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C:SECTION C CHEMISTRY
 C23: COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
  C23C: COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
   C23C2/00: Hot-dipping or immersion processes for applying the coating material in the molten state without affecting the shape; Apparatus therefor  
   C23C2/02: Pretreatment of the material to be coated, e.g. for coating on selected surface areas  
   C23C2/04: characterised by the coating material  
   C23C2/06: . . Zinc or cadmium or alloys based thereon  
   C23C2/08: . . Tin or alloys based thereon  
   C23C2/10: . . Lead or alloys based thereon  
   C23C2/12: . . Aluminium or alloys based thereon  
   C23C2/14: Removing excess of molten coatings; Controlling or regulating the coating thickness  
   C23C2/16: . . using fluids under pressure, e.g. air knives  
   C23C2/18: . . . Removing excess of molten coatings from elongated material  
   C23C2/20: . . . . Strips; Plates  
   C23C2/22: . . by rubbing, e.g. using knives  
   C23C2/24: . . using magnetic or electric fields  
   C23C2/26: After-treatment  
   C23C2/28: . . Thermal after-treatment, e.g. treatment in oil bath  
   C23C2/30: Fluxes or coverings on molten baths  
   C23C2/32: using vibratory energy applied to the bath or substrate  
   C23C2/34: characterised by the shape of the material to be treated  
   C23C2/36: . . Elongated material  
   C23C2/38: . . . Wires; Tubes  
   C23C2/40: . . . Plates; Strips  
   C23C4/00: Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state, e.g. by flame, plasma or electric discharge  
   C23C4/01: Selective coating, e.g. pattern coating, without pre-treatment of the material to be coated  
   C23C4/02: Pretreatment of the material to be coated, e.g. for coating on selected surface areas  
   C23C4/04: characterised by the coating material  
   C23C4/06: . . Metallic material  
   C23C4/067: . . . containing free particles of non-metal elements, e.g. carbon, silicon, boron, phosphorus or arsenic  
   C23C4/073: . . . containing MCrAl or MCrAlY alloys, where M is nickel, cobalt or iron, with or without non-metal elements  
   C23C4/08: . . . containing only metal elements  
   C23C4/10: . . Oxides, borides, carbides, nitrides or silicides; Mixtures thereof  
   C23C4/11: . . . Oxides  
   C23C4/12: characterised by the method of spraying  
   C23C4/123: . . Spraying molten metal  
   C23C4/126: . . Detonation spraying  
   C23C4/129: . . Flame spraying  
   C23C4/131: . . Wire arc spraying  
   C23C4/134: . . Plasma spraying  
   C23C4/137: . . Spraying in vacuum or in an inert atmosphere  
   C23C4/14: . . for coating elongate material  
   C23C4/16: . . . Wires; Tubes  
   C23C4/18: After-treatment  
   C23C6/00: Coating by casting molten material on the substrate  
   C23C8/00: Solid state diffusion of only non-metal elements into metallic material surfaces; Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive gas, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals  
   C23C8/02: Pretreatment of the material to be coated  
   C23C8/04: Treatment of selected surface areas, e.g. using masks  
   C23C8/06: using gases  
   C23C8/08: . . only one element being applied  
   C23C8/10: . . . Oxidising  
   C23C8/12: . . . . using elemental oxygen or ozone  
   C23C8/14: . . . . . Oxidising of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/16: . . . . using oxygen-containing compounds, e.g. H2O, CO2  
   C23C8/18: . . . . . Oxidising of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/20: . . . Carburising  
   C23C8/22: . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/24: . . . Nitriding  
   C23C8/26: . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/28: . . more than one element being applied in one step  
   C23C8/30: . . . Carbo-nitriding  
   C23C8/32: . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/34: . . more than one element being applied in more than one step  
   C23C8/36: . . using ionised gases, e.g. ionitriding  
   C23C8/38: . . . Treatment of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/40: using liquids, e.g. salt baths, liquid suspensions  
   C23C8/42: . . only one element being applied  
   C23C8/44: . . . Carburising  
   C23C8/46: . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/48: . . . Nitriding  
   C23C8/50: . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/52: . . more than one element being applied in one step  
   C23C8/54: . . . Carbo-nitriding  
   C23C8/56: . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/58: . . more than one element being applied in more than one step  
   C23C8/60: using solids, e.g. powders, pastes  
   C23C8/62: . . only one element being applied  
   C23C8/64: . . . Carburising  
   C23C8/66: . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/68: . . . Boronising  
   C23C8/70: . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/72: . . more than one element being applied in one step  
   C23C8/74: . . . Carbo-nitriding  
   C23C8/76: . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C8/78: . . more than one element being applied in more than one step  
   C23C8/80: After-treatment  
   C23C10/00: Solid state diffusion of only metal elements or silicon into metallic material surfaces  
   C23C10/02: Pretreatment of the material to be coated  
   C23C10/04: Diffusion into selected surface areas, e.g. using masks  
   C23C10/06: using gases  
   C23C10/08: . . only one element being diffused  
   C23C10/10: . . . Chromising  
   C23C10/12: . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C10/14: . . more than one element being diffused in one step  
   C23C10/16: . . more than one element being diffused in more than one step  
   C23C10/18: using liquids, e.g. salt baths, liquid suspensions  
   C23C10/20: . . only one element being diffused  
   C23C10/22: . . . Metal melt containing the element to be diffused  
   C23C10/24: . . . Salt bath containing the element to be diffused  
   C23C10/26: . . more than one element being diffused  
   C23C10/28: using solids, e.g. powders, pastes  
   C23C10/30: . . using a layer of powder or paste on the surface  
   C23C10/32: . . . Chromising  
   C23C10/34: . . Embedding in a powder mixture, i.e. pack cementation  
   C23C10/36: . . . only one element being diffused  
   C23C10/38: . . . . Chromising  
   C23C10/40: . . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C10/42: . . . . . . in the presence of volatile transport additives, e.g. halogenated substances  
   C23C10/44: . . . . Siliconising  
   C23C10/46: . . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C10/48: . . . . Aluminising  
   C23C10/50: . . . . . of ferrous surfaces  
   C23C10/52: . . . more than one element being diffused in one step  
   C23C10/54: . . . . Diffusion of at least chromium  
   C23C10/56: . . . . . and at least aluminium  
   C23C10/58: . . . more than one element being diffused in more than one step  
   C23C10/60: After-treatment  
   C23C12/00: Solid state diffusion of at least one non-metal element other than silicon and at least one metal element or silicon into metallic material surfaces  
   C23C12/02: Diffusion in one step  
   C23C14/00: Coating by vacuum evaporation, by sputtering or by ion implantation of the coating forming material  
   C23C14/02: Pretreatment of the material to be coated  
   C23C14/04: Coating on selected surface areas, e.g. using masks  
   C23C14/06: characterised by the coating material  
   C23C14/08: . . Oxides  
   C23C14/10: . . Glass or silica  
   C23C14/12: . . Organic material  
   C23C14/14: . . Metallic material, boron or silicon  
   C23C14/16: . . . on metallic substrates or on substrates of boron or silicon  
   C23C14/18: . . . on other inorganic substrates  
   C23C14/20: . . . on organic substrates  
   C23C14/22: characterised by the process of coating  
   C23C14/24: . . Vacuum evaporation  
   C23C14/26: . . . by resistance or inductive heating of the source  
   C23C14/28: . . . by wave energy or particle radiation  
   C23C14/30: . . . . by electron bombardment  
   C23C14/32: . . . by explosion; by evaporation and subsequent ionisation of the vapours  
   C23C14/34: . . Sputtering  
   C23C14/35: . . . by application of a magnetic field, e.g. magnetron sputtering  
   C23C14/36: . . . Diode sputtering  
   C23C14/38: . . . . by direct current glow discharge  
   C23C14/40: . . . . with alternating current discharge, e.g. high-frequency discharge  
   C23C14/42: . . . Triode sputtering  
   C23C14/44: . . . . by application of high frequencies and additional direct voltages  
   C23C14/46: . . . by ion beam produced by an external ion source  
   C23C14/48: . . Ion implantation  
   C23C14/50: . . Substrate holders  
   C23C14/52: . . Means for observation of the coating process  
   C23C14/54: . . Controlling or regulating the coating process  
   C23C14/56: . . Apparatus specially adapted for continuous coating; Arrangements for maintaining the vacuum, e.g. vacuum locks  
   C23C14/58: After-treatment  
   C23C16/00: Chemical coating by decomposition of gaseous compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, i.e. chemical vapour deposition (CVD) processes  
   C23C16/01: on temporary substrates, e.g. on substrates subsequently removed by etching  
   C23C16/02: Pretreatment of the material to be coated  
   C23C16/04: Coating on selected surface areas, e.g. using masks  
   C23C16/06: characterised by the deposition of metallic material  
   C23C16/08: . . from metal halides  
   C23C16/10: . . . Deposition of chromium only  
   C23C16/12: . . . Deposition of aluminium only  
   C23C16/14: . . . Deposition of only one other metal element  
   C23C16/16: . . from metal carbonyl compounds  
   C23C16/18: . . from metallo-organic compounds  
   C23C16/20: . . . Deposition of aluminium only  
   C23C16/22: characterised by the deposition of inorganic material, other than metallic material  
   C23C16/24: . . Deposition of silicon only  
   C23C16/26: . . Deposition of carbon only  
   C23C16/27: . . . Diamond only  
   C23C16/28: . . Deposition of only one other non-metal element  
   C23C16/30: . . Deposition of compounds, mixtures or solid solutions, e.g. borides, carbides, nitrides  
   C23C16/32: . . . Carbides  
   C23C16/34: . . . Nitrides  
   C23C16/36: . . . Carbo-nitrides  
   C23C16/38: . . . Borides  
   C23C16/40: . . . Oxides  
   C23C16/42: . . . Silicides  
   C23C16/44: characterised by the method of coating  
   C23C16/442: . . using fluidised bed processes  
   C23C16/448: . . characterised by the method used for generating reactive gas streams, e.g. by evaporation or sublimation of precursor materials  
   C23C16/452: . . . by activating reactive gas streams before introduction into the reaction chamber, e.g. by ionization or by addition of reactive species  
   C23C16/453: . . passing the reaction gases through burners or torches, e.g. atmospheric pressure CVD  
   C23C16/455: . . characterised by the method used for introducing gases into the reaction chamber or for modifying gas flows in the reaction chamber  
   C23C16/458: . . characterised by the method used for supporting substrates in the reaction chamber  
   C23C16/46: . . characterised by the method used for heating the substrate  
   C23C16/48: . . by irradiation, e.g. photolysis, radiolysis, particle radiation  
   C23C16/50: . . using electric discharges  
   C23C16/503: . . . using dc or ac discharges  
   C23C16/505: . . . using radio frequency discharges  
   C23C16/507: . . . . using external electrodes, e.g. in tunnel type reactors  
   C23C16/509: . . . . using internal electrodes  
   C23C16/511: . . . using microwave discharges  
   C23C16/513: . . . using plasma jets  
   C23C16/515: . . . using pulsed discharges  
   C23C16/517: . . . using a combination of discharges covered by two or more of groups   
   C23C16/52: . . Controlling or regulating the coating process  
   C23C16/54: . . Apparatus specially adapted for continuous coating  
   C23C16/56: After-treatment  
   C23C18/00: Chemical coating by decomposition of either liquid compounds or solutions of the coating forming compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating; Contact plating  
   C23C18/02: by thermal decomposition  
   C23C18/04: . . Pretreatment of the material to be coated  
   C23C18/06: . . Coating on selected surface areas, e.g. using masks  
   C23C18/08: . . characterised by the deposition of metallic material  
   C23C18/10: . . . Deposition of aluminium only  
   C23C18/12: . . characterised by the deposition of inorganic material other than metallic material  
   C23C18/14: Decomposition by irradiation, e.g. photolysis, particle radiation  
   C23C18/16: by reduction or substitution, i.e. electroless plating  
   C23C18/18: . . Pretreatment of the material to be coated  
   C23C18/20: . . . of organic surfaces, e.g. resins  
   C23C18/22: . . . . Roughening, e.g. by etching  
   C23C18/24: . . . . . using acid aqueous solutions  
   C23C18/26: . . . . . using organic liquids  
   C23C18/28: . . . . Sensitising or activating  
   C23C18/30: . . . . . Activating  
   C23C18/31: . . Coating with metals  
   C23C18/32: . . . Coating with one of iron, cobalt or nickel; Coating with mixtures of phosphorus or boron with one of these metals  
   C23C18/34: . . . . using reducing agents  
   C23C18/36: . . . . . using hypophosphites  
   C23C18/38: . . . Coating with copper  
   C23C18/40: . . . . using reducing agents  
   C23C18/42: . . . Coating with noble metals  
   C23C18/44: . . . . using reducing agents  
   C23C18/48: . . Coating with alloys  
   C23C18/50: . . . with alloys based on iron, cobalt or nickel  
   C23C18/52: . . using reducing agents for coating with metallic material not provided for in a single one of groups   
   C23C18/54: Contact plating, i.e. electroless electrochemical plating  
   C23C20/00: Chemical coating by decomposition of either solid compounds or suspensions of the coating forming compounds, without leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating  
   C23C20/02: Coating with metallic material  
   C23C20/04: . . with metals  
   C23C20/06: Coating with inorganic material, other than metallic material  
   C23C20/08: . . with compounds, mixtures or solid solutions, e.g. borides, carbides, nitrides  
   C23C22/00: Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive liquid, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals  
   C23C22/02: using non-aqueous solutions  
   C23C22/03: . . containing phosphorus compounds  
   C23C22/04: . . containing hexavalent chromium compounds  
   C23C22/05: using aqueous solutions  
   C23C22/06: . . using aqueous acidic solutions with pH < 6  
   C23C22/07: . . . containing phosphates  
   C23C22/08: . . . . Orthophosphates  
   C23C22/10: . . . . . containing oxidants  
   C23C22/12: . . . . . containing zinc cations  
   C23C22/13: . . . . . . containing also nitrate or nitrite anions  
   C23C22/14: . . . . . . containing also chlorate anions  
   C23C22/16: . . . . . . containing also peroxy-compounds  
   C23C22/17: . . . . . . containing also organic acids  
   C23C22/18: . . . . . containing manganese cations  
   C23C22/20: . . . . . containing aluminium cations  
   C23C22/22: . . . . . containing alkaline earth metal cations  
   C23C22/23: . . . . Condensed phosphates  
   C23C22/24: . . . containing hexavalent chromium compounds  
   C23C22/26: . . . . containing also organic compounds  
   C23C22/27: . . . . . Acids  
   C23C22/28: . . . . . Macromolecular compounds  
   C23C22/30: . . . . containing also trivalent chromium  
   C23C22/32: . . . . containing also pulverulent metals  
   C23C22/33: . . . . containing also phosphates  
   C23C22/34: . . . containing fluorides or complex fluorides  
   C23C22/36: . . . . containing also phosphates  
   C23C22/37: . . . . containing also hexavalent chromium compounds  
   C23C22/38: . . . . . containing also phosphates  
   C23C22/40: . . . containing molybdates, tungstates or vanadates  
   C23C22/42: . . . . containing also phosphates  
   C23C22/43: . . . . containing also hexavalent chromium compounds  
   C23C22/44: . . . . containing also fluorides or complex fluorides  
   C23C22/46: . . . containing oxalates  
   C23C22/47: . . . . containing also phosphates  
   C23C22/48: . . . not containing phosphates, hexavalent chromium compounds, fluorides or complex fluorides, molybdates, tungstates, vanadates or oxalates  
   C23C22/50: . . . . Treatment of iron or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/52: . . . . Treatment of copper or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/53: . . . . Treatment of zinc or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/54: . . . . Treatment of refractory metals or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/56: . . . . Treatment of aluminium or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/57: . . . . Treatment of magnesium or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/58: . . . . Treatment of other metallic material  
   C23C22/60: . . using alkaline aqueous solutions with pH > 8  
   C23C22/62: . . . Treatment of iron or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/63: . . . Treatment of copper or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/64: . . . Treatment of refractory metals or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/66: . . . Treatment of aluminium or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/67: . . . . with solutions containing hexavalent chromium  
   C23C22/68: . . using aqueous solutions with pH between 6 and 8  
   C23C22/70: using melts  
   C23C22/72: . . Treatment of iron or alloys based thereon  
   C23C22/73: characterised by the process  
   C23C22/74: . . for obtaining burned-in conversion coatings  
   C23C22/76: . . Applying the liquid by spraying  
   C23C22/77: . . Controlling or regulating of the coating process  
   C23C22/78: Pretreatment of the material to be coated  
   C23C22/80: . . with solutions containing titanium or zirconium compounds  
   C23C22/82: After-treatment  
   C23C22/83: . . Chemical after-treatment  
   C23C22/84: . . Dyeing  
   C23C22/86: Regeneration of coating baths  
   C23C24/00: Coating starting from inorganic powder  
   C23C24/02: by application of pressure only  
   C23C24/04: . . Impact or kinetic deposition of particles  
   C23C24/06: . . Compressing powdered coating material, e.g. by milling  
   C23C24/08: by application of heat or pressure and heat  
   C23C24/10: . . with intermediate formation of a liquid phase in the layer  
   C23C26/00: Coating not provided for in groups   
   C23C26/02: applying molten material to the substrate  
   C23C28/00: Coating for obtaining at least two superposed coatings either by methods not provided for in a single one of main groups , or by combinations of methods provided for in subclasses and   
   C23C28/02: only coatings of metallic material  
   C23C28/04: only coatings of inorganic non-metallic material  
   C23C30/00: Coating with metallic material characterised only by the composition of the metallic material, i.e. not characterised by the coating process