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C:SECTION C CHEMISTRY
 C12: BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
  C12N: MICROORGANISMS OR ENZYMES; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROPAGATING, PRESERVING, OR MAINTAINING MICROORGANISMS; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING; CULTURE MEDIA
   C12N1/00: Microorganisms, e.g. protozoa; Compositions thereof; Processes of propagating, maintaining or preserving microorganisms or compositions thereof; Processes of preparing or isolating a composition containing a microorganism; Culture media therefor  
   C12N1/02: Separating microorganisms from their culture media  
   C12N1/04: Preserving or maintaining viable microorganisms  
   C12N1/06: Lysis of microorganisms  
   C12N1/08: Reducing the nucleic acid content  
   C12N1/10: Protozoa; Culture media therefor  
   C12N1/11: . . modified by introduction of foreign genetic material  
   C12N1/12: Unicellular algae; Culture media therefor  
   C12N1/13: . . modified by introduction of foreign genetic material  
   C12N1/14: Fungi; Culture media therefor  
   C12N1/15: . . modified by introduction of foreign genetic material  
   C12N1/16: . . Yeasts; Culture media therefor  
   C12N1/18: . . . Baker's yeast; Brewer's yeast  
   C12N1/19: . . . modified by introduction of foreign genetic material  
   C12N1/20: Bacteria; Culture media therefor  
   C12N1/21: . . modified by introduction of foreign genetic material  
   C12N1/22: Processes using, or culture media containing, cellulose or hydrolysates thereof  
   C12N1/24: Processes using, or culture media containing, waste sulfite liquor  
   C12N1/26: Processes using, or culture media containing, hydrocarbons  
   C12N1/28: . . aliphatic  
   C12N1/30: . . . having five or less carbon atoms  
   C12N1/32: Processes using, or culture media containing, lower alkanols, i.e. C1 to C6  
   C12N1/34: Processes using foam culture  
   C12N1/36: Adaptation or attenuation of cells  
   C12N1/38: Chemical stimulation of growth or activity by addition of chemical compounds which are not essential growth factors; Stimulation of growth by removal of a chemical compound  
   C12N3/00: Spore-forming or isolating processes  
   C12N5/00: Undifferentiated human, animal or plant cells, e.g. cell lines; Tissues; Cultivation or maintenance thereof; Culture media therefor  
   C12N5/02: Propagation of single cells or cells in suspension; Maintenance thereof; Culture media therefor  
   C12N5/04: Plant cells or tissues  
   C12N5/07: Animal cells or tissues  
   C12N5/071: . . Vertebrate cells or tissues, e.g. human cells or tissues  
   C12N5/073: . . . Embryonic cells or tissues; Foetal cells or tissues  
   C12N5/0735: . . . . Embryonic stem cells; Embryonic germ cells  
   C12N5/074: . . . Adult stem cells  
   C12N5/075: . . . Oocytes; Oogonia  
   C12N5/076: . . . Sperm cells; Spermatogonia  
   C12N5/077: . . . Mesenchymal cells, e.g. bone cells, cartilage cells, marrow stromal cells, fat cells or muscle cells  
   C12N5/0775: . . . . Mesenchymal stem cells; Adipose-tissue derived stem cells  
   C12N5/078: . . . Cells from blood or from the immune system  
   C12N5/0781: . . . . B cells; Progenitors thereof  
   C12N5/0783: . . . . T cells; NK cells; Progenitors of T or NK cells  
   C12N5/0784: . . . . Dendritic cells; Progenitors thereof  
   C12N5/0786: . . . . Monocytes; Macrophages  
   C12N5/0787: . . . . Granulocytes, e.g. basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils or mast cells  
   C12N5/0789: . . . . Stem cells; Multipotent progenitor cells  
   C12N5/079: . . . Neural cells  
   C12N5/0793: . . . . Neurons  
   C12N5/0797: . . . . Stem cells; Progenitor cells  
   C12N5/09: Tumour cells  
   C12N5/095: . . Stem cells; Progenitor cells  
   C12N5/10: Cells modified by introduction of foreign genetic material, e.g. virus-transformed cells  
   C12N5/12: . . Fused cells, e.g. hybridomas  
   C12N5/14: . . . Plant cells  
   C12N5/16: . . . Animal cells  
   C12N5/18: . . . . Murine cells, e.g. mouse cells  
   C12N5/20: . . . . . one of the fusion partners being a B lymphocyte  
   C12N5/22: . . . Human cells  
   C12N5/24: . . . . one of the fusion partners being a B lymphocyte  
   C12N5/26: . . . Cells resulting from interspecies fusion  
   C12N5/28: . . . . one of the fusion partners being a human cell  
   C12N7/00: Viruses, e.g. bacteriophages; Compositions thereof; Preparation or purification thereof  
   C12N7/01: Viruses, e.g. bacteriophages, modified by introduction of foreign genetic material  
   C12N7/02: Recovery or purification  
   C12N7/04: Inactivation or attenuation; Producing viral sub-units  
   C12N7/06: . . by chemical treatment  
   C12N7/08: . . by serial passage of virus  
   C12N9/00: Enzymes, e.g. ligases (6.); Proenzymes; Compositions thereof; Processes for preparing, activating, inhibiting, separating, or purifying enzymes  
   C12N9/02: Oxidoreductases (1.), e.g. luciferase  
   C12N9/04: . . acting on CHOH groups as donors, e.g. glucose oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase (1.1)  
   C12N9/06: . . acting on nitrogen containing compounds as donors (1.4, 1.5, 1.7)  
   C12N9/08: . . acting on hydrogen peroxide as acceptor (1.11)  
   C12N9/10: Transferases (2.)  
   C12N9/12: . . transferring phosphorus containing groups, e.g. kinases (2.7)  
   C12N9/14: Hydrolases (3.)  
   C12N9/16: . . acting on ester bonds (3.1)  
   C12N9/18: . . . Carboxylic ester hydrolases  
   C12N9/20: . . . . Triglyceride splitting, e.g. by means of lipase  
   C12N9/22: . . . Ribonucleases  
   C12N9/24: . . acting on glycosyl compounds (3.2)  
   C12N9/26: . . . acting on alpha-1, 4-glucosidic bonds, e.g. hyaluronidase, invertase, amylase  
   C12N9/28: . . . . Alpha-amylase from microbial source, e.g. bacterial amylase  
   C12N9/30: . . . . . Fungal source  
   C12N9/32: . . . . Alpha-amylase from plant source  
   C12N9/34: . . . . Glucoamylase  
   C12N9/36: . . . acting on beta-1, 4 bonds between N-acetylmuramic acid and 2-acetylamino 2-deoxy-D-glucose, e.g. lysozyme  
   C12N9/38: . . . acting on beta-galactose-glycoside bonds, e.g. beta-galactosidase  
   C12N9/40: . . . acting on alpha-galactose-glycoside bonds, e.g. alpha-galactosidase  
   C12N9/42: . . . acting on beta-1, 4-glucosidic bonds, e.g. cellulase  
   C12N9/44: . . . acting on alpha-1, 6-glucosidic bonds, e.g. isoamylase, pullulanase  
   C12N9/46: . . . . Dextranase  
   C12N9/48: . . acting on peptide bonds, e.g. thromboplastin, leucine aminopeptidase (3.4)  
   C12N9/50: . . . Proteinases  
   C12N9/52: . . . . derived from bacteria  
   C12N9/54: . . . . . bacteria being Bacillus  
   C12N9/56: . . . . . . Bacillus subtilis or Bacillus licheniformis  
   C12N9/58: . . . . derived from fungi  
   C12N9/60: . . . . . from yeast  
   C12N9/62: . . . . . from Aspergillus  
   C12N9/64: . . . . derived from animal tissue, e.g. rennin  
   C12N9/66: . . . Elastase  
   C12N9/68: . . . Plasmin, i.e. fibrinolysin  
   C12N9/70: . . . Streptokinase  
   C12N9/72: . . . Urokinase  
   C12N9/74: . . . Thrombin  
   C12N9/76: . . . Trypsin; Chymotrypsin  
   C12N9/78: . . acting on carbon to nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds (3.5)  
   C12N9/80: . . . acting on amide bonds in linear amides  
   C12N9/82: . . . . Asparaginase  
   C12N9/84: . . . . Penicillin amidase  
   C12N9/86: . . . acting on amide bonds in cyclic amides, e.g. penicillinase  
   C12N9/88: Lyases (4.)  
   C12N9/90: Isomerases (5.)  
   C12N9/92: . . Glucose isomerase  
   C12N9/94: Pancreatin  
   C12N9/96: Stabilising an enzyme by forming an adduct or a composition; Forming enzyme conjugates  
   C12N9/98: Preparation of granular or free-flowing enzyme compositions  
   C12N9/99: Enzyme inactivation by chemical treatment  
   C12N11/00: Carrier-bound or immobilised enzymes; Carrier-bound or immobilised microbial cells; Preparation thereof  
   C12N11/02: Enzymes or microbial cells being immobilised on or in an organic carrier  
   C12N11/04: . . entrapped within the carrier, e.g. gel, hollow fibre  
   C12N11/06: . . attached to the carrier via a bridging agent  
   C12N11/08: . . the carrier being a synthetic polymer  
   C12N11/10: . . the carrier being a carbohydrate  
   C12N11/12: . . . Cellulose or derivatives thereof  
   C12N11/14: Enzymes or microbial cells being immobilised on or in an inorganic carrier  
   C12N11/16: Enzymes or microbial cells being immobilised on or in a biological cell  
   C12N11/18: Multi-enzyme systems  
   C12N13/00: Treatment of microorganisms or enzymes with electrical or wave energy, e.g. magnetism, sonic waves  
   C12N15/00: Mutation or genetic engineering; DNA or RNA concerning genetic engineering, vectors, e.g. plasmids, or their isolation, preparation or purification; Use of hosts therefor  
   C12N15/01: Preparation of mutants without inserting foreign genetic material therein; Screening processes therefor  
   C12N15/02: Preparation of hybrid cells by fusion of two or more cells, e.g. protoplast fusion  
   C12N15/03: . . Bacteria  
   C12N15/04: . . Fungi  
   C12N15/05: . . Plant cells  
   C12N15/06: . . Animal cells  
   C12N15/07: . . Human cells  
   C12N15/08: . . Cells resulting from interspecies fusion  
   C12N15/09: Recombinant DNA-technology  
   C12N15/10: . . Processes for the isolation, preparation or purification of DNA or RNA  
   C12N15/11: . . DNA or RNA fragments; Modified forms thereof  
   C12N15/113: . . . Non-coding nucleic acids modulating the expression of genes, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides  
   C12N15/115: . . . Aptamers, i.e. nucleic acids binding a target molecule specifically and with high affinity without hybridising therewith  
   C12N15/117: . . . Nucleic acids having immunomodulatory properties, e.g. containing CpG-motifs  
   C12N15/12: . . . Genes encoding animal proteins  
   C12N15/13: . . . . Immunoglobulins  
   C12N15/14: . . . . Human serum albumins  
   C12N15/15: . . . . Protease inhibitors, e.g. antithrombin, antitrypsin, hirudin  
   C12N15/16: . . . . Hormones  
   C12N15/17: . . . . . Insulins  
   C12N15/18: . . . . . Growth hormones  
   C12N15/19: . . . . Interferons; Lymphokines; Cytokines  
   C12N15/20: . . . . . Interferons  
   C12N15/21: . . . . . . Alpha-interferons  
   C12N15/22: . . . . . . Beta-interferons  
   C12N15/23: . . . . . . Gamma-interferons  
   C12N15/24: . . . . . Interleukins  
   C12N15/25: . . . . . . Interleukin-1  
   C12N15/26: . . . . . . Interleukin-2  
   C12N15/27: . . . . . Colony stimulating factors  
   C12N15/28: . . . . . Tumor necrosis factors  
   C12N15/29: . . . Genes encoding plant proteins, e.g. thaumatin  
   C12N15/30: . . . Genes encoding protozoal proteins, e.g. from Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Eimeria  
   C12N15/31: . . . Genes encoding microbial proteins, e.g. enterotoxins  
   C12N15/32: . . . . Bacillus crystal proteins  
   C12N15/33: . . . . Genes encoding viral proteins  
   C12N15/34: . . . . . Proteins from DNA viruses  
   C12N15/35: . . . . . . Parvoviridae, e.g. feline panleukopenia virus, human parvovirus  
   C12N15/36: . . . . . . Hepadnaviridae  
   C12N15/37: . . . . . . Papovaviridae, e.g. papillomaviruses, polyomavirus, SV40  
   C12N15/38: . . . . . . Herpetoviridae, e.g. herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, pseudorabies virus  
   C12N15/39: . . . . . . Poxviridae, e.g. vaccinia virus, variola virus  
   C12N15/40: . . . . . Proteins from RNA viruses, e.g. flaviviruses  
   C12N15/41: . . . . . . Picornaviridae, e.g. rhinovirus, coxsackie viruses, echoviruses, enteroviruses  
   C12N15/42: Foot-and-mouth disease virus  
   C12N15/43: Poliovirus  
   C12N15/44: . . . . . . Orthomyxoviridae, e.g. influenza virus  
   C12N15/45: . . . . . . Paramyxoviridae, e.g. measles virus, mumps virus, Newcastle disease virus, canine distemper virus, rinderpest virus, respiratory syncytial viruses  
   C12N15/46: . . . . . . Reoviridae, e.g. rotavirus, bluetongue virus, Colorado tick fever virus  
   C12N15/47: . . . . . . Rhabdoviridae, e.g. rabies viruses, vesicular stomatitis virus  
   C12N15/48: . . . . . . Retroviridae, e.g. bovine leukaemia virus, feline leukaemia virus  
   C12N15/49: Lentiviridae, e.g. immunodeficiency viruses such as HIV, visna-maedi virus, equine infectious anaemia virus  
   C12N15/50: . . . . . . Coronaviridae, e.g. infectious bronchitis virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus  
   C12N15/51: . . . . . Hepatitis viruses  
   C12N15/52: . . . Genes encoding for enzymes or proenzymes  
   C12N15/53: . . . . Oxidoreductases (1)  
   C12N15/54: . . . . Transferases (2)  
   C12N15/55: . . . . Hydrolases (3)  
   C12N15/56: . . . . . acting on glycosyl compounds (3.2), e.g. amylase, galactosidase, lysozyme  
   C12N15/57: . . . . . acting on peptide bonds (3.4)  
   C12N15/58: . . . . . . Plasminogen activators, e.g. urokinase, TPA  
   C12N15/59: . . . . . . Chymosin  
   C12N15/60: . . . . Lyases (4)  
   C12N15/61: . . . . Isomerases (5)  
   C12N15/62: . . . DNA sequences coding for fusion proteins  
   C12N15/63: . . Introduction of foreign genetic material using vectors; Vectors; Use of hosts therefor; Regulation of expression  
   C12N15/64: . . . General methods for preparing the vector, for introducing it into the cell or for selecting the vector-containing host  
   C12N15/65: . . . using markers  
   C12N15/66: . . . General methods for inserting a gene into a vector to form a recombinant vector using cleavage and ligation; Use of non-functional linkers or adaptors, e.g. linkers containing the sequence for a restriction endonuclease  
   C12N15/67: . . . General methods for enhancing the expression  
   C12N15/68: . . . . Stabilisation of the vector  
   C12N15/69: . . . . Increasing the copy number of the vector  
   C12N15/70: . . . Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for E. coli  
   C12N15/71: . . . . Expression systems using regulatory sequences derived from the trp-operon  
   C12N15/72: . . . . Expression systems using regulatory sequences derived from the lac-operon  
   C12N15/73: . . . . Expression systems using phage lambda regulatory sequences  
   C12N15/74: . . . Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for prokaryotic hosts other than E. coli, e.g. Lactobacillus, Micromonospora  
   C12N15/75: . . . . for Bacillus  
   C12N15/76: . . . . for Actinomyces; for Streptomyces  
   C12N15/77: . . . . for Corynebacterium; for Brevibacterium  
   C12N15/78: . . . . for Pseudomonas  
   C12N15/79: . . . Vectors or expression systems specially adapted for eukaryotic hosts  
   C12N15/80: . . . . for fungi  
   C12N15/81: . . . . . for yeasts  
   C12N15/82: . . . . for plant cells  
   C12N15/83: . . . . . Viral vectors, e.g. cauliflower mosaic virus  
   C12N15/84: . . . . . Ti-plasmids  
   C12N15/85: . . . . for animal cells  
   C12N15/86: . . . . . Viral vectors  
   C12N15/861: . . . . . . Adenoviral vectors  
   C12N15/863: . . . . . . Poxviral vectors, e.g. vaccinia virus  
   C12N15/864: . . . . . . Parvoviral vectors  
   C12N15/866: . . . . . . Baculoviral vectors  
   C12N15/867: . . . . . . Retroviral vectors  
   C12N15/869: . . . . . . Herpesviral vectors  
   C12N15/87: . . Introduction of foreign genetic material using processes not otherwise provided for, e.g. co-transformation  
   C12N15/873: . . . Techniques for producing new embryos, e.g. nuclear transfer, manipulation of totipotent cells or production of chimeric embryos  
   C12N15/877: . . . . Techniques for producing new mammalian cloned embryos  
   C12N15/88: . . . using microencapsulation, e.g. using liposome vesicle  
   C12N15/89: . . . using microinjection  
   C12N15/90: . . . Stable introduction of foreign DNA into chromosome  
   C12N5/00: Undifferentiated human, animal or plant cells, e.g. cell lines; Tissues; Cultivation or maintenance thereof; Culture media therefor  
   C12N5/06:   
   C12N5/08: