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G:PHYSICS  
 G01: INSTRUMENTS; MEASURING (counting G06M); TESTING  
  G01N: INVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (separating components of materials in general B01D, B01J, B03, B07; apparatus fully provided for in a single other subclass, see the relevant subclass, e.g. B01L; measuring or testing processes other than immunoassay, involving enzymes or microorganisms C12M, C12Q; investigation of foundation soil in situE02D1/00; sensing humidity changes for compensating measurements of other variables or for compensating readings of instruments for variations in humidity, seeG01D or the relevant subclass for the variable measured; testing or determining the properties of structures G01M; measuring or investigating electric or magnetic properties of materials G01R; systems or methods in general, using reception or emission of radiowaves or other waves and based on propagation effects, e.g. Doppler effect, propagation time, direction of propagation, G01S; determining sensivity, graininess, or density of photographic materials G03C5/02; testing component parts of nuclear reactors G21C17/00; {controlling or regulating non-electric variables G05D; measuring degree of ionisation of ionised gases, i.e. plasma H05H1/0006; testing electrographic developer properties G03G15/0848})  
   G01N21/00: Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light (G01N3/00-G01N19/00 take precedence)  
   G01N21/01: Arrangements or apparatus for facilitating the optical investigation  
   G01N21/03: . . Cuvette constructions  
   G01N21/0303: . . . Optical path conditioning in cuvettes, e.g. windows; adapted optical elements or systems; path modifying or adjustment (G01N21/031 - G01N21/15 take precedence)  
   G01N21/031: . . . Multipass arrangements  
   G01N21/0317: . . . High pressure cuvettes; (G01N21/0332 - G01N21/15 take precedence)  
   G01N21/0332: . . . with temperature control (control of temperature G05D23/00; cryostats F17C3/08)  
   G01N21/05: . . . Flow-through cuvettes (G01N21/09 takes precedence; handling fluid samples G01N1/10)  
   G01N21/07: . . . Centrifugal type cuvettes (G01N21/09 takes precedence; centrifuges per seB04B)  
   G01N21/09: . . . adapted to resist hostile environments or corrosive or abrasive materials  
   G01N21/11: . . Filling or emptying of cuvettes  
   G01N21/13: . . Moving of cuvettes or solid samples to or from the investigating station {handling materials for automatic analysis G01N35/00}  
   G01N21/15: . . Preventing contamination of the components of the optical system or obstruction of the light path  
   G01N21/17: Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated (where the material investigated is optically excited causing a change in wavelength of the incident light G01N21/63)  
   G01N21/1702: . . with opto-acoustic detection, e.g. for gases or analysing solids  
   G01N21/171: . . with calorimetric detection, e.g. with thermal lens detection  
   G01N21/1717: . . with a modulation of one or more physical properties of the sample during the optical investigation, e.g. electro-reflectance  
   G01N21/19: . . Dichroism  
   G01N21/21: . . Polarisation-affecting properties (G01N21/19 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/211: . . . Ellipsometry (optical thickness measurement G01B11/06)  
   G01N21/23: . . . Bi-refringence  
   G01N21/25: . . Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands  
   G01N21/251: . . . Colorimeters; Construction thereof  
   G01N21/253: . . . . for batch operation, i.e. multisample apparatus (analytical automats G01N35/00)  
   G01N21/255: . . . Details, e.g. use of specially adapted sources, lighting or optical systems  
   G01N21/256: . . . Arrangements using two alternating lights and one detector  
   G01N21/27: . . . using photo-electric detection (G01N21/31 takes precedence){; circuits for computing concentration (logarithmic circuits G06G7/24; photometric circuits in general G01J)}  
   G01N21/272: . . . . for following a reaction, e.g. for determining photometrically a reaction rate (photometric cinetic analysis)  
   G01N21/274: . . . . Calibration, base line adjustment, drift correction  
   G01N21/276: . . . . . with alternation of sample and standard in optical path  
   G01N21/278: . . . . . Constitution of standards  
   G01N21/29: . . . using visual detection (G01N21/31 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/293: . . . . with colour charts, graduated scales or turrets  
   G01N21/31: . . . Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry {G01N21/72 takes precedence}  
   G01N21/3103: . . . . Atomic absorption analysis  
   G01N21/314: . . . . with comparison of measurements at specific and non-specific wavelengths (dual wavelength spectrometry G01J3/427)  
   G01N21/3151: . . . . . using two sources of radiation of different wavelengths (G01N21/33 - G01N21/39 take precedence)  
   G01N21/33: . . . . using ultra-violet light (G01N21/39 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/35: . . . . using infra-red light (G01N21/39 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/3504: . . . . . for analysing gases, e.g. multi-gas analysis  
   G01N21/3518: . . . . . . Devices using gas filter correlation techniques; Devices using gas pressure modulation techniques  
   G01N21/3554: . . . . . for determining moisture content  
   G01N21/3559: . . . . . . in sheets, e.g. in paper  
   G01N21/3563: . . . . . for analysing solids; Preparation of samples therefor  
   G01N21/3577: . . . . . for analysing liquids, e.g. polluted water  
   G01N21/3581: . . . . . using far infra-red light; using Terahertz radiation  
   G01N21/3586: . . . . . . by Terahertz time domain spectroscopy [THz-TDS]  
   G01N21/359: . . . . . using near infra-red light  
   G01N21/37: . . . . . using pneumatic detection {opto-acoustic detection G01N21/1702}  
   G01N21/39: . . . . using tunable lasers  
   G01N21/41: . . Refractivity; Phase-affecting properties, e.g. optical path length (G01N21/21 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/412: . . . Index profiling of optical fibres  
   G01N21/4133: . . . Refractometers, e.g. differential  
   G01N21/43: . . . by measuring critical angle  
   G01N21/431: . . . . Dip refractometers, e.g. using optical fibres  
   G01N21/45: . . . using interferometric methods; using Schlieren methods  
   G01N21/453: . . . . Holographic interferometry (for dimensional measurements G01B9/021 - G01B9/029)  
   G01N21/455: . . . . Schlieren methods, e.g. for gradient index determination; Shadowgraph  
   G01N21/47: . . Scattering, i.e. diffuse reflection (G01N21/25, G01N21/41 take precedence {G01N21/55 takes precedence})  
   G01N21/4738: . . . Diffuse reflection (precedence is given to G01N21/55 - G01N21/57 if specular component is taken into consideration); , e.g. also for testing fluids, fibrous materials  
   G01N21/474: . . . . Details of optical heads therefor, e.g. using optical fibres  
   G01N21/4785: . . . Standardising light scatter apparatus; Standards therefor  
   G01N21/4788: . . . Diffraction (for sizing particles G01N15/0205)  
   G01N21/4795: . . . spatially resolved investigating of object in scattering medium (in vivoA61B)  
   G01N21/49: . . . within a body or fluid  
   G01N21/51: . . . . inside a container, e.g. in an ampoule (G01N21/53 takes precedence; checking containers for cleanliness B08B9/46)  
   G01N21/53: . . . . within a flowing fluid, e.g. smoke (alarm devices actuated by smoke G08B17/10)  
   G01N21/532: . . . . . with measurement of scattering and transmission  
   G01N21/534: . . . . . by measuring transmission alone, i.e. determining opacity  
   G01N21/538: . . . . . for determining atmospheric attenuation and visibility  
   G01N21/55: . . Specular reflectivity  
   G01N21/552: . . . Attenuated total reflection  
   G01N21/553: . . . . and using surface plasmons (fluorescence excitation G01N21/648; enhanced Raman G01N21/658)  
   G01N21/554: . . . . . detecting the surface plasmon resonance of nanostructured metals, e.g. localised surface plasmon resonance  
   G01N21/57: . . . Measuring gloss  
   G01N21/59: . . Transmissivity (G01N21/25 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/5907: . . . Densitometers  
   G01N21/5911: . . . . of the scanning type (scanning per seG02B)  
   G01N21/61: . . . Non-dispersive gas analysers {G01N21/3504 takes precedence}  
   G01N21/62: Systems in which the material investigated is excited whereby it emits light or causes a change in wavelength of the incident light  
   G01N21/63: . . optically excited  
   G01N21/631: . . . using photolysis and investigating photolysed fragments  
   G01N21/636: . . . using an arrangement of pump beam and probe beam; using the measurement of optical non-linear properties; (non-linear optics per seG02F1/35)  
   G01N21/64: . . . Fluorescence; Phosphorescence  
   G01N21/6402: . . . . Atomic fluorescence; Laser induced fluorescence  
   G01N21/6404: . . . . . Atomic fluorescence  
   G01N21/6408: . . . . with measurement of decay time, time resolved fluorescence  
   G01N21/6428: . . . . Measuring fluorescence of fluorescent products of reactions or of fluorochrome labelled reactive substances, e.g. measuring quenching effects, using measuring "optrodes" (in vivoA61B5/00; immunoassay G01N33/53)  
   G01N21/643: . . . . . non-biological material  
   G01N21/6445: . . . . Measuring fluorescence polarisation  
   G01N21/6447: . . . . by visual observation  
   G01N21/645: . . . . Specially adapted constructive features of fluorimeters  
   G01N21/6452: . . . . . Individual samples arranged in a regular 2D-array, e.g. multiwell plates  
   G01N21/6454: . . . . . . using an integrated detector array  
   G01N21/6456: . . . . . Spatial resolved fluorescence measurements; Imaging  
   G01N21/6458: . . . . . . Fluorescence microscopy (fluorescence microscopes per seG02B21/0076 and G02B21/16)  
   G01N21/648: . . . . . using evanescent coupling or surface plasmon coupling for the excitation of fluorescence  
   G01N21/6486: . . . . Measuring fluorescence of biological material, e.g. DNA, RNA, cells (G01N21/6428 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/6489: . . . . Photoluminescence of semiconductors  
   G01N21/65: . . . Raman scattering  
   G01N21/658: . . . . enhancement Raman, e.g. surface plasmons  
   G01N21/66: . . electrically excited, e.g. electroluminescence  
   G01N21/67: . . . using electric arcs or discharges (spark gaps per seH01T)  
   G01N21/68: . . . using high frequency electric fields  
   G01N21/69: . . . specially adapted for fluids {, e.g. molten metal}  
   G01N21/70: . . mechanically excited, e.g. triboluminescence  
   G01N21/71: . . thermally excited  
   G01N21/714: . . . Sample nebulisers for flame burners or plasma burners (nebulizers per seB05B)  
   G01N21/716: . . . by measuring the radiation emitted by a test object treated by combustion gases for investigating the composition of gas mixtures  
   G01N21/718: . . . Laser microanalysis, i.e. with formation of sample plasma  
   G01N21/72: . . . using flame burners  
   G01N21/73: . . . using plasma burners or torches  
   G01N21/74: . . . using flameless atomising, e.g. graphite furnaces  
   G01N21/75: Systems in which material is subjected to a chemical reaction, the progress or the result of the reaction being investigated (systems in which material is burnt in a flame or plasma G01N21/72, G01N21/73)  
   G01N21/76: . . Chemiluminescence; Bioluminescence  
   G01N21/763: . . . Bioluminescence  
   G01N21/766: . . . of gases  
   G01N21/77: . . by observing the effect on a chemical indicator  
   G01N21/7703: . . . using reagent-clad optical fibres or optical waveguides (using measurement of total internal reflection or attenuated total reflection G01N21/552; optical fibres or waveguides per seG02B)  
   G01N21/774: . . . . the reagent being on a grating or periodic structure  
   G01N21/7743: . . . . . the reagent-coated grating coupling light in or out of the waveguide  
   G01N21/7746: . . . . the waveguide coupled to a cavity resonator  
   G01N21/78: . . . producing a change of colour  
   G01N21/783: . . . . for analysing gases  
   G01N21/79: . . . . Photometric titration  
   G01N21/80: . . . . Indicating pH value  
   G01N21/81: . . . . Indicating humidity  
   G01N21/82: . . . producing a precipitate or turbidity  
   G01N21/83: . . . . Turbidimetric titration  
   G01N21/84: Systems specially adapted for particular applications  
   G01N21/8422: . . Investigating thin films, e.g. matrix isolation method  
   G01N21/8483: . . Investigating reagent band (test-element handling not specific to a test method G01N33/4875; analytical elements specific to chemical analysis of biological material G01N33/52; autometer with reagent band G01N35/04)  
   G01N21/85: . . Investigating moving fluids or granular solids  
   G01N21/8507: . . . Probe photometers, i.e. with optical measuring part dipped into fluid sample  
   G01N21/86: . . Investigating moving sheets (G01N21/89 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/87: . . Investigating jewels (G01N21/88 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/88: . . Investigating the presence of flaws or contamination  
   G01N21/8803: . . . Visual inspection (measuring projectors G01B9/08)  
   G01N21/8806: . . . Specially adapted optical and illumination features  
   G01N21/8851: . . . Scan or image signal processing specially adapted therefor, e.g. for scan signal adjustment, for detecting different kinds of defects, for compensating for structures, markings, edges (G01N21/8806 and G01N21/93 - G01N21/95692 take precedence; optical measurement of dimensions G01B11/00; optical scanning G02B26/10; image transformation G06T3/00; computerised image enhancement G06T5/00; image processing per se for flaw detection G06T7/0002)  
   G01N21/89: . . . in moving material, e.g. running paper or textiles (G01N21/90, G01N21/91, G01N21/94 take precedence)  
   G01N21/8901: . . . . Optical details; Scanning details (per seG02B)  
   G01N21/8903: . . . . . using a multiple detector array  
   G01N21/8914: . . . . characterised by the material examined  
   G01N21/8915: . . . . . non-woven textile material  
   G01N21/8916: . . . . . for testing photographic material  
   G01N21/892: . . . . characterised by the flaw, defect or object feature examined  
   G01N21/8921: . . . . . Streaks  
   G01N21/8922: . . . . . Periodic flaws  
   G01N21/894: . . . . . Pinholes  
   G01N21/896: . . . . . Optical defects in or on transparent materials, e.g. distortion, surface flaws {in conveyed flat sheet or rod (for other objects G01N21/958)}  
   G01N21/898: . . . . . Irregularities in textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. textiles, wood  
   G01N21/8983: . . . . . . for testing textile webs, i.e. woven material  
   G01N21/8986: . . . . . . Wood  
   G01N21/90: . . . in a container or its contents (G01N21/91 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/9009: . . . . Non-optical constructional details affecting optical inspection, e.g. cleaning mechanisms for optical parts, vibration reduction  
   G01N21/9018: . . . . Dirt detection in containers  
   G01N21/9027: . . . . . in containers after filling  
   G01N21/9036: . . . . using arrays of emitters or receivers  
   G01N21/9045: . . . . Inspection of ornamented or stippled container walls  
   G01N21/9054: . . . . Inspection of sealing surface and container finish  
   G01N21/9072: . . . . with illumination or detection from inside the container  
   G01N21/9081: . . . . Inspection especially designed for plastic containers, e.g. preforms  
   G01N21/909: . . . . in opaque containers or opaque container parts, e.g. cans, tins, caps, labels  
   G01N21/91: . . . using penetration of dyes, e.g. fluorescent ink  
   G01N21/93: . . . Detection standards; Calibrating {baseline adjustment, drift correction}  
   G01N21/94: . . . Investigating contamination, e.g. dust (G01N21/85 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/95: . . . characterised by the material or shape of the object to be examined (G01N21/89 - G01N21/91, G01N21/94 take precedence)  
   G01N21/9501: . . . . Semiconductor wafers (manufacturing processes per se of semiconductor devices implementing a measuring step H01L22/10)  
   G01N21/9503: . . . . . Wafer edge inspection  
   G01N21/9505: . . . . . Wafer internal defects, e.g. microcracks  
   G01N21/9506: . . . . Optical discs  
   G01N21/9508: . . . . Capsules; Tablets  
   G01N21/951: . . . . Balls  
   G01N21/9515: . . . . Objects of complex shape, e.g. examined with use of a surface follower device (measuring contours and curvatures G01B11/24)  
   G01N21/952: . . . . Inspecting the exterior surface of cylindrical bodies or wires (G01N21/956 takes precedence)  
   G01N21/954: . . . . Inspecting the inner surface of hollow bodies, e.g. bores  
   G01N21/956: . . . . Inspecting patterns on the surface of objects (contactless testing of electronic circuits G01R31/308; testing currency G07D{manufacturing processes per se of semiconductor devices implementing a measuring step H01L22/10})  
   G01N21/95607: . . . . . using a comparative method  
   G01N21/95623: . . . . . using a spatial filtering method (per seG02B)  
   G01N21/95684: . . . . . Patterns showing highly reflecting parts, e.g. metallic elements  
   G01N21/95692: . . . . . Patterns showing hole parts, e.g. honeycomb filtering structures  
   G01N21/958: . . . . Inspecting transparent materials {or objects, e.g. windscreens (for conveyed flat sheet or rod G01N21/896)}