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G:SECTION G PHYSICS
 G01: MEASURING; TESTING
  G01N: INVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
   G01N1/00: Sampling; Preparing specimens for investigation  
   G01N1/02: Devices for withdrawing samples  
   G01N1/04: . . in the solid state, e.g. by cutting  
   G01N1/06: . . . providing a thin slice, e.g. microtome  
   G01N1/08: . . . involving an extracting tool, e.g. core bit  
   G01N1/10: . . in the liquid or fluent state  
   G01N1/12: . . . Dippers; Dredgers  
   G01N1/14: . . . Suction devices, e.g. pumps; Ejector devices  
   G01N1/16: . . . with provision for intake at several levels  
   G01N1/18: . . . with provision for splitting samples into portions  
   G01N1/20: . . . for flowing or falling materials  
   G01N1/22: . . in the gaseous state  
   G01N1/24: . . . Suction devices  
   G01N1/26: . . . with provision for intake from several spaces  
   G01N1/28: Preparing specimens for investigation  
   G01N1/30: . . Staining; Impregnating  
   G01N1/31: . . . Apparatus therefor  
   G01N1/32: . . Polishing; Etching  
   G01N1/34: . . Purifying; Cleaning  
   G01N1/36: . . Embedding or analogous mounting of samples  
   G01N1/38: . . Diluting, dispersing or mixing samples  
   G01N1/40: . . Concentrating samples  
   G01N1/42: . . Low-temperature sample treatment, e.g. cryofixation  
   G01N1/44: . . Sample treatment involving radiation, e.g. heat  
   G01N3/00: Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress  
   G01N3/02: Details  
   G01N3/04: . . Chucks  
   G01N3/06: . . Special adaptations of indicating or recording means  
   G01N3/08: by applying steady tensile or compressive forces  
   G01N3/10: . . generated by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure  
   G01N3/12: . . . Pressure-testing  
   G01N3/14: . . generated by dead weight, e.g. pendulum; generated by spring tension  
   G01N3/16: . . applied through gearing  
   G01N3/18: . . Performing tests at high or low temperatures  
   G01N3/20: by applying steady bending forces  
   G01N3/22: by applying steady torsional forces  
   G01N3/24: by applying steady shearing forces  
   G01N3/26: Investigating twisting or coiling properties  
   G01N3/28: Investigating ductility, e.g. suitability of sheet metal for deep-drawing or spinning  
   G01N3/30: by applying a single impulsive force  
   G01N3/303: . . generated only by free-falling weight  
   G01N3/307: . . generated by a compressed or tensile-stressed spring; generated by pneumatic or hydraulic means  
   G01N3/31: . . generated by a rotating fly-wheel  
   G01N3/313: . . generated by explosives  
   G01N3/317: . . generated by electromagnetic means  
   G01N3/32: by applying repeated or pulsating forces  
   G01N3/34: . . generated by mechanical means, e.g. hammer blows  
   G01N3/36: . . generated by pneumatic or hydraulic means  
   G01N3/38: . . generated by electromagnetic means  
   G01N3/40: Investigating hardness or rebound hardness  
   G01N3/42: . . by performing impressions under a steady load by indentors, e.g. sphere, pyramid  
   G01N3/44: . . . the indentors being put under a minor load and a subsequent major load, i.e. Rockwell system  
   G01N3/46: . . . the indentors performing a scratching movement  
   G01N3/48: . . by performing impressions under impulsive load by indentors, e.g. falling ball  
   G01N3/50: . . by measuring rolling friction, e.g. by rocking pendulum  
   G01N3/52: . . by measuring extent of rebound of a striking body  
   G01N3/54: . . Performing tests at high or low temperatures  
   G01N3/56: Investigating resistance to wear or abrasion  
   G01N3/58: Investigating machinability by cutting tools; Investigating the cutting ability of tools  
   G01N3/60: Investigating resistance of materials, e.g. refractory materials, to rapid heat changes  
   G01N3/62: Manufacturing, calibrating, or repairing devices used in investigations covered by the preceding subgroups  
   G01N5/00: Analysing materials by weighing, e.g. weighing small particles separated from a gas or liquid  
   G01N5/02: by absorbing or adsorbing components of a material and determining change of weight of the adsorbent, e.g. determining moisture content  
   G01N5/04: by removing a component, e.g. by evaporation, and weighing the remainder  
   G01N7/00: Analysing materials by measuring the pressure or volume of a gas or vapour  
   G01N7/02: by absorption, adsorption, or combustion of components and measurement of the change in pressure or volume of the remainder  
   G01N7/04: . . by absorption or adsorption alone  
   G01N7/06: . . by combustion alone  
   G01N7/08: . . by combustion followed by absorption or adsorption of the combustion products  
   G01N7/10: by allowing diffusion of components through a porous wall and measuring a pressure or volume difference  
   G01N7/12: . . the diffusion being followed by combustion or catalytic oxidation  
   G01N7/14: by allowing the material to emit a gas or vapour, e.g. water vapour, and measuring a pressure or volume difference  
   G01N7/16: . . by heating the material  
   G01N7/18: . . by allowing the material to react  
   G01N7/20: . . . the reaction being fermentation  
   G01N7/22: . . . . of dough  
   G01N9/00: Investigating density or specific gravity of materials; Analysing materials by determining density or specific gravity  
   G01N9/02: by measuring weight of a known volume  
   G01N9/04: . . of fluids  
   G01N9/06: . . . with continuous circulation through a pivotally-supported member  
   G01N9/08: by measuring buoyant force of solid materials by weighing both in air and in a liquid  
   G01N9/10: by observing bodies wholly or partially immersed in fluid materials  
   G01N9/12: . . by observing the depth of immersion of the bodies, e.g. hydrometers  
   G01N9/14: . . . the body being built into a container  
   G01N9/16: . . . the body being pivoted  
   G01N9/18: . . . Special adaptations for indicating, recording, or control  
   G01N9/20: . . by balancing the weight of the bodies  
   G01N9/22: . . . with continuous circulation of the fluid  
   G01N9/24: by observing the transmission of wave or particle radiation through the material  
   G01N9/26: by measuring pressure differences  
   G01N9/28: . . by measuring the blowing pressure of gas bubbles escaping from nozzles at different depths in a liquid  
   G01N9/30: by using centrifugal effects  
   G01N9/32: by using flow properties of fluids, e.g. flow through tubes or apertures  
   G01N9/34: . . by using elements moving through the fluid, e.g. vane  
   G01N9/36: Analysing materials by measuring the density or specific gravity, e.g. determining quantity of moisture  
   G01N11/00: Investigating flow properties of materials, e.g. viscosity, plasticity; Analysing materials by determining flow properties  
   G01N11/02: by measuring flow of the material  
   G01N11/04: . . through a restricted passage, e.g. tube, aperture  
   G01N11/06: . . . by timing the outflow of a known quantity  
   G01N11/08: . . . by measuring pressure required to produce a known flow  
   G01N11/10: by moving a body within the material  
   G01N11/12: . . by measuring rising or falling speed of the body; by measuring penetration of wedged gauges  
   G01N11/14: . . by using rotary bodies, e.g. vane  
   G01N11/16: . . by measuring damping effect upon oscillatory body  
   G01N13/00: Investigating surface or boundary effects, e.g. wetting power; Investigating diffusion effects; Analysing materials by determining surface, boundary, or diffusion effects  
   G01N13/02: Investigating surface tension of liquids  
   G01N13/04: Investigating osmotic effects  
   G01N15/00: Investigating characteristics of particles; Investigating permeability, pore-volume or surface-area of porous materials  
   G01N15/02: Investigating particle size or size distribution  
   G01N15/04: Investigating sedimentation of particle suspensions  
   G01N15/05: . . in blood  
   G01N15/06: Investigating concentration of particle suspensions  
   G01N15/08: Investigating permeability, pore volume, or surface area of porous materials  
   G01N15/10: Investigating individual particles  
   G01N15/12: . . Coulter-counters  
   G01N15/14: . . Electro-optical investigation  
   G01N17/00: Investigating resistance of materials to the weather, to corrosion, or to light  
   G01N17/02: Electrochemical measuring systems for weathering, corrosion or corrosion-protection measurement  
   G01N17/04: Corrosion probes  
   G01N19/00: Investigating materials by mechanical methods  
   G01N19/02: Measuring coefficient of friction between materials  
   G01N19/04: Measuring adhesive force between materials, e.g. of sealing tape, of coating  
   G01N19/06: Investigating by removing material, e.g. spark-testing  
   G01N19/08: Detecting presence of flaws or irregularities  
   G01N19/10: Measuring moisture content, e.g. by measuring change in length of hygroscopic filament; Hygrometers  
   G01N21/00: Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using infra-red, visible or ultra-violet light  
   G01N21/01: Arrangements or apparatus for facilitating the optical investigation  
   G01N21/03: . . Cuvette constructions  
   G01N21/05: . . . Flow-through cuvettes  
   G01N21/07: . . . Centrifugal type cuvettes  
   G01N21/09: . . . adapted to resist hostile environments or corrosive or abrasive materials  
   G01N21/11: . . Filling or emptying of cuvettes  
   G01N21/13: . . Moving of cuvettes or solid samples to or from the investigating station  
   G01N21/15: . . Preventing contamination of the components of the optical system or obstruction of the light path  
   G01N21/17: Systems in which incident light is modified in accordance with the properties of the material investigated  
   G01N21/19: . . Dichroism  
   G01N21/21: . . Polarisation-affecting properties  
   G01N21/23: . . . Bi-refringence  
   G01N21/25: . . Colour; Spectral properties, i.e. comparison of effect of material on the light at two or more different wavelengths or wavelength bands  
   G01N21/27: . . . using photo-electric detection  
   G01N21/29: . . . using visual detection  
   G01N21/31: . . . Investigating relative effect of material at wavelengths characteristic of specific elements or molecules, e.g. atomic absorption spectrometry  
   G01N21/33: . . . . using ultra-violet light  
   G01N21/35: . . . . using infra-red light  
   G01N21/3504: . . . . . for analysing gases, e.g. multi-gas analysis  
   G01N21/3518: . . . . . . Devices using gas filter correlation techniques; Devices using gas pressure modulation techniques  
   G01N21/3554: . . . . . for determining moisture content  
   G01N21/3559: . . . . . . in sheets, e.g. in paper  
   G01N21/3563: . . . . . for analysing solids; Preparation of samples therefor  
   G01N21/3577: . . . . . for analysing liquids, e.g. polluted water  
   G01N21/3581: . . . . . using far infra-red light; using Terahertz radiation  
   G01N21/3586: . . . . . . by Terahertz time domain spectroscopy [THz-TDS]  
   G01N21/359: . . . . . using near infra-red light  
   G01N21/37: . . . . . using pneumatic detection  
   G01N21/39: . . . . using tunable lasers  
   G01N21/41: . . Refractivity; Phase-affecting properties, e.g. optical path length  
   G01N21/43: . . . by measuring critical angle  
   G01N21/45: . . . using interferometric methods; using Schlieren methods  
   G01N21/47: . . Scattering, i.e. diffuse reflection  
   G01N21/49: . . . within a body or fluid  
   G01N21/51: . . . . inside a container, e.g. in an ampoule  
   G01N21/53: . . . . within a flowing fluid, e.g. smoke  
   G01N21/55: . . Specular reflectivity  
   G01N21/552: . . . Attenuated total reflection  
   G01N21/57: . . . Measuring gloss  
   G01N21/59: . . Transmissivity  
   G01N21/61: . . . Non-dispersive gas analysers  
   G01N21/62: Systems in which the material investigated is excited whereby it emits light or causes a change in wavelength of the incident light  
   G01N21/63: . . optically excited  
   G01N21/64: . . . Fluorescence; Phosphorescence  
   G01N21/65: . . . Raman scattering  
   G01N21/66: . . electrically excited, e.g. electroluminescence  
   G01N21/67: . . . using electric arcs or discharges  
   G01N21/68: . . . using high frequency electric fields  
   G01N21/69: . . . specially adapted for fluids  
   G01N21/70: . . mechanically excited, e.g. triboluminescence  
   G01N21/71: . . thermally excited  
   G01N21/72: . . . using flame burners  
   G01N21/73: . . . using plasma burners or torches  
   G01N21/74: . . . using flameless atomising, e.g. graphite furnaces  
   G01N21/75: Systems in which material is subjected to a chemical reaction, the progress or the result of the reaction being investigated  
   G01N21/76: . . Chemiluminescence; Bioluminescence  
   G01N21/77: . . by observing the effect on a chemical indicator  
   G01N21/78: . . . producing a change of colour  
   G01N21/79: . . . . Photometric titration  
   G01N21/80: . . . . Indicating pH value  
   G01N21/81: . . . . Indicating humidity  
   G01N21/82: . . . producing a precipitate or turbidity  
   G01N21/83: . . . . Turbidimetric titration  
   G01N21/84: Systems specially adapted for particular applications  
   G01N21/85: . . Investigating moving fluids or granular solids  
   G01N21/86: . . Investigating moving sheets  
   G01N21/87: . . Investigating jewels  
   G01N21/88: . . Investigating the presence of flaws, defects or contamination  
   G01N21/89: . . . in moving material, e.g. paper, textiles  
   G01N21/892: . . . . characterised by the flaw, defect or object feature examined  
   G01N21/894: . . . . . Pinholes  
   G01N21/896: . . . . . Optical defects in or on transparent materials, e.g. distortion, surface flaws  
   G01N21/898: . . . . . Irregularities in textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. textiles, wood  
   G01N21/90: . . . in a container or its contents  
   G01N21/91: . . . using penetration of dyes, e.g. fluorescent ink  
   G01N21/93: . . . Detection standards; Calibrating  
   G01N21/94: . . . Investigating contamination, e.g. dust  
   G01N21/95: . . . characterised by the material or shape of the object to be examined  
   G01N21/952: . . . . Inspecting the exterior surface of cylindrical bodies or wires  
   G01N21/954: . . . . Inspecting the inner surface of hollow bodies, e.g. bores  
   G01N21/956: . . . . Inspecting patterns on the surface of objects  
   G01N21/958: . . . . Inspecting transparent materials  
   G01N22/00: Investigating or analysing materials by the use of microwaves  
   G01N22/02: Investigating the presence of flaws  
   G01N22/04: Investigating moisture content  
   G01N23/00: Investigating or analysing materials by the use of wave or particle radiation, e.g. X-rays or neutrons, not covered by groups , or   
   G01N23/02: by transmitting the radiation through the material  
   G01N23/04: . . and forming images of the material  
   G01N23/041: . . . Phase-contrast imaging, e.g. using grating interferometers  
   G01N23/044: . . . using laminography or tomosynthesis  
   G01N23/046: . . . using tomography, e.g. computed tomography [CT]  
   G01N23/05: . . . using neutrons  
   G01N23/06: . . and measuring the absorption  
   G01N23/08: . . . using electric detection means  
   G01N23/083: . . . the radiation being X-rays  
   G01N23/085: . . . . X-ray absorption fine structure [XAFS], e.g. extended XAFS [EXAFS]  
   G01N23/087: . . . . using polyenergetic X-rays  
   G01N23/09: . . . the radiation being neutrons  
   G01N23/095: . . . Gamma-ray resonance absorption, e.g. using the Mössbauer effect  
   G01N23/10: . . . the material being confined in a container, e.g. in luggage X-ray scanners  
   G01N23/12: . . . the material being a flowing fluid or a flowing granular solid  
   G01N23/14: . . . . . specially adapted for controlling or monitoring operations or for signalling  
   G01N23/16: . . . the material being a moving sheet or film  
   G01N23/18: . . . Investigating the presence of defects or foreign matter  
   G01N23/20: by using diffraction of the radiation by the materials, e.g. for investigating crystal structure; by using scattering of the radiation by the materials, e.g. for investigating non-crystalline materials; by using reflection of the radiation by the materials  
   G01N23/20008: . . Constructional details of analysers, e.g. characterised by X-ray source, detector or optical system; Accessories therefor; Preparing specimens therefor  
   G01N23/20016: . . . Goniometers  
   G01N23/20025: . . . Sample holders or supports therefor  
   G01N23/20033: . . . . provided with temperature control or heating means  
   G01N23/20041: . . . . for high pressure testing, e.g. anvil cells  
   G01N23/2005: . . . Preparation of powder samples therefor  
   G01N23/20058: . . Measuring diffraction of electrons, e.g. low energy electron diffraction [LEED] method or reflection high energy electron diffraction [RHEED] method  
   G01N23/20066: . . Measuring inelastic scattering of gamma rays, e.g. Compton effect  
   G01N23/20091: . . Measuring the energy-dispersion spectrum [EDS] of diffracted radiation  
   G01N23/201: . . Measuring small-angle scattering, e.g. small angle X-ray scattering [SAXS]  
   G01N23/202: . . . using neutrons  
   G01N23/203: . . Measuring back scattering  
   G01N23/204: . . . using neutrons  
   G01N23/205: . . using diffraction cameras  
   G01N23/2055: . . Analysing diffraction patterns  
   G01N23/206: . . . the radiation being neutrons  
   G01N23/207: . . Diffractometry, e.g. using a probe in a central position and one or more displaceable detectors in circumferential positions  
   G01N23/22: by measuring secondary emission from the material  
   G01N23/2202: . . Preparing specimens therefor  
   G01N23/2204: . . Specimen supports therefor; Sample conveying means therefor  
   G01N23/2206: . . Combination of two or more measurements, at least one measurement being that of secondary emission, e.g. combination of secondary electron [SE] measurement and back-scattered electron [BSE] measurement  
   G01N23/2208: . . . all measurements being of secondary emission, e.g. combination of SE measurement and characteristic X-ray measurement  
   G01N23/2209: . . using wavelength dispersive spectroscopy [WDS]  
   G01N23/221: . . by activation analysis  
   G01N23/222: . . . using neutron activation analysis [NAA]  
   G01N23/223: . . by irradiating the sample with X-rays or gamma-rays and by measuring X-ray fluorescence  
   G01N23/225: . . using electron or ion microprobes  
   G01N23/2251: . . . using incident electron beams, e.g. scanning electron microscopy [SEM]  
   G01N23/2252: . . . . Measuring emitted X-rays, e.g. electron probe microanalysis [EPMA]  
   G01N23/2254: . . . . Measuring cathodoluminescence  
   G01N23/2255: . . . using incident ion beams, e.g. proton beams  
   G01N23/2257: . . . . Measuring excited X-rays, i.e. particle-induced X-ray emission [PIXE]  
   G01N23/2258: . . . . Measuring secondary ion emission, e.g. secondary ion mass spectrometry [SIMS]  
   G01N23/227: . . Measuring photoelectric effect , e.g. photoelectron emission microscopy [PEEM]  
   G01N23/2273: . . . Measuring photoelectron spectra, e.g. electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis [ESCA] or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy [XPS]  
   G01N23/2276: . . . using the Auger effect, e.g. Auger electron spectroscopy [AES]  
   G01N24/00: Investigating or analysing materials by the use of nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance or other spin effects  
   G01N24/08: by using nuclear magnetic resonance  
   G01N24/10: by using electron paramagnetic resonance  
   G01N24/12: by using double resonance  
   G01N24/14: by using cyclotron resonance  
   G01N25/00: Investigating or analysing materials by the use of thermal means  
   G01N25/02: by investigating changes of state or changes of phase; by investigating sintering  
   G01N25/04: . . of melting point; of freezing point; of softening point  
   G01N25/06: . . . Analysis by measuring change of freezing point  
   G01N25/08: . . of boiling point  
   G01N25/10: . . . Analysis by measuring change of boiling point  
   G01N25/12: . . of critical point; of other phase change  
   G01N25/14: by using distillation, extraction, sublimation, condensation, freezing, or crystallisation  
   G01N25/16: by investigating thermal coefficient of expansion  
   G01N25/18: by investigating thermal conductivity  
   G01N25/20: by investigating the development of heat, i.e. calorimetry, e.g. by measuring specific heat, by measuring thermal conductivity  
   G01N25/22: . . on combustion or catalytic oxidation, e.g. of components of gas mixtures  
   G01N25/24: . . . using combustion tubes, e.g. for microanalysis  
   G01N25/26: . . . using combustion with oxygen under pressure, e.g. in bomb calorimeter  
   G01N25/28: . . . the rise in temperature of the gases resulting from combustion being measured directly  
   G01N25/30: . . . . using electric temperature-responsive elements  
   G01N25/32: . . . . . using thermoelectric elements  
   G01N25/34: . . . . using mechanical temperature-responsive elements, e.g. bimetallic  
   G01N25/36: . . . . . for investigating the composition of gas mixtures  
   G01N25/38: . . . . using the melting or combustion of a solid  
   G01N25/40: . . . the heat developed being transferred to a flowing fluid  
   G01N25/42: . . . . continuously  
   G01N25/44: . . . the heat developed being transferred to a fixed quantity of fluid  
   G01N25/46: . . . . for investigating the composition of gas mixtures  
   G01N25/48: . . on solution, sorption, or a chemical reaction not involving combustion or catalytic oxidation  
   G01N25/50: by investigating flash-point; by investigating explosibility  
   G01N25/52: . . by determining flash-point of liquids  
   G01N25/54: . . by determining explosibility  
   G01N25/56: by investigating moisture content  
   G01N25/58: . . by measuring changes of properties of the material due to heat, cold, or expansion  
   G01N25/60: . . . for determining the wetness of steam  
   G01N25/62: . . by psychrometric means, e.g. wet-and-dry-bulb thermometers  
   G01N25/64: . . . using electric temperature-responsive elements  
   G01N25/66: . . by investigating dew-point  
   G01N25/68: . . . by varying the temperature of a condensing surface  
   G01N25/70: . . . by varying the temperature of the material, e.g. by compression, by expansion  
   G01N25/72: Investigating presence of flaws  
   G01N27/00: Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means  
   G01N27/02: by investigating impedance  
   G01N27/04: . . by investigating resistance  
   G01N27/06: . . . of a liquid  
   G01N27/07: . . . . Construction of measuring vessels; Electrodes therefor  
   G01N27/08: . . . . which is flowing continuously  
   G01N27/10: . . . . . Investigation or analysis specially adapted for controlling or monitoring operations or for signalling  
   G01N27/12: . . . of a solid body in dependence upon absorption of a fluid; of a solid body in dependence upon reaction with a fluid  
   G01N27/14: . . . of an electrically-heated body in dependence upon change of temperature  
   G01N27/16: . . . . caused by burning or catalytic oxidation of surrounding material to be tested, e.g. of gas  
   G01N27/18: . . . . caused by changes in the thermal conductivity of a surrounding material to be tested  
   G01N27/20: . . . Investigating the presence of flaws  
   G01N27/22: . . by investigating capacitance  
   G01N27/24: . . . Investigating the presence of flaws  
   G01N27/26: by investigating electrochemical variables; by using electrolysis or electrophoresis  
   G01N27/27: . . Association of two or more measuring systems or cells, each measuring a different parameter, where the measurement results may be either used independently, the systems or cells being physically associated, or combined to produce a value for a further parameter  
   G01N27/28: . . Electrolytic cell components  
   G01N27/30: . . . Electrodes, e.g. test electrodes; Half-cells  
   G01N27/31: . . . . Half-cells with permeable membranes, e.g. semi-porous or perm-selective membranes  
   G01N27/32: . . . . Calomel electrodes  
   G01N27/327: . . . . Biochemical electrodes  
   G01N27/333: . . . . Ion-selective electrodes or membranes  
   G01N27/34: . . . . Dropping-mercury electrodes  
   G01N27/36: . . . . Glass electrodes  
   G01N27/38: . . . . Cleaning of electrodes  
   G01N27/40: . . . Semi-permeable membranes or partitions  
   G01N27/401: . . . Salt-bridge leaks; Liquid junctions  
   G01N27/403: . . Cells and electrode assemblies  
   G01N27/404: . . . Cells with anode, cathode and cell electrolyte on the same side of a permeable membrane which separates them from the sample fluid  
   G01N27/406: . . . Cells and probes with solid electrolytes  
   G01N27/407: . . . . for investigating or analysing gases  
   G01N27/409: . . . . . Oxygen concentration cells  
   G01N27/41: . . . . . Oxygen pumping cells  
   G01N27/411: . . . . for investigating or analysing of liquid metals  
   G01N27/413: . . . Concentration cells using liquid electrolytes  
   G01N27/414: . . . Ion-sensitive or chemical field-effect transistors, i.e. ISFETS or CHEMFETS  
   G01N27/416: . . Systems  
   G01N27/417: . . . using cells and probes with solid electrolytes  
   G01N27/419: . . . . Measuring voltages or currents with a combination of oxygen pumping cells and oxygen concentration cells  
   G01N27/42: . . . Measuring deposition or liberation of materials from an electrolyte; Coulometry, i.e. measuring coulomb-equivalent of material in an electrolyte  
   G01N27/44: . . . . using electrolysis to generate a reagent, e.g. for titration  
   G01N27/447: . . . using electrophoresis  
   G01N27/453: . . . . Cells therefor  
   G01N27/48: . . . using polarography, i.e. measuring changes in current under a slowly-varying voltage  
   G01N27/49: . . . Systems involving the determination of the current at a single specific value, or small range of values, of applied voltage for producing selective measurement of one or more particular ionic species  
   G01N27/60: by investigating electrostatic variables  
   G01N27/61: . . Investigating the presence of flaws  
   G01N27/62: by investigating the ionisation of gases; by investigating electric discharges, e.g. emission of cathode  
   G01N27/64: . . using wave or particle radiation to ionise a gas, e.g. in an ionisation chamber  
   G01N27/66: . . . and measuring current or voltage  
   G01N27/68: . . using electric discharge to ionise a gas  
   G01N27/70: . . . and measuring current or voltage  
   G01N27/72: by investigating magnetic variables  
   G01N27/74: . . of fluids  
   G01N27/76: . . . by investigating susceptibility  
   G01N27/80: . . for investigating mechanical hardness, e.g. by investigating saturation or remanence of ferromagnetic material  
   G01N27/82: . . for investigating the presence of flaws  
   G01N27/83: . . . by investigating stray magnetic fields  
   G01N27/84: . . . . by applying magnetic powder or magnetic ink  
   G01N27/85: . . . . using magnetographic methods  
   G01N27/87: . . . . using probes  
   G01N27/90: . . . using eddy currents  
   G01N27/92: by investigating breakdown voltage  
   G01N29/00: Investigating or analysing materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves; Visualisation of the interior of objects by transmitting ultrasonic or sonic waves through the object  
   G01N29/02: Analysing fluids  
   G01N29/024: . . by measuring propagation velocity or propagation time of acoustic waves  
   G01N29/028: . . by measuring mechanical or acoustic impedance  
   G01N29/032: . . by measuring attenuation of acoustic waves  
   G01N29/036: . . by measuring frequency or resonance of acoustic waves  
   G01N29/04: Analysing solids  
   G01N29/06: . . Visualisation of the interior, e.g. acoustic microscopy  
   G01N29/07: . . by measuring propagation velocity or propagation time of acoustic waves  
   G01N29/09: . . by measuring mechanical or acoustic impedance  
   G01N29/11: . . by measuring attenuation of acoustic waves  
   G01N29/12: . . by measuring frequency or resonance of acoustic waves  
   G01N29/14: using acoustic emission techniques  
   G01N29/22: Details  
   G01N29/24: . . Probes  
   G01N29/26: . . Arrangements for orientation or scanning  
   G01N29/265: . . . by moving the sensor relative to a stationary material  
   G01N29/27: . . . by moving the material relative to a stationary sensor  
   G01N29/275: . . . by moving both the sensor and the material  
   G01N29/28: . . providing acoustic coupling  
   G01N29/30: . . Arrangements for calibrating or comparing, e.g. with standard objects  
   G01N29/32: . . Arrangements for suppressing undesired influences, e.g. temperature or pressure variations  
   G01N29/34: Generating the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves  
   G01N29/36: Detecting the response signal  
   G01N29/38: . . by time filtering, e.g. using time gates  
   G01N29/40: . . by amplitude filtering, e.g. by applying a threshold  
   G01N29/42: . . by frequency filtering  
   G01N29/44: Processing the detected response signal  
   G01N29/46: . . by spectral analysis, e.g. Fourier analysis  
   G01N29/48: . . by amplitude comparison  
   G01N29/50: . . using auto-correlation techniques or cross-correlation techniques  
   G01N29/52: . . using inversion methods other than spectral analysis, e.g. conjugated gradient inversion  
   G01N30/00: Investigating or analysing materials by separation into components using adsorption, absorption or similar phenomena or using ion-exchange, e.g. chromatography  
   G01N30/02: Column chromatography  
   G01N30/04: . . Preparation or injection of sample to be analysed  
   G01N30/06: . . . Preparation  
   G01N30/08: . . . . using an enricher  
   G01N30/10: . . . . using a splitter  
   G01N30/12: . . . . by evaporation  
   G01N30/14: . . . . by elimination of some components  
   G01N30/16: . . . Injection  
   G01N30/18: . . . . using a septum or microsyringe  
   G01N30/20: . . . . using a sampling valve  
   G01N30/22: . . . . in high pressure liquid systems  
   G01N30/24: . . . Automatic injection systems  
   G01N30/26: . . Conditioning of the fluid carrier; Flow patterns  
   G01N30/28: . . . Control of physical parameters of the fluid carrier  
   G01N30/30: . . . . of temperature  
   G01N30/32: . . . . of pressure or speed  
   G01N30/34: . . . . of fluid composition, e.g. gradient  
   G01N30/36: . . . . in high pressure liquid systems  
   G01N30/38: . . . Flow patterns  
   G01N30/40: . . . . using back flushing  
   G01N30/42: . . . . using counter-current  
   G01N30/44: . . . . using recycling of the fraction to be distributed  
   G01N30/46: . . . . using more than one column  
   G01N30/50: . . Conditioning of the sorbent material or stationary liquid  
   G01N30/52: . . . Physical parameters  
   G01N30/54: . . . . Temperature  
   G01N30/56: . . . Packing methods or coating methods  
   G01N30/58: . . . the sorbent moving as a whole  
   G01N30/60: . . Construction of the column  
   G01N30/62: . . Detectors specially adapted therefor  
   G01N30/64: . . . Electrical detectors  
   G01N30/66: . . . . Thermal conductivity detectors  
   G01N30/68: . . . . Flame ionisation detectors  
   G01N30/70: . . . . Electron capture detectors  
   G01N30/72: . . . Mass spectrometers  
   G01N30/74: . . . Optical detectors  
   G01N30/76: . . . Acoustical detectors  
   G01N30/78: . . . using more than one detector  
   G01N30/80: . . Fraction collectors  
   G01N30/82: . . . Automatic means therefor  
   G01N30/84: . . Preparation of the fraction to be distributed  
   G01N30/86: . . Signal analysis  
   G01N30/88: . . Integrated analysis systems specially adapted therefor, not covered by a single one of groups   
   G01N30/89: Inverse chromatography, i.e. with the analyte in stationary phase  
   G01N30/90: Plate chromatography, e.g. thin layer or paper chromatography  
   G01N30/91: . . Application of the sample  
   G01N30/92: . . Construction of the plate  
   G01N30/93: . . . Application of the sorbent layer  
   G01N30/94: . . Development  
   G01N30/95: . . Detectors specially adapted therefor; Signal analysis  
   G01N30/96: using ion-exchange  
   G01N31/00: Investigating or analysing non-biological materials by the use of the chemical methods specified in the subgroups; Apparatus specially adapted for such methods  
   G01N31/02: using precipitation  
   G01N31/10: using catalysis  
   G01N31/12: using combustion  
   G01N31/16: using titration  
   G01N31/18: . . Burettes specially adapted for titration  
   G01N31/20: using microanalysis, e.g. drop reaction  
   G01N31/22: using chemical indicators  
   G01N33/00: Investigating or analysing materials by specific methods not covered by groups   
   G01N33/02: Food  
   G01N33/03: . . Edible oils or edible fats  
   G01N33/04: . . Dairy products  
   G01N33/06: . . . Determining fat content, e.g. by butyrometer  
   G01N33/08: . . Eggs, e.g. by candling  
   G01N33/10: . . Starch-containing substances, e.g. dough  
   G01N33/12: . . Meat; fish  
   G01N33/14: . . Beverages  
   G01N33/15: Medicinal preparations  
   G01N33/18: Water  
   G01N33/20: Metals  
   G01N33/22: Fuels; explosives  
   G01N33/24: Earth materials  
   G01N33/26: Oils; viscous liquids; paints; inks  
   G01N33/28: . . Oils  
   G01N33/30: . . . for lubricating properties  
   G01N33/32: . . Paints; inks  
   G01N33/34: Paper  
   G01N33/36: Textiles  
   G01N33/38: Concrete; lime; mortar; gypsum; bricks; ceramics; glass  
   G01N33/40: Grinding-materials  
   G01N33/42: Road-making materials  
   G01N33/44: Resins; plastics; rubber; leather  
   G01N33/46: Wood  
   G01N33/48: Biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Haemocytometers  
   G01N33/483: . . Physical analysis of biological material  
   G01N33/487: . . . of liquid biological material  
   G01N33/49: . . . . blood  
   G01N33/493: . . . . urine  
   G01N33/497: . . . of gaseous biological material, e.g. breath  
   G01N33/50: . . Chemical analysis of biological material, e.g. blood, urine; Testing involving biospecific ligand binding methods; Immunological testing  
   G01N33/52: . . . Use of compounds or compositions for colorimetric, spectrophotometric or fluorometric investigation, e.g. use of reagent paper  
   G01N33/53: . . . Immunoassay; Biospecific binding assay; Materials therefor  
   G01N33/531: . . . . Production of immunochemical test materials  
   G01N33/532: . . . . . Production of labelled immunochemicals  
   G01N33/533: . . . . . . with fluorescent label  
   G01N33/534: . . . . . . with radioactive label  
   G01N33/535: . . . . . . with enzyme label  
   G01N33/536: . . . . with immune complex formed in liquid phase  
   G01N33/537: . . . . . with separation of immune complex from unbound antigen or antibody  
   G01N33/538: . . . . . . by sorbent column, particles or resin strip  
   G01N33/539: . . . . . . involving precipitating reagent  
   G01N33/541: Double or second antibody  
   G01N33/542: . . . . . with steric inhibition or signal modification, e.g. fluorescent quenching  
   G01N33/543: . . . . with an insoluble carrier for immobilising immunochemicals  
   G01N33/544: . . . . . the carrier being organic  
   G01N33/545: . . . . . . Synthetic resin  
   G01N33/546: as water suspendable particles  
   G01N33/547: with antigen or antibody attached to the carrier via a bridging agent  
   G01N33/548: . . . . . . Carbohydrates, e.g. dextran  
   G01N33/549: . . . . . . with antigen or antibody entrapped within the carrier  
   G01N33/551: . . . . . the carrier being inorganic  
   G01N33/552: . . . . . . Glass or silica  
   G01N33/553: . . . . . . Metal or metal coated  
   G01N33/554: . . . . . the carrier being a biological cell or cell fragment, e.g. bacteria, yeast cells  
   G01N33/555: . . . . . . Red blood cell  
   G01N33/556: Fixed or stabilised red blood cell  
   G01N33/557: . . . . using kinetic measurement, i.e. time rate of progress of an antigen-antibody interaction  
   G01N33/558: . . . . using diffusion or migration of antigen or antibody  
   G01N33/559: . . . . . through a gel, e.g. Ouchterlony technique  
   G01N33/561: . . . . . Immunoelectrophoresis  
   G01N33/563: . . . . involving antibody fragments  
   G01N33/564: . . . . for pre-existing immune complex or autoimmune disease  
   G01N33/566: . . . . using specific carrier or receptor proteins as ligand binding reagent  
   G01N33/567: . . . . . utilising isolate of tissue or organ as binding agent  
   G01N33/569: . . . . for microorganisms, e.g. protozoa, bacteria, viruses  
   G01N33/571: . . . . . for venereal disease, e.g. syphilis, gonorrhoea, herpes  
   G01N33/573: . . . . for enzymes or isoenzymes  
   G01N33/574: . . . . for cancer  
   G01N33/576: . . . . for hepatitis  
   G01N33/577: . . . . involving monoclonal antibodies  
   G01N33/579: . . . involving limulus lysate  
   G01N33/58: . . . involving labelled substances  
   G01N33/60: . . . . involving radioactive labelled substances  
   G01N33/62: . . . involving urea  
   G01N33/64: . . . involving ketones  
   G01N33/66: . . . involving blood sugars, e.g. galactose  
   G01N33/68: . . . involving proteins, peptides or amino acids  
   G01N33/70: . . . involving creatine or creatinine  
   G01N33/72: . . . involving blood pigments, e.g. hemoglobin, bilirubin  
   G01N33/74: . . . involving hormones  
   G01N33/76: . . . . Human chorionic gonadotropin  
   G01N33/78: . . . . Thyroid gland hormones  
   G01N33/80: . . . involving blood groups or blood types  
   G01N33/82: . . . involving vitamins  
   G01N33/84: . . . involving inorganic compounds or pH  
   G01N33/86: . . . involving blood coagulating time  
   G01N33/88: . . . involving prostaglandins  
   G01N33/90: . . . involving iron binding capacity of blood  
   G01N33/92: . . . involving lipids, e.g. cholesterol  
   G01N33/94: . . . involving narcotics  
   G01N33/96: . . . involving blood or serum control standard  
   G01N33/98: . . . involving alcohol, e.g. ethanol in breath  
   G01N35/00: Automatic analysis not limited to methods or materials provided for in any single one of groups ; Handling materials therefor  
   G01N35/02: using a plurality of sample containers moved by a conveyor system past one or more treatment or analysis stations  
   G01N35/04: . . Details of the conveyor system  
   G01N35/08: using a stream of discrete samples flowing along a tube system, e.g. flow injection analysis  
   G01N35/10: Devices for transferring samples to, in, or from, the analysis apparatus, e.g. suction devices, injection devices  
   G01N37/00: Details not covered by any other group of this subclass  
   G01N13/00: Investigating surface or boundary effects, e.g. wetting power; Investigating diffusion effects; Analysing materials by determining surface, boundary, or diffusion effects  
   G01N13/10:   
   G01N13/12:   
   G01N13/14:   
   G01N13/16:   
   G01N13/18:   
   G01N13/20:   
   G01N13/22:   
   G01N13/24: