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A:SECTION A HUMAN NECESSITIES
 A61: MEDICAL OR VETERINARY SCIENCE; HYGIENE
  A61B: DIAGNOSIS; SURGERY; IDENTIFICATION
   A61B1/00: Instruments for performing medical examinations of the interior of cavities or tubes of the body by visual or photographical inspection, e.g. endoscopes; Illuminating arrangements therefor  
   A61B1/002: having rod-lens arrangements  
   A61B1/005: Flexible endoscopes  
   A61B1/008: . . Articulations  
   A61B1/01: . . Guiding arrangements therefor  
   A61B1/012: characterised by internal passages or accessories therefor  
   A61B1/015: . . Control of fluid supply or evacuation  
   A61B1/018: . . for receiving instruments  
   A61B1/04: combined with photographic or television appliances  
   A61B1/045: . . Control thereof  
   A61B1/05: . . characterised by the image sensor, e.g. camera, being in the distal end portion  
   A61B1/055: . . having rod-lens arrangements  
   A61B1/06: with illuminating arrangements  
   A61B1/07: . . using light-conductive means, e.g. optical fibres  
   A61B1/12: with cooling or rinsing arrangements  
   A61B1/227: for ears, i.e. otoscopes  
   A61B1/233: for the nose, i.e. nasoscopes  
   A61B1/24: for the mouth, i.e. stomatoscopes, e.g. with tongue depressors; Instruments for opening or keeping open the mouth  
   A61B1/247: . . with means for viewing areas outside the direct line of sight, e.g. dentists' mirrors  
   A61B1/253: . . . with means for preventing fogging  
   A61B1/267: for the respiratory tract, e.g. laryngoscopes, bronchoscopes  
   A61B1/273: for the upper alimentary canal, e.g. oesophagoscopes, gastroscopes  
   A61B1/303: for the vagina, i.e. vaginoscopes  
   A61B1/307: for the urinary organs, e.g. urethroscopes, cystoscopes  
   A61B1/31: for the rectum, e.g. proctoscopes, sigmoidoscopes  
   A61B1/313: for introducing through surgical openings, e.g. laparoscopes  
   A61B1/317: . . for bones or joints, e.g. osteoscopes, arthroscopes  
   A61B1/32: Devices for opening or enlarging the visual field, e.g. of a tube of the body  
   A61B3/00: Apparatus for testing the eyes; Instruments for examining the eyes  
   A61B3/02: Subjective types, i.e. testing apparatus requiring the active assistance of the patient  
   A61B3/024: . . for determining the visual field, e.g. perimeter types  
   A61B3/028: . . for testing visual acuity; for determination of refraction, e.g. phoropters  
   A61B3/032: . . . Devices for presenting test symbols or characters, e.g. test chart projectors  
   A61B3/036: . . . for testing astigmatism  
   A61B3/04: . . . Trial frames; Sets of lenses for use therewith  
   A61B3/06: . . for testing light sensitivity, e.g. adaptation; for testing colour vision  
   A61B3/08: . . for testing binocular or stereoscopic vision, e.g. strabismus  
   A61B3/09: . . for testing accommodation  
   A61B3/10: Objective types, i.e. instruments for examining the eyes independent of the patients perceptions or reactions  
   A61B3/103: . . for determining refraction, e.g. refractometers, skiascopes  
   A61B3/107: . . for determining the shape or measuring the curvature of the cornea  
   A61B3/11: . . for measuring interpupillary distance or diameter of pupils  
   A61B3/113: . . for determining or recording eye movement  
   A61B3/117: . . for examining the anterior chamber or the anterior chamber angle, e.g. gonioscopes  
   A61B3/12: . . for looking at the eye fundus, e.g. ophthalmoscopes  
   A61B3/125: . . . with contact lenses  
   A61B3/13: . . Ophthalmic microscopes  
   A61B3/135: . . . Slit-lamp microscopes  
   A61B3/14: . . Arrangements specially adapted for eye photography  
   A61B3/15: . . . with means for aligning, spacing or blocking spurious reflection  
   A61B3/16: . . for measuring intraocular pressure, e.g. tonometers  
   A61B3/18: Arrangement of plural eye-testing or -examining apparatus  
   A61B5/00: Measuring for diagnostic purposes; Identification of persons  
   A61B5/01: Measuring temperature of body parts  
   A61B5/02: Measuring pulse, heart rate, blood pressure or blood flow; Combined pulse/heart-rate/blood pressure determination; Evaluating a cardiovascular condition not otherwise provided for, e.g. using combinations of techniques provided for in this group with electrocardiography; Heart catheters for measuring blood pressure  
   A61B5/0205: . . Simultaneously evaluating both cardiovascular conditions and different types of body conditions, e.g. heart and respiratory condition  
   A61B5/021: . . Measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels  
   A61B5/0215: . . . by means inserted into the body  
   A61B5/022: . . . by applying pressure to close blood vessels, e.g. against the skin; Ophthaldynamometers  
   A61B5/0225: . . . . the pressure being controlled by electric signals, e.g. derived from Korotkoff sounds  
   A61B5/023: . . . . the pressure transducers comprising a liquid column  
   A61B5/0235: . . . . Valves specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/024: . . Measuring pulse rate or heart rate  
   A61B5/0245: . . . using sensing means generating electric signals  
   A61B5/025: . . . . within occluders, e.g. responsive to Korotkoff sounds  
   A61B5/0255: . . . Recording instruments specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/026: . . Measuring blood flow  
   A61B5/0265: . . . using electromagnetic means, e.g. electromagnetic flow meter  
   A61B5/027: . . . . using catheters  
   A61B5/0275: . . . using tracers, e.g. dye dilution  
   A61B5/028: . . . . by thermo-dilution  
   A61B5/0285: . . . Measuring phase velocity of blood waves  
   A61B5/029: . . . Measuring blood output from the heart, e.g. minute volume  
   A61B5/0295: . . . using plethysmography, i.e. measuring the variations in the volume of a body part as modified by the circulation of blood therethrough, e.g. impedance plethysmography  
   A61B5/03: Measuring fluid pressure within the body other than blood pressure, e.g. cerebral pressure  
   A61B5/04: Measuring bioelectric signals of the body or parts thereof  
   A61B5/0402: . . Electrocardiography, i.e. ECG  
   A61B5/0404: . . . Hand-held devices  
   A61B5/0408: . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/0416: . . . . connected by means of snap fasteners  
   A61B5/042: . . . . for introducing into the body  
   A61B5/0424: . . . . Protection against electrode failure  
   A61B5/0428: . . . Input circuits specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/0432: . . . Recording apparatus specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/0436: . . . . Magnetic recording apparatus  
   A61B5/044: . . . Displays specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/0444: . . . Foetal cardiography  
   A61B5/0448: . . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor, e.g. scalp electrodes  
   A61B5/0452: . . . Detecting specific parameters of the electrocardiograph cycle  
   A61B5/0456: . . . . Detecting R peaks, e.g. for synchronising diagnostic apparatus  
   A61B5/046: . . . . Detecting fibrillation  
   A61B5/0464: . . . . Detecting tachycardy or brachycardy  
   A61B5/0468: . . . . Detecting abnormal ECG interval  
   A61B5/0472: . . . . Detecting abnormal QRS complex  
   A61B5/0476: . . Electroencephalography  
   A61B5/0478: . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor  
   A61B5/048: . . . Detecting the frequency distribution of signals  
   A61B5/0482: . . . using biofeedback  
   A61B5/0484: . . . using evoked response  
   A61B5/0488: . . Electromyography  
   A61B5/0492: . . . Electrodes specially adapted therefor, e.g. needle electrodes  
   A61B5/0496: . . Electro-oculography, e.g. detecting nystagmus  
   A61B5/05: Measuring for diagnosis by means of electric currents or magnetic fields  
   A61B5/053: . . Measuring electrical impedance or conductance of a portion of the body  
   A61B5/055: . . involving electronic [EMR] or nuclear [NMR] magnetic resonance, e.g. magnetic resonance imaging  
   A61B5/06: Devices, other than using radiation, for detecting or locating foreign bodies  
   A61B5/07: Endoradiosondes  
   A61B5/08: Measuring devices for evaluating the respiratory organs  
   A61B5/083: . . Measuring rate of metabolism by using breath test, e.g. measuring rate of oxygen consumption  
   A61B5/085: . . Measuring impedance of respiratory organs or lung elasticity  
   A61B5/087: . . Measuring breath flow  
   A61B5/09: . . . using an element rotated by the flow  
   A61B5/091: . . Measuring volume of inspired or expired gases, e.g. to determine lung capacity  
   A61B5/093: . . . the gases being exhaled into, or inhaled from, an expansible chamber, e.g. bellows or expansible bag  
   A61B5/095: . . . . within a rigid container, e.g. the boundary being formed by a liquid surface  
   A61B5/097: . . Devices for facilitating collection of breath or for directing breath into or through measuring devices  
   A61B5/103: Measuring devices for testing the shape, pattern, size or movement of the body or parts thereof, for diagnostic purposes  
   A61B5/107: . . Measuring physical dimensions, e.g. size of the entire body or parts thereof  
   A61B5/11: . . Measuring movement of the entire body or parts thereof, e.g. head or hand tremor or mobility of a limb  
   A61B5/113: . . . occurring during breathing  
   A61B5/117: Identification of persons  
   A61B5/1171: . . based on the shapes or appearances of their bodies or parts thereof  
   A61B5/1172: . . . using fingerprinting  
   A61B5/1174: . . . using footprinting  
   A61B5/1178: . . . using dental data  
   A61B5/12: Audiometering  
   A61B5/145: Measuring characteristics of blood in vivo, e.g. gas concentration, pH-value  
   A61B5/1455: . . using optical sensors, e.g. spectral photometrical oximeters  
   A61B5/1459: . . . invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter  
   A61B5/1464: . . . specially adapted for foetal tissue  
   A61B5/1468: . . using chemical or electrochemical methods, e.g. by polarographic means  
   A61B5/1473: . . . invasive, e.g. introduced into the body by a catheter  
   A61B5/1477: . . . non-invasive  
   A61B5/1482: . . . specially adapted for foetal tissue  
   A61B5/1486: . . using enzyme electrodes, e.g. with immobilised oxidase  
   A61B5/1491: . . Heated applicators  
   A61B5/1495: . . Calibrating or testing in vivo probes  
   A61B5/15: Devices for taking samples of blood  
   A61B5/151: . . specially adapted for taking samples of capillary blood, e.g. by lancets  
   A61B5/153: . . specially adapted for taking samples of venous or arterial blood, e.g. by syringes  
   A61B5/154: . . . using pre-evacuated means  
   A61B5/155: . . specially adapted for continuous or multiple sampling, e.g. at predetermined intervals  
   A61B5/157: . . characterised by integrated means for measuring characteristics of blood  
   A61B5/16: Devices for psychotechnics; Testing reaction times  
   A61B5/18: . . for vehicle drivers  
   A61B5/20: Measuring urological functions  
   A61B5/22: Ergometry; Measuring muscular strength or the force of a muscular blow  
   A61B6/00: Apparatus for radiation diagnosis, e.g. combined with radiation therapy equipment  
   A61B6/02: Devices for diagnosis sequentially in different planes; Stereoscopic radiation diagnosis  
   A61B6/03: . . Computerised tomographs  
   A61B6/04: Positioning of patients; Tiltable beds or the like  
   A61B6/06: Diaphragms  
   A61B6/08: Auxiliary means for directing the radiation beam to a particular spot, e.g. using light beams  
   A61B6/10: Application or adaptation of safety means  
   A61B6/12: Devices for detecting or locating foreign bodies  
   A61B6/14: Applications or adaptations for dentistry  
   A61B7/00: Instruments for auscultation  
   A61B7/02: Stethoscopes  
   A61B7/04: . . Electric stethoscopes  
   A61B8/00: Diagnosis using ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves  
   A61B8/02: Measuring pulse or heart rate  
   A61B8/04: Measuring blood pressure  
   A61B8/06: Measuring blood flow  
   A61B8/08: Detecting organic movements or changes, e.g. tumours, cysts, swellings  
   A61B8/10: Eye inspection  
   A61B8/12: in body cavities or body tracts, e.g. by using catheters  
   A61B8/13: Tomography  
   A61B8/14: . . Echo-tomography  
   A61B8/15: . . Transmission-tomography  
   A61B9/00: Instruments for examination by percussion; Pleximeters  
   A61B10/00: Other methods or instruments for diagnosis, e.g. for vaccination diagnosis; Sex determination; Ovulation-period determination; Throat striking implements  
   A61B10/02: Instruments for taking cell samples or for biopsy  
   A61B10/04: . . Endoscopic instruments  
   A61B10/06: . . Biopsy forceps  
   A61B13/00: Instruments for depressing the tongue  
   A61B16/00: Devices specially adapted for vivisection or autopsy  
   A61B17/00: Surgical instruments, devices or methods, e.g. tourniquets  
   A61B17/02: for holding wounds open; Tractors  
   A61B17/03: for closing wounds, or holding wounds closed, e.g. surgical staples; Accessories for use therewith  
   A61B17/04: . . for suturing wounds; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials  
   A61B17/06: . . . Needles; Holders or packages for needles or suture materials  
   A61B17/062: . . . Needle manipulators  
   A61B17/064: . . Surgical staples  
   A61B17/068: . . Surgical staplers  
   A61B17/072: . . . for applying a row of staples in a single action  
   A61B17/076: . . for removing surgical staples  
   A61B17/08: . . Wound clamps  
   A61B17/10: . . for applying or removing wound clamps; Wound clamp magazines  
   A61B17/11: . . for performing anastomosis; Buttons for anastomosis  
   A61B17/115: . . . Staplers  
   A61B17/12: for ligaturing or otherwise compressing tubular parts of the body, e.g. blood vessels or umbilical cord  
   A61B17/122: . . Clamps or clips  
   A61B17/125: . . . combined with cutting implements  
   A61B17/128: . . for applying or removing clamps or clips  
   A61B17/132: . . Tourniquets  
   A61B17/135: . . . inflatable  
   A61B17/138: . . combined with cutting implements  
   A61B17/14: Surgical saws  
   A61B17/15: . . Guides therefor  
   A61B17/16: Osteoclasts; Drills or chisels for bones; Trepans  
   A61B17/17: . . Guides for drills  
   A61B17/20: for vaccinating or cleaning the skin previous to the vaccination  
   A61B17/22: Implements for squeezing-off ulcers or the like on inner organs of the body; Implements for scraping-out cavities of body organs, e.g. bones; for invasive removal or destruction of calculus using mechanical vibrations; for removing obstructions in blood vessels, not otherwise provided for  
   A61B17/221: . . Calculus gripping devices in the form of loops or baskets  
   A61B17/225: for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy [ESWL], e.g. by using ultrasonic waves  
   A61B17/24: for use in the oral cavity, larynx, bronchial passages or nose; Tongue scrapers  
   A61B17/26: . . Tonsillotomes, with or without means for stopping bleeding  
   A61B17/28: Surgical forceps  
   A61B17/285: . . combined with cutting implements  
   A61B17/29: . . Forceps for use in minimally invasive surgery  
   A61B17/295: . . . combined with cutting implements  
   A61B17/30: Surgical pincettes  
   A61B17/32: Surgical cutting instruments  
   A61B17/3201: . . Scissors  
   A61B17/3203: . . Fluid jet cutting instruments  
   A61B17/3205: . . Excision instruments  
   A61B17/3207: . . . Atherectomy devices  
   A61B17/3209: . . Incision instruments  
   A61B17/3211: . . . Surgical scalpels or knives; Accessories therefor  
   A61B17/3213: . . . . with detachable blades  
   A61B17/3215: . . . . Packages or dispensers, e.g. for scalpel blades  
   A61B17/3217: . . . . Devices for removing or collecting used scalpel blades  
   A61B17/322: . . Skin grafting apparatus  
   A61B17/326: . . Circumcision apparatus  
   A61B17/34: Trocars; Puncturing needles  
   A61B17/42: Gynaecological or obstetrical instruments or methods  
   A61B17/425: . . for reproduction or fertilisation  
   A61B17/43: . . . for artificial insemination  
   A61B17/435: . . . for embryo transplantation  
   A61B17/44: . . Obstetrical forceps  
   A61B17/46: . . Embryotomes  
   A61B17/48: . . Bags for midwives  
   A61B17/50: Instruments, other than pincettes or toothpicks, for removing foreign bodies from the human body  
   A61B17/52: . . Magnets  
   A61B17/54: Chiropodists' instruments  
   A61B17/56: Surgical instruments or methods for treatment of bones or joints; Devices specially adapted therefor  
   A61B17/58: . . for osteosynthesis, e.g. bone plates, screws or the like  
   A61B17/60: . . . for external osteosynthesis, e.g. distractors or contractors  
   A61B17/62: . . . . Ring frames, i.e. devices extending around the bones to be positioned  
   A61B17/64: . . . . Devices extending alongside the bones to be positioned  
   A61B17/66: . . . . Compression or distraction mechanisms  
   A61B17/68: . . . Internal fixation devices  
   A61B17/70: . . . . Spinal positioners or stabilisers  
   A61B17/72: . . . . Intramedullary devices  
   A61B17/74: . . . . Devices for the head of the femur  
   A61B17/76: . . . . . fixed by screws  
   A61B17/78: . . . . . fixed by nails, pins or the like  
   A61B17/80: . . . . Cortical plates  
   A61B17/82: . . . . for bone cerclage  
   A61B17/84: . . . . Fasteners therefor  
   A61B17/86: . . . . . Pins or screws  
   A61B17/88: . . . Methods or means for implanting or extracting internal fixation devices  
   A61B17/90: . . . . Guides therefor  
   A61B17/92: . . . . Impactors or extractors, e.g. for removing intramedullary devices  
   A61B17/94: Endoscopic surgical instruments  
   A61B18/00: Surgical instruments, devices or methods for transferring non-mechanical forms of energy to or from the body  
   A61B18/02: by cooling, e.g. cryogenic techniques  
   A61B18/04: by heating  
   A61B18/06: . . caused by chemical reaction  
   A61B18/08: . . by means of electrically-heated probes  
   A61B18/10: . . . Power sources therefor  
   A61B18/12: . . by passing a current through the tissue to be heated, e.g. high-frequency current  
   A61B18/14: . . . Probes or electrodes therefor  
   A61B18/16: . . . . Indifferent or passive electrodes for grounding  
   A61B18/18: by applying electromagnetic radiation, e.g. microwaves  
   A61B18/20: . . using laser  
   A61B18/22: . . . the beam being directed along or through a flexible conduit, e.g. an optical fibre; Hand-pieces therefor  
   A61B18/24: . . . . with a catheter  
   A61B18/26: . . . . for producing a shock wave, e.g. laser lithotripsy  
   A61B18/28: . . . . for heating a thermal probe or absorber  
   A61B19/00: Instruments, implements or accessories for surgery or diagnosis not covered by any of the groups , e.g. for stereotaxis, sterile operation, luxation treatment, wound edge protectors  
   A61B19/02: Protective casings or covers for appliances or instruments, e.g. boxes or sterile covers; Instrument tables or cupboards; Doctors' bags  
   A61B19/04: Operating gloves; Finger-stalls for operating; Devices for treating them, e.g. cleaning or powdering  
   A61B19/08: Surgical drapes  
   A61B19/10: . . with means to retain or hold surgical implements  
   A61B19/12: . . tubular, e.g. for arms or legs  
   A61B34/00: Computer-aided surgery; Manipulators or robots specially adapted for use in surgery  
   A61B34/10: Computer-aided planning, simulation or modelling of surgical operations  
   A61B34/20: Surgical navigation systems; Devices for tracking or guiding surgical instruments, e.g. for frameless stereotaxis  
   A61B34/30: Surgical robots  
   A61B34/32: . . operating autonomously  
   A61B34/35: . . for telesurgery  
   A61B34/37: . . Master-slave robots  
   A61B42/00: Surgical gloves; Finger-stalls specially adapted for surgery; Devices for handling or treatment thereof  
   A61B42/10: Surgical gloves  
   A61B42/20: Finger-stalls specially adapted for surgery  
   A61B42/30: Devices for detecting perforations, leaks or tears  
   A61B42/40: Packages or dispensers  
   A61B42/50: Devices for putting-on or removing  
   A61B42/60: Devices for cleaning, washing, drying or powdering  
   A61B46/00: Surgical drapes  
   A61B46/10: specially adapted for instruments  
   A61B46/13: . . the drapes entering the patient's body  
   A61B46/17: . . . closed at the distal end  
   A61B46/20: specially adapted for patients  
   A61B46/23: . . with means to retain or hold surgical implements  
   A61B46/27: . . tubular, e.g. for arms or legs  
   A61B50/00: Containers, covers, furniture or holders specially adapted for surgical or diagnostic appliances or instruments, e.g. sterile covers  
   A61B50/10: Furniture specially adapted for surgical or diagnostic appliances or instruments  
   A61B50/13: . . Trolleys  
   A61B50/15: . . Mayo stands; Tables  
   A61B50/18: . . Cupboards; Drawers therefor  
   A61B50/20: Holders specially adapted for surgical or diagnostic appliances or instruments  
   A61B50/22: . . Racks  
   A61B50/24: . . Stands  
   A61B50/26: . . . floor-based  
   A61B50/28: . . . suspended from the ceiling  
   A61B50/30: Containers specially adapted for packaging, protecting, dispensing, collecting or disposing of surgical or diagnostic appliances or instruments  
   A61B50/31: . . Carrying cases or bags, e.g. doctors' bags  
   A61B50/33: . . Trays  
   A61B50/34: . . Baskets  
   A61B50/36: . . for collecting or disposing of used articles  
   A61B50/37: . . . for absorbent articles, e.g. bandages, garments, swabs or towels  
   A61B50/39: . . . the containers containing antimicrobial, antiviral or disinfectant agents  
   A61B90/00: Instruments, implements or accessories specially adapted for surgery or diagnosis and not covered by any of the groups , e.g. for luxation treatment or for protecting wound edges  
   A61B90/10: for stereotaxic surgery, e.g. frame-based stereotaxis  
   A61B90/11: . . with guides for needles or instruments, e.g. arcuate slides or ball joints  
   A61B90/13: . . . guided by light, e.g. laser pointers  
   A61B90/14: . . Fixators for body parts, e.g. skull clamps; Constructional details of fixators, e.g. pins  
   A61B90/16: . . . Bite blocks  
   A61B90/17: . . . for soft tissue, e.g. breast-holding devices  
   A61B90/18: . . . Retaining sheets, e.g. immobilising masks  
   A61B90/20: Surgical microscopes characterised by non-optical aspects  
   A61B90/25: . . Supports therefor  
   A61B90/30: Devices for illuminating a surgical field, the devices having an interrelation with other surgical devices or with a surgical procedure  
   A61B90/35: . . Supports therefor  
   A61B90/40: Apparatus fixed or close to patients specially adapted for providing an aseptic surgical environment  
   A61B90/50: Supports for surgical instruments, e.g. articulated arms  
   A61B90/53: . . connected to the surgeon's body, e.g. by a belt  
   A61B90/57: . . Accessory clamps  
   A61B90/60: Supports for surgeons, e.g. chairs or hand supports  
   A61B90/70: Cleaning devices specially adapted for surgical instruments  
   A61B90/80: Implements for cleaning or washing the skin of surgeons or patients  
   A61B90/90: Identification means for patients or instruments, e.g. tags  
   A61B90/92: . . coded with colour  
   A61B90/94: . . coded with symbols, e.g. text  
   A61B90/96: . . . using barcodes  
   A61B90/98: . . using electromagnetic means, e.g. transponders