or more media A61M5/2448, A61M5/284; sample preparation for further analysis A61B5/150755)  
   A61B5/150259: . . . . Improved gripping, e.g. with high friction pattern or projections on the housing surface or an ergonometric shape  
   A61B5/150267: . . . . Modular design or construction, i.e. subunits are assembled separately before being joined together or the device comprises interchangeable or detachable modules  
   A61B5/150274: . . . . Manufacture or production processes or steps for blood sampling devices  
   A61B5/150282: . . . . . for piercing elements, e.g. blade, lancet, canula, needle  
   A61B5/15029: . . . . . for driving devices, i.e. means for driving the piercing element  
   A61B5/150297: . . . . . for piercing devices, i.e. devices ready to be used for lancing or piercing (for piercing elements A61B5/150282, for driving devices A61B5/15029)  
   A61B5/150305: . . . . Packages specially adapted for piercing devices or blood sampling devices (kits for diabetes A61M5/003; packaging in general B65D)  
   A61B5/150312: . . . . Sterilisation of piercing elements, piercing devices or sampling devices (piercing element stocking means, e.g. cartridges, A61B5/15176)  
   A61B5/15032: . . . . . by heating  
   A61B5/150328: . . . . . by aseptic fluid  
   A61B5/150335: . . . . . by radiation  
   A61B5/150343: . . . Collection vessels for collecting blood samples from the skin surface, e.g. test tubes, cuvettes (sampling from within body cavities A61B5/150015, A61B5/150045)  
   A61B5/150351: . . . Caps, stoppers or lids for sealing or closing a blood collection vessel or container, e.g. a test-tube or syringe barrel (caps for bottles or containers in general B65D41/00)  
   A61B5/150358: . . . Strips for collecting blood, e.g. absorbent (optical reagent test strips G01N21/8483; chemical reagent test strips G01N33/4875, G01N33/52)  
   A61B5/150366: . . . Blood collection bags, e.g. connected to the patient by a catheter comprising means for removing a small sample of collected blood from the bag (collection bags as such A61J1/05, A61M1/0209)  
   A61B5/150374: . . . Details of piercing elements or protective means for preventing accidental injuries by such piercing elements (double-ended hollow needles A61B5/150473, A61B5/150389; single-ended hollow needles A61B5/150503, A61B5/150389)  
   A61B5/150381: . . . . Design of piercing elements  
   A61B5/150389: . . . . . Hollow piercing elements, e.g. canulas, needles, for piercing the skin  
   A61B5/150396: . . . . . . Specific tip design, e.g. for improved penetration characteristics  
   A61B5/150404: . . . . . . Specific design of proximal end  
   A61B5/150412: . . . . . Pointed piercing elements, e.g. needles, lancets for piercing the skin (blade-like piercing elements A61B5/150442)  
   A61B5/150419: . . . . . . comprising means for capillary action  
   A61B5/150427: . . . . . . Specific tip design, e.g. for improved penetration characteristics  
   A61B5/150435: . . . . . . Specific design of proximal end  
   A61B5/150442: . . . . . Blade-like piercing elements, e.g. blades, cutters, knives, for cutting the skin  
   A61B5/15045: . . . . . . comprising means for capillary action  
   A61B5/150458: . . . . . . Specific blade design, e.g. for improved cutting and penetration characteristics  
   A61B5/150465: . . . . . . Specific design of proximal end  
   A61B5/150473: . . . . . Double-ended needles, e.g. used with pre-evacuated sampling tubes (hollow piercing element tip design A61B5/150396; needle sets for catheters A61M25/06; needles for bringing media into the body A61M5/32)  
   A61B5/15048: . . . . . . Details of construction of proximal end  
   A61B5/150488: . . . . . . Details of construction of shaft  
   A61B5/150496: . . . . . . Details of construction of hub, i.e. element used to attach the double-ended needle to a piercing device or sampling device  
   A61B5/150503: . . . . . Single-ended needles (hollow piercing element tip design A61B5/150396, needle sets for catheters A61M25/06, needles for bringing media into the body A61M5/32)  
   A61B5/150511: . . . . . . Details of construction of shaft  
   A61B5/150519: . . . . . . Details of construction of hub, i.e. element used to attach the single-ended needle to a piercing device or sampling device  
   A61B5/150526: . . . . . Curved or bent needles  
   A61B5/150534: . . . . Design of protective means for piercing elements for preventing accidental needle sticks, e.g. shields, caps, protectors, axially extensible sleeves, pivotable protective sleeves  
   A61B5/150541: . . . . . Breakable protectors, e.g. caps, shields or sleeves, i.e. protectors separated destructively, e.g. by breaking a connecting area  
   A61B5/150549: . . . . . . Protectors removed by rotational movement, e.g. torsion or screwing  
   A61B5/150557: . . . . . . Protectors removed by bending  
   A61B5/150564: . . . . . . Protectors removed by pulling or pushing  
   A61B5/150572: . . . . . Pierceable protectors, e.g. shields, caps, sleeves or films, e.g. for hygienic purposes  
   A61B5/15058: . . . . . Joining techniques used for protective means  
   A61B5/150587: . . . . . . by friction fit  
   A61B5/150595: . . . . . . by snap-lock (i.e. based on axial displacement)  
   A61B5/150603: . . . . . . by rotation, e.g. bayonet or screw  
   A61B5/15061: . . . . . . by material engagement, e.g. welding, bonding  
   A61B5/150618: . . . . . . Integrally moulded protectors, e.g. protectors simultaneously moulded together with a further component, e.g. a hub, of the piercing element  
   A61B5/150625: . . . . . . by using additional parts, e.g. clamping rings or collets  
   A61B5/150633: . . . . . Protective sleeves which are axially extensible, e.g. sleeves connected to, or integrated in, the piercing or driving device; pivotable protective sleeves  
   A61B5/150641: . . . . . . comprising means to impede repositioning of protection sleeve from covering to uncovering position  
   A61B5/150648: . . . . . . . fully automatically triggered, i.e. the triggering of the protective sleeve does not require a deliberate action by the user such as terminating the contact with the patient's skin  
   A61B5/150656: . . . . . . . semi-automatically triggered, i.e. in which the triggering of the protective sleeve requires a deliberate action by the user, e.g. manual release of spring-biased extension means  
   A61B5/150664: . . . . . Pivotable protective sleeves, i.e. sleeves connected to, or integrated in, the piercing or driving device, and which are pivoted for covering or uncovering the piercing element  
   A61B5/150671: . . . . . . comprising means to impede repositioning of protection sleeve from covering to uncovering position  
   A61B5/150679: . . . . . . . fully automatically triggered, i.e. the triggering of the pivotable protective sleeve does not require a deliberate action by the user such as terminating the contact with the patient's skin  
   A61B5/150687: . . . . . . . semi-automatically triggered, i.e. in which the triggering of the pivotable protective sleeve requires a deliberate action by the user such as manual release of spring-biased extension means  
   A61B5/150694: . . . . . Procedure for removing protection means at the time of piercing  
   A61B5/150702: . . . . . . fully automatically removed, i.e. the removing does not require any action by the user  
   A61B5/150709: . . . . . . semi-automatically removed, i.e. before puncturing the protection is removed by a mechanism initiated by a deliberate action by the user, such as pressing a button  
   A61B5/150717: . . . . . . manually removed  
   A61B5/150725: . . . . . . removal procedure linked to further actions, e.g. cocking of the piercing device, which indicate that the piercing device is used or tempered  
   A61B5/150732: . . . Needle holders, for instance for holding the needle by the hub, used for example with double-ended needle and pre-evacuated tube,  
   A61B5/15074: . . . Needle sets comprising wings, e.g. butterfly type, for ease of handling  
   A61B5/150748: . . . Having means for aiding positioning of the piercing device at a location where the body is to be pierced (means for aiding positioning of devices for bringing media into the body A61M5/427, locating blood vessels A61B5/489)  
   A61B5/150755: . . . Blood sample preparation for further analysis, e.g. by separating blood components or by mixing  
   A61B5/150763: . . . with identification means (identification means for surgical instruments A61B90/90)  
   A61B5/15077: . . . . characterized by physical shape  
   A61B5/150778: . . . . having complementary physical shapes for indexing or registration purposes  
   A61B5/150786: . . . . Optical identification systems, e.g. bar codes, colour codes  
   A61B5/150793: . . . . Electrical or magnetic identification means  
   A61B5/150801: . . . Means for facilitating use, e.g. by people with impaired vision; means for indicating when used correctly or incorrectly; means for alarming  
   A61B5/150809: . . . . by audible feedback  
   A61B5/150816: . . . . by tactile feedback, e.g. vibration  
   A61B5/150824: . . . . by visual feedback  
   A61B5/150832: . . . . by topography of the surface, e.g. Braille, embossed printing  
   A61B5/150839: . . . Aesthetic features, e.g. distraction means to prevent fears of child patients  
   A61B5/150847: . . . Communication to or from blood sampling device (transmitting measured data A61B5/0002)  
   A61B5/150854: . . . . long distance, e.g. between patient's home and doctor's office  
   A61B5/150862: . . . . intermediate range, e.g. within room or building  
   A61B5/15087: . . . . short range, e.g. between console and disposable (using implanted devices A61B5/150877)  
   A61B5/150877: . . . . with implanted devices  
   A61B5/150885: . . . Preventing re-use  
   A61B5/150893: . . . . by indicating if used, tampered with, unsterile or defective  
   A61B5/1509: . . . . by disrupting a seal, e.g. puncturing a piston seal  
   A61B5/150908: . . . . by disconnecting components, e.g. breaking or rupturing of connected parts, e.g. piston and rod  
   A61B5/150916: . . . . by blocking components, e.g. piston, driving device or fluid passageway  
   A61B5/150923: . . . . by means for destroying components or parts, e.g. by cutting or piercing  
   A61B5/150931: . . . . . by including soluble parts  
   A61B5/150938: . . . . . by blunting or disabling needle  
   A61B5/150946: . . . Means for varying, regulating, indicating or limiting the speed or time of blood collection  
   A61B5/150954: . . . Means for the detection of operative contact with patient, e.g. by temperature sensitive sensor  
   A61B5/150961: . . . Means for the detection of the presence or absence of a module, a component or an abnormal condition; detection of leaks  
   A61B5/150969: . . Low-profile devices which resemble patches or plasters, e.g. also allowing collection of blood samples for testing  
   A61B5/150977: . . Arrays of piercing elements for simultaneous piercing  
   A61B5/150984: . . . Microneedles or microblades  
   A61B5/150992: . . Blood sampling from a fluid line external to a patient, such as a catheter line, combined with an infusion line; blood sampling from indwelling needle sets, e.g. sealable ports, luer couplings, valves (tubing connectors and couplings A61M39/00)  
   A61B5/151: . . Devices; specially adapted for taking samples of capillary blood, e.g. by lancets {, needles or blades}  
   A61B5/15101: . . . Details  
   A61B5/15103: . . . . Piercing procedure  
   A61B5/15105: . . . . . Purely manual piercing, i.e. the user pierces the skin without the assistance of any driving means or driving devices  
   A61B5/15107: . . . . . Piercing being assisted by a triggering mechanism  
   A61B5/15109: . . . . . . Fully automatically triggered, i.e. the triggering does not require a deliberate action by the user, e.g. by contact with the patient's skin  
   A61B5/15111: . . . . . . Semi-automatically triggered, e.g. at the end of the cocking procedure, for instance by biasing the main drive spring or when reaching sufficient contact pressure, the piercing device is automatically triggered without any deliberate action by the user  
   A61B5/15113: . . . . . . Manually triggered, i.e. the triggering requires a deliberate action by the user such as pressing a drive button  
   A61B5/15115: . . . . Driving means for propelling the piercing element to pierce the skin, e.g. comprising mechanisms based on shape memory alloys, magnetism, solenoids, piezoelectric effect, biased elements, resilient elements, vacuum or compressed fluids  
   A61B5/15117: . . . . . comprising biased elements, resilient elements or a spring, e.g. a helical spring, leaf spring, or elastic strap  
   A61B5/15119: . . . . . comprising shape memory alloys  
   A61B5/15121: . . . . . comprising piezos  
   A61B5/15123: . . . . . comprising magnets or solenoids  
   A61B5/15125: . . . . . comprising a vacuum or compressed fluids  
   A61B5/15126: . . . . Means for controlling the lancing movement, e.g. 2D- or 3D-shaped elements, tooth-shaped elements or sliding guides  
   A61B5/15128: . . . . . comprising 2D- or 3D-shaped elements, e.g. cams, curved guide rails or threads (comprising tooth-shaped elements A61B5/15132)  
   A61B5/1513: . . . . . comprising linear sliding guides (comprising tooth-shaped elements A61B5/15132)  
   A61B5/15132: . . . . . comprising tooth-shaped elements, e.g. toothed wheel or rack and pinion  
   A61B5/15134: . . . Bladeless capillary blood sampling devices, i.e. devices for perforating the skin in order to obtain a blood sample but not using a blade, needle, canula, or lancet, e.g. by laser perforation, suction or pressurized fluids  
   A61B5/15136: . . . . by use of radiation, e.g. laser  
   A61B5/15138: . . . . . provided with means to ensure the protection of the user, e.g. to avoid laser light entering the eyes of a user  
   A61B5/1514: . . . . by use of gaseous agents, e.g. using suction aspiration or pressurized gas  
   A61B5/15142: . . . Devices intended for single use, i.e. disposable  
   A61B5/15144: . . . . comprising driving means, e.g. a spring, for retracting the piercing unit into the housing  
   A61B5/15146: . . . Devices loaded with multiple lancets simultaneously, e.g. for serial firing without reloading, for example by use of stocking means. (multiple simultaneous cutting or piercing A61B5/150977)  
   A61B5/15148: . . . . Constructional features of stocking means, e.g. strip, roll, disc, cartridge, belt or tube  
   A61B5/15149: . . . . . Arrangement of piercing elements relative to each other  
   A61B5/15151: . . . . . . Each piercing element being stocked in a separate isolated compartment  
   A61B5/15153: . . . . . . Multiple piercing elements stocked in a single compartment  
   A61B5/15155: . . . . . . Piercing elements which are specially shaped or are provided with fittings or attachments to facilitate nesting, stacking or joining together end-to-end or side-by-side  
   A61B5/15157: . . . . . Geometry of stocking means or arrangement of piercing elements therein  
   A61B5/15159: . . . . . . Piercing elements stocked in or on a disc  
   A61B5/15161: . . . . . . . Characterized by propelling the piercing element in a radial direction relative to the disc  
   A61B5/15163: . . . . . . . Characterized by propelling the piercing element in an axial direction relative to the disc  
   A61B5/15165: . . . . . . Piercing elements stocked in or on a strip  
   A61B5/15167: . . . . . . . Characterized by a folded strip  
   A61B5/15169: . . . . . . . Characterized by a rolled strip  
   A61B5/15171: . . . . . . . Characterized by propelling the piercing element perpendicular to the direction of movement of the strip  
   A61B5/15173: . . . . . . . Characterized by propelling the piercing element parallel to the direction of movement of the strip  
   A61B5/15174: . . . . . . Piercing elements stocked in the form of a stack or pile  
   A61B5/15176: . . . . . Stocking means comprising cap, cover, sheath or protection for aseptic stocking  
   A61B5/15178: . . . . . Stocking means comprising separate compartments or units for new and for used piercing elements (separate compartments for used piercing elements in piercing devices A61B5/15184)  
   A61B5/1518: . . . . Security or safety mechanism to be deactivated for forwarding next piercing element  
   A61B5/15182: . . . . Means for keeping track or checking of the total number of piercing elements already used or the number of piercing elements still remaining in the stocking, e.g. by check window, counter, display  
   A61B5/15184: . . . . Piercing device comprising a separate compartment or unit for used piercing elements (separate compartments for used piercing elements in stocking means A61B5/15178)  
   A61B5/15186: . . . Devices loaded with a single lancet, i.e. a single lancet with or without a casing is loaded into a reusable drive device and then discarded after use; drive devices reloadable for multiple use  
   A61B5/15188: . . . . Constructional features of reusable driving devices  
   A61B5/1519: . . . . . comprising driving means, e.g. a spring, for propelling the piercing unit  
   A61B5/15192: . . . . . comprising driving means, e.g. a spring, for retracting the lancet unit into the driving device housing  
   A61B5/15194: . . . . . . fully automatically retracted, i.e. the retraction does not require a deliberate action by the user, e.g. by terminating the contact with the patient's skin  
   A61B5/15196: . . . . . . semi-automatically retracted, i.e. in which the retraction of the piercing unit requires a deliberate action by the user such as manual release of spring-biased retraction means  
   A61B5/15198: . . . . . . purely manually retracted  
   A61B5/153: . . Devices; specially adapted for taking samples of venous or arterial blood, e.g. with syringes  
   A61B5/1535: . . . comprising means for indicating vein or arterial entry (A61B5/1545 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/154: . . . Devices; using pre-evacuated means  
   A61B5/1545: . . . . comprising means for indicating vein or arterial entry  
   A61B5/155: . . Devices; specially adapted for continuous or multiple sampling, e.g. at predetermined intervals {devices loaded with multiple lancets simultaneously A61B5/15146}  
   A61B5/157: . . Devices; characterised by integrated means for measuring characteristics of blood  
   A61B5/16: Devices for psychotechnics (using teaching or educational appliances G09B1/00 - G09B7/00); Testing reaction times {; Devices for evaluating the psychological state}  
   A61B5/161: . . Flicker fusion testing (eye testing A61B3/00)  
   A61B5/162: . . Testing reaction times  
   A61B5/163: . . by tracking eye movement, gaze, or pupil change  
   A61B5/164: . . Lie detection  
   A61B5/165: . . Evaluating the state of mind, e.g. depression, anxiety  
   A61B5/167: . . Personality evaluation  
   A61B5/168: . . Evaluating attention deficit, hyperactivity  
   A61B5/18: . . for vehicle drivers {or machine operators}  
   A61B5/20: for measuring urological functions {restricted to the evaluation of the urinary system (A61B5/4375 takes precedence)}  
   A61B5/201: . . Assessing renal or kidney functions  
   A61B5/202: . . Assessing bladder functions, e.g. incontinence assessment  
   A61B5/204: . . . Determining bladder volume  
   A61B5/205: . . . Determining bladder or urethral pressure  
   A61B5/207: . . Sensing devices adapted to collect urine  
   A61B5/208: . . . adapted to determine urine quantity, e.g. flow, volume  
   A61B5/22: Ergometry; Measuring muscular strength or the force of a muscular blow (exercising apparatus A63B21/00; ; measuring of work or force in general G01L)  
   A61B5/221: . . Ergometry, e.g. by using bicycle type apparatus  
   A61B5/222: . . . combined with detection or measurement of physiological parameters, e.g. heart rate  
   A61B5/224: . . Measuring muscular strength  
   A61B5/225: . . . of the fingers, e.g. by monitoring hand-grip force  
   A61B5/227: . . . of constricting muscles, i.e. sphincters  
   A61B5/228: . . . of masticatory organs, e.g. detecting dental force (measuring instruments for dentigraphy A61C19/04)  
   A61B5/40: Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the nervous system (A61B5/4806, A61B5/4821, A61B5/4824 take precedence)  
   A61B5/4005: . . for evaluating the sensory system (A61B5/12, A61B5/4058 take precedence)  
   A61B5/4011: . . . Evaluating olfaction, i.e. sense of smell  
   A61B5/4017: . . . Evaluating sense of taste  
   A61B5/4023: . . . Evaluating sense of balance  
   A61B5/4029: . . for evaluating the peripheral nervous systems (A61B5/04001 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4035: . . . Evaluating the autonomic nervous system  
   A61B5/4041: . . . Evaluating nerves condition  
   A61B5/4047: . . . . afferent nerves, i.e. nerves that relay impulses to the central nervous system  
   A61B5/4052: . . . . efferent nerves, i.e. nerves that relay impulses from the central nervous system  
   A61B5/4058: . . for evaluating the central nervous system (A61B5/4806, A61B5/4821 take precedence)  
   A61B5/4064: . . . Evaluating the brain (A61B5/031, A61B5/0476, A61B5/14553 take precedence)  
   A61B5/407: . . . Evaluating the spinal cord (A61B5/4896 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4076: . . Diagnosing or monitoring particular conditions of the nervous system (A61B5/4821, A61B5/4824 take precedence)  
   A61B5/4082: . . . Diagnosing or monitoring movement diseases, e.g. Parkinson, Huntington or Tourette  
   A61B5/4088: . . . Diagnosing of monitoring cognitive diseases, e.g. Alzheimer, prion diseases or dementia  
   A61B5/4094: . . . Diagnosing or monitoring seizure diseases, e.g. epilepsy  
   A61B5/41: Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the immune or lymphatic systems  
   A61B5/411: . . Detecting or monitoring allergy or intolerance reactions to an allergenic agent or substance  
   A61B5/412: . . Detecting or monitoring sepsis  
   A61B5/413: . . Monitoring transplanted tissue or organ, e.g. for possible rejection reactions after a transplant  
   A61B5/414: . . Evaluating particular organs or parts of the immune or lymphatic systems  
   A61B5/415: . . . the glands, e.g. tonsils, adenoids or thymus  
   A61B5/416: . . . the spleen  
   A61B5/417: . . . the bone marrow  
   A61B5/418: . . . lymph vessels, ducts or nodes  
   A61B5/42: Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the gastrointestinal, the endocrine or the exocrine systems (A61B1/00, A61B5/4857, A61B5/486, A61B5/4866, A61B5/4869 take precedence)  
   A61B5/4205: . . Evaluating swallowing  
   A61B5/4211: . . Diagnosing or evaluating reflux  
   A61B5/4216: . . Diagnosing or evaluating gastrointestinal ulcers  
   A61B5/4222: . . Evaluating particular parts, e.g. particular organs  
   A61B5/4227: . . . endocrine glands, i.e. thyroid, adrenals, hypothalamic, pituitary  
   A61B5/4233: . . . oesophagus  
   A61B5/4238: . . . stomach  
   A61B5/4244: . . . liver  
   A61B5/425: . . . pancreas  
   A61B5/4255: . . . Intestines, colon or appendix  
   A61B5/4261: . . Evaluating exocrine secretion production (A61B3/101 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4266: . . . sweat secretion  
   A61B5/4272: . . . sebum secretion  
   A61B5/4277: . . . saliva secretion  
   A61B5/4283: . . . gastrointestinal secretions, e.g. bile production  
   A61B5/4288: . . . mammary secretions  
   A61B5/4294: . . . vaginal secretions  
   A61B5/43: Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the reproductive systems  
   A61B5/4306: . . for evaluating the female reproductive systems, e.g. gynaecological evaluations  
   A61B5/4312: . . . Breast evaluation or disorder diagnosis (A61B5/0091 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4318: . . . Evaluation of the lower reproductive system (A61B5/4343 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4325: . . . . of the uterine cavities, e.g. uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries  
   A61B5/4331: . . . . of the cervix (A61B5/435 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4337: . . . . of the vagina  
   A61B5/4343: . . . Pregnancy and labour monitoring, e.g. for labour onset detection  
   A61B5/435: . . . . Assessing cervix alteration or dilation  
   A61B5/4356: . . . . Assessing uterine contractions (A61B5/033 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4362: . . . . Assessing foetal parameters  
   A61B5/4368: . . . Sexual arousal evaluation  
   A61B5/4375: . . for evaluating the male reproductive system  
   A61B5/4381: . . . Prostate evaluation or disorder diagnosis  
   A61B5/4387: . . . Testicles, seminal vesicles or sperm ducts evaluation  
   A61B5/4393: . . . Sexual arousal or erectile dysfunction evaluation, e.g. tumescence evaluation  
   A61B5/44: Detecting, measuring or recording for evaluating the integumentary system, e.g. skin, hair or nails (A61B5/117 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/441: . . Skin evaluation, e.g. for skin disorder diagnosis  
   A61B5/442: . . . Evaluating skin mechanical properties, e.g. elasticity, hardness, texture, wrinkle assessment  
   A61B5/443: . . . Evaluating skin constituents, e.g. elastin, melanin, water  
   A61B5/444: . . . Evaluating skin marks, e.g. mole, nevi, tumour, scar  
   A61B5/445: . . . Evaluating skin irritation or skin trauma, e.g. rash, eczema, wound, bed sore  
   A61B5/446: . . . Scalp evaluation or scalp disorder diagnosis, e.g. dandruff  
   A61B5/447: . . . specially adapted for aiding the prevention of ulcer or pressure sore development, i.e. before the ulcer or sore has developed  
   A61B5/448: . . Hair evaluation, e.g. for hair disorder diagnosis  
   A61B5/449: . . Nail evaluation, e.g. for nail disorder diagnosis  
   A61B5/45: For evaluating or diagnosing the musculoskeletal system or teeth (A61B5/1036, A61B5/1074, A61B7/006 take precedence)  
   A61B5/4504: . . Bones (A61B5/4547 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4509: . . . Bone density determination  
   A61B5/4514: . . Cartilage  
   A61B5/4519: . . Muscles (A61B5/0488, A61B5/224 take precedence)  
   A61B5/4523: . . Tendons  
   A61B5/4528: . . Joints (A61B5/4533, A61B5/4538 take precedence)  
   A61B5/4533: . . Ligaments  
   A61B5/4538: . . Evaluating a particular part of the muscoloskeletal system or a particular medical condition  
   A61B5/4542: . . . Evaluating the mouth, e.g. the jaw  
   A61B5/4547: . . . . Evaluating teeth  
   A61B5/4552: . . . . Evaluating soft tissue within the mouth, e.g. gums or tongue  
   A61B5/4557: . . . . Evaluating bruxism  
   A61B5/4561: . . . Evaluating static posture, e.g. undesirable back curvature (A61B5/1116 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4566: . . . Evaluating the spine (A61B5/4561 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4571: . . . Evaluating the hip  
   A61B5/4576: . . . Evaluating the shoulder  
   A61B5/458: . . . Evaluating the elbow  
   A61B5/4585: . . . Evaluating the knee  
   A61B5/459: . . . Evaluating the wrist  
   A61B5/4595: . . . Evaluating the ankle  
   A61B5/48: Other medical applications  
   A61B5/4803: . . Speech analysis specially adapted for diagnostic purposes  
   A61B5/4806: . . Sleep evaluation (A61B5/4821 takes precedence; devices for inducing sleep A61M21/02)  
   A61B5/4809: . . . Sleep detection, i.e. determining whether a subject is asleep or not  
   A61B5/4812: . . . Detecting sleep stages or cycles  
   A61B5/4815: . . . Sleep quality  
   A61B5/4818: . . . Sleep apnoea  
   A61B5/4821: . . Determining level or depth of anaesthesia (A61B5/1106 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4824: . . Touch or pain perception evaluation (A61B5/4821 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4827: . . . assessing touch sensitivity, e.g. for evaluation of pain threshold  
   A61B5/483: . . . . by thermal stimulation  
   A61B5/4833: . . Assessment of subject's compliance to treatment  
   A61B5/4836: . . Diagnosis combined with treatment in closed-loop systems or methods (A61B5/0036 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4839: . . . combined with drug delivery  
   A61B5/4842: . . Monitoring progression or stage of a disease  
   A61B5/4845: . . Toxicology, e.g. by detection of alcohol, drug or toxic products (A61B5/4848 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4848: . . Monitoring or testing the effects of treatment, e.g. of medication  
   A61B5/4851: . . Prosthesis assessment or monitoring (A61B5/04888 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4854: . . Diagnosis based on concepts of traditional oriental medicine  
   A61B5/4857: . . Indicating the phase of biorhythm (clocks or watches with indicators for biological cycles G04B19/264)  
   A61B5/486: . . Bio-feedback (A61B5/0482 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4863: . . Measuring or inducing nystagmus  
   A61B5/4866: . . Evaluating metabolism (A61B5/083 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/4869: . . Determining body composition  
   A61B5/4872: . . . Body fat  
   A61B5/4875: . . . Hydration status, fluid retention of the body  
   A61B5/4878: . . . . Evaluating oedema  
   A61B5/4881: . . . Determining interstitial fluid distribution or content within body tissue (measuring analytes in interstitial fluid in-vivo A61B5/1451)  
   A61B5/4884: . . inducing physiological or psychological stress, e.g. applications for stress testing  
   A61B5/4887: . . Locating particular structures in or on the body  
   A61B5/489: . . . Blood vessels  
   A61B5/4893: . . . Nerves  
   A61B5/4896: . . . Epidural space  
   A61B5/68: Arrangements of detecting, measuring or recording means, e.g. sensors, in relation to patient  
   A61B5/6801: . . specially adapted to be attached to or worn on the body surface  
   A61B5/6802: . . . Sensor mounted on worn items  
   A61B5/6803: . . . . Head-worn items, e.g. helmets, masks, headphones or goggles  
   A61B5/6804: . . . . Garments; Clothes  
   A61B5/6805: . . . . . Vests  
   A61B5/6806: . . . . . Gloves  
   A61B5/6807: . . . . . Footwear  
   A61B5/6808: . . . . Diapers  
   A61B5/681: . . . . Wristwatch-type devices  
   A61B5/6811: . . . . External prosthesis  
   A61B5/6812: . . . . Orthopaedic devices  
   A61B5/6813: . . . Specially adapted to be attached to a specific body part (A61B5/6802 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/6814: . . . . Head  
   A61B5/6815: . . . . . Ear  
   A61B5/6816: . . . . . . Ear lobe  
   A61B5/6817: . . . . . . Ear canal  
   A61B5/6819: . . . . . Nose  
   A61B5/682: . . . . . Mouth, e.g., oral cavity; tongue; Lips; Teeth  
   A61B5/6821: . . . . . Eye  
   A61B5/6822: . . . . Neck  
   A61B5/6823: . . . . Trunk, e.g., chest, back, abdomen, hip  
   A61B5/6824: . . . . Arm or wrist  
   A61B5/6825: . . . . Hand  
   A61B5/6826: . . . . . Finger  
   A61B5/6828: . . . . Leg  
   A61B5/6829: . . . . Foot or ankle  
   A61B5/683: . . . Means for maintaining contact with the body (A61B5/6802 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/6831: . . . . Straps, bands or harnesses  
   A61B5/6832: . . . . using adhesives (A61B5/04087 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/6833: . . . . . Adhesive patches  
   A61B5/68335: . . . . . including release sheets or liners  
   A61B5/6834: . . . . using vacuum  
   A61B5/6835: . . . . Supports or holders, e.g., articulated arms  
   A61B5/6837: . . . . Sutures  
   A61B5/6838: . . . . Clamps or clips  
   A61B5/6839: . . . . Anchoring means, e.g. barbs  
   A61B5/684: . . . Indicating the position of the sensor on the body  
   A61B5/6841: . . . . by using templates  
   A61B5/6842: . . . . by marking the skin  
   A61B5/6843: . . . Monitoring or controlling sensor contact pressure  
   A61B5/6844: . . . Monitoring or controlling distance between sensor and tissue  
   A61B5/6846: . . specially adapted to be brought in contact with an internal body part, i.e. invasive  
   A61B5/6847: . . . mounted on an invasive device  
   A61B5/6848: . . . . Needles  
   A61B5/6849: . . . . . in combination with a needle set  
   A61B5/685: . . . . Microneedles  
   A61B5/6851: . . . . Guide wires  
   A61B5/6852: . . . . Catheters  
   A61B5/6853: . . . . . with a balloon  
   A61B5/6855: . . . . . with a distal curved tip  
   A61B5/6856: . . . . . with a distal loop  
   A61B5/6857: . . . . . with a distal pigtail shape  
   A61B5/6858: . . . . . with a distal basket, e.g. expandable basket  
   A61B5/6859: . . . . . with multiple distal splines  
   A61B5/686: . . . . Permanently implanted devices, e.g. pacemakers, other stimulators, biochips (A61B5/6861 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/6861: . . . . Capsules, e.g. for swallowing or implanting  
   A61B5/6862: . . . . Stents  
   A61B5/6864: . . . . Burr holes  
   A61B5/6865: . . . . Access ports  
   A61B5/6866: . . . . Extracorporeal blood circuits, e.g. dialysis circuits  
   A61B5/6867: . . . specially adapted to be attached or implanted in a specific body part (A61B5/6847 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/6868: . . . . Brain  
   A61B5/6869: . . . . Heart  
   A61B5/687: . . . . Oesophagus  
   A61B5/6871: . . . . Stomach  
   A61B5/6873: . . . . Intestine  
   A61B5/6874: . . . . Bladder  
   A61B5/6875: . . . . Uterus  
   A61B5/6876: . . . . Blood vessel  
   A61B5/6877: . . . . Nerve  
   A61B5/6878: . . . . Bone  
   A61B5/6879: . . . Means for maintaining contact with the body (A61B5/6847 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/688: . . . . using adhesives  
   A61B5/6882: . . . . Anchoring means  
   A61B5/6883: . . . . Sutures  
   A61B5/6884: . . . . Clamps or clips  
   A61B5/6885: . . . Monitoring or controlling sensor contact pressure  
   A61B5/6886: . . . Monitoring or controlling distance between sensor and tissue  
   A61B5/6887: . . mounted on external non-worn devices, e.g. non-medical devices  
   A61B5/6888: . . . Cabins  
   A61B5/6889: . . . Rooms  
   A61B5/6891: . . . Furniture  
   A61B5/6892: . . . Mats  
   A61B5/6893: . . . Cars  
   A61B5/6894: . . . Wheel chairs  
   A61B5/6895: . . . Sport equipment  
   A61B5/6896: . . . Toys  
   A61B5/6897: . . . Computer input devices, e.g. mice or keyboards  
   A61B5/6898: . . . Portable consumer electronic devices, e.g. music players, telephones, tablet computers  
   A61B5/70: Means for positioning the patient in relation to the detecting, measuring or recording means  
   A61B5/702: . . Posture restraints  
   A61B5/704: . . Tables  
   A61B5/706: . . Indicia not located on the patient, e.g. floor marking  
   A61B5/708: . . Breast positioning means  
   A61B5/72: Signal processing specially adapted for physiological signals or for diagnostic purposes (pattern recognition G06K9/00)  
   A61B5/7203: . . for noise prevention, reduction or removal  
   A61B5/7207: . . . of noise induced by motion artifacts  
   A61B5/721: . . . . using a separate sensor to detect motion or using motion information derived from signals other than the physiological signal to be measured  
   A61B5/7214: . . . . using signal cancellation, e.g. based on input of two identical physiological sensors spaced apart, or based on two signals derived from the same sensor, for different optical wavelengths  
   A61B5/7217: . . . of noise originating from a therapeutic or surgical apparatus, e.g. from a pacemaker  
   A61B5/7221: . . Determining signal validity, reliability or quality (A61B5/7207 and A61B5/7217 take precedence)  
   A61B5/7225: . . Details of analog processing, e.g. isolation amplifier, gain or sensitivity adjustment, filtering, baseline or drift compensation (A61B5/04004, A61B5/04012, A61B5/0428 take precedence; transformers for specific applications H01F38/00; amplifiers H03F)  
   A61B5/7228: . . Signal modulation applied to the input signal sent to patient or subject; demodulation to recover the physiological signal (modulation H03C)  
   A61B5/7232: . . involving compression of the physiological signal, e.g. to extend the signal recording period  
   A61B5/7235: . . Details of waveform analysis (A61B5/0452 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/7239: . . . using differentiation including higher order derivatives  
   A61B5/7242: . . . using integration  
   A61B5/7246: . . . using correlation, e.g. template matching or determination of similarity  
   A61B5/725: . . . using specific filters therefor, e.g. Kalman or adaptive filters (A61B5/04014 and A61B5/04017 take precedence)  
   A61B5/7253: . . . characterised by using transforms  
   A61B5/7257: . . . . using Fourier transforms  
   A61B5/726: . . . . using Wavelet transforms  
   A61B5/7264: . . . Classification of physiological signals or data, e.g. using neural networks, statistical classifiers, expert systems or fuzzy systems (neural networks per seG01N3/00; expert systems per seG06N5/00)  
   A61B5/7267: . . . . involving training the classification device  
   A61B5/7271: . . Specific aspects of physiological measurement analysis (A61B5/04012, A61B5/0452 and A61B5/048 take precedence)  
   A61B5/7275: . . . Determining trends in physiological measurement data; Predicting development of a medical condition based on physiological measurements, e.g. determining a risk factor  
   A61B5/7278: . . . Artificial waveform generation or derivation, e.g. synthesising signals from measured signals (A61B5/04028 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/7282: . . . Event detection, e.g. detecting unique waveforms indicative of a medical condition (A61B5/4094, A61B5/4818, A61B5/0452, A61B5/0823 take precedence)  
   A61B5/7285: . . . for synchronising or triggering a physiological measurement or image acquisition with a physiological event or waveform, e.g. an ECG signal (A61B6/5205, A61B6/541, A61B8/5207, A61B8/543 take precedence)  
   A61B5/7289: . . . . Retrospective gating, i.e. associating measured signals or images with a physiological event after the actual measurement or image acquisition, e.g. by simultaneously recording an additional physiological signal during the measurement or image acquisition  
   A61B5/7292: . . . . Prospective gating, i.e. predicting the occurrence of a physiological event for use as a synchronisation signal  
   A61B5/7296: . . . for compensation of signal variation due to stress unintentionally induced in the patient, e.g. due to the stress of the medical environment or examination (deliberately inducing physiological or psychological stress A61B5/4884)  
   A61B5/74: Details of notification to user or communication with user or patient (indicating measured values G01D7/00); ; user input means (input or output arrangements for computers G06F3/00)  
   A61B5/7405: . . using sound  
   A61B5/741: . . . using synthesised speech  
   A61B5/7415: . . . Sound rendering of measured values, e.g. by pitch or volume variation (A61B5/741 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/742: . . using visual displays (A61B5/044 takes precedence)  
   A61B5/7425: . . . Displaying combinations of multiple images regardless of image source, e.g. displaying a reference anatomical image with a live image (geometric transforms for image registration G06T3/0068; enhancement using image fusion G06T5/50; algorithms for registration of images G06T7/30)  
   A61B5/743: . . . Displaying an image simultaneously with additional graphical information, e.g. symbols, charts, function plots  
   A61B5/7435: . . . Displaying user selection data, e.g. icons in a graphical user interface  
   A61B5/744: . . . Displaying an avatar, e.g. an animated cartoon character  
   A61B5/7445: . . . Display arrangements, e.g. multiple display units  
   A61B5/745: . . . using a holographic display  
   A61B5/7455: . . characterised by tactile indication, e.g. vibration or electrical stimulation  
   A61B5/746: . . Alarms related to a physiological condition, e.g. details of setting alarm thresholds or avoiding false alarms (alarms per seG08B)  
   A61B5/7465: . . Arrangements for interactive communication between patient and care services, e.g. by using a telephone network (telemetry of measured physiological signal A61B5/0002)  
   A61B5/747: . . . in case of emergency, i.e. alerting emergency services  
   A61B5/7475: . . User input or interface means, e.g. keyboard, pointing device, joystick  
   A61B5/748: . . . Selection of a region of interest, e.g. using a graphics tablet  
   A61B5/7485: . . . . Automatic selection of region of interest  
   A61B5/749: . . . Voice-controlled interfaces  
   A61B5/7495: . . . using a reader or scanner device, e.g. barcode scanner